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Barry Smith University at Buffalo NY, USA Tatiana Malyuta

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1 IAO-Intel An Ontology of Information Artifacts in the Intelligence Domain
Barry Smith University at Buffalo NY, USA Tatiana Malyuta CUNY, NY, USA Data Tactics, McLean, VA Ron Rudnicki CUBRC, Buffalo William Mandrick Data Tactics McLean, VA, USA David Salmen Peter Morosoff E-Maps, Inc. Washington, DC, USA Danielle K. Duff I2WD Aberdeen, MD, USA James Schoening Kesny Parent

2 Military Doctrine and Standardization of Terminology
3rd Century BC Standardized beacon signals used by Chinese military along Great Wall 1792 Drill manual for the units of the Continental Army to respond uniformly to commands during the Revolutionary War 1943 General James Gavin’s Training Memorandum on the Employment of Airborne Forces

3 General James Gavin, On to Berlin: Battles of an Airborne Commander 1943-1946
for success of the D-Day invasion ‘one of our most critical needs was to standardize the operating practices of our forces. … even simple terminology had to be agreed upon. … British flew in what they called “bomber stream” formations, We preferred troop-carrier group formations of 36 planes that flew in a V ... We referred to landing area as the “jump area,” the British called it “drop zone,” …’



6 Current state DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Joint Publication 1-02) New military dictionaries and terminology artifacts continue to be developed Dominant ethos: Library Science (all terminologies are equal), Lexicography (logical consistency of definitions is not important)

7 Goals of Doctrinal Documents
Advance consistency in communications Facilitate consistent interpretation of commands Compile lessons learned (outcomes assess­ment) Provide controlled vocabularies for official reporting Nowadays Enhance discoverability and analysis of data

8 Problems of Doctrinal Documents
Little aid to computation Developed independently in divergent and non-principled ways Low possibility of aggregation causing failures of data integration initiatives New approaches needed that can enable computational discovery, retrieval, integration and processing of data

9 Two kinds of data Data about entities in the world (topics, subject-matters) standard ontologies 2. Data about the information artifacts in which these entities are represented (= metadata) Information Artifact Ontology and extensions, including IAO-Intel

10 Information artifact (roughly) an entity created through some deliberate act or acts by one or more human beings, and which endures through time, potentially in multiple (for example digital or printed) copies Examples: a diagram on a sheet of paper, a video file, a map on a computer monitor, an article in a newspaper, a message on a network, the output of some querying process in a computer memory

11 IAO IAO-Intel – to provide common resources for the consistent description of information artifacts of relevance to the intelligence community in a way that will allow discovery, integration and analysis compare Dublin Core (brought to you by Library Science)

12 What IAO is for IAO is not designed to replace existing doctrinal or other standards lots of documents exist conforming to lots of different standards purpose of IAO is to allow generation of the needed metadata in a uniform, non-redundant and algorithmically processable fashion

13 Sample terms in IAO Report Summary Diagram Overlay Assessment Estimate
List Order Matrix Template

14 Strategy of Building IAO-Intel
IAO-Intel (examples) Report Intelligence Report (FM , 126) Summary Electronic Warfare Mission Summary (FM ) Diagram Network Analysis Diagram (from JP ) Overlay Combined Information Overlay (JP ) Assessment Assessment of Impact of Damage (FM ) Estimate Adversary Course of Action Estimate List List of High-Value Targets (JP , II 61) Order Airspace Control Order (FM , 17) Matrix Target Value Matrix (JP , II-63) Template Ground and Air Adversary Template (JP )

15 IAO-Intel The IAO-Intel terms on the top are defined by using terms from the ontologies on the bottom with the help of relations such as is-about, created-by, derives-from and so forth

16 Attributes of Information Artifacts
Examples Purpose Life­cycle Stage (draft, finished version, revision) Language, Format Provenance Source (person, organization) These are generic attributes, common to all areas IAO will contain a Low-Level Ontology module for each dimension

17 Generic Purpose Attributes
Descriptive purpose: scientific paper, newspaper article, after-action report Prescriptive purpose: legal code, license, statement of rules of engagement Directive purpose (of specifying a plan or method for achieving something): instruction, manual, protocol Designative purpose: a registry of members of an organization, a phone book, a database linking proper names of persons with their social security numbers

18 Attributes Specific to Intelligence IAs
Role in the Intelligence Process (JP 3-0, III-11) Priority Intelligence Requirement (PIR) Commander’s Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) Essential Element of Information (EEI) Essential Element of Friendly Information (EEFI) Confidence Level (JP 2.0, Appendix A) Highly Likely Likely Even Chance Unlikely Highly Unlikely Discipline (JP 2.0, I-5) Legal Ideology Religion Propaganda Intelligence Signal Human Rumor intelligence Web intelligence Intelligence Excellence (JP 2.0, II-6) Anticipatory Timely Accurate Usable Complete Relevant Objective Available

19 Use of IAO-Intel – Example: Digitalizing an MCOO
IA #1 - Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay (MCOO) - a joint intelligence preparation of the operational environment product used to portray the militarily significant aspects of the operational environment, such as obstacles restricting military movement, key geography, and military objectives.

20 Digitalizing an MCOO Annotations to the attributes of IA#1
ICE: MCOO IBE: Acetate Sheet uses-symbology MIL-STD-2525C authored-by person #4644 Annotations relating to the aboutness of IA#1 Avenue of Approach Strategic Defense Belt Amphibious Operations Objective

21 Computational Support for Process Planning


23 Use of IAO-Intel – Example 2 Digitalizing U. S
Use of IAO-Intel – Example 2 Digitalizing U.S. Army Report and Message Formats (FM ) Standard templates for Intelligence Report [INTREP] Intelligence Summary [INTSUM] Logistics Situation Report [LOGSITREP] Operations Summary [OPSUM] Patrol Report [PATROLREP] Reconnaissance Exploitation Report [RECCEXREP] SAEDA Report [SAEDAREP] defined in free text

24 Digitalizing FM 6-99.2 formulate FM 6-99.2 definitions computationally
enable computational cross-reference FM documents with comparable sets of documents prepared by other commands. use results for computer-aided aggregation of the represented data, cross-checking for mismatches, identifying suspect sources, and so forth.

25 DoD Instruction , August 5, Sharing Data, Information, and Information Technology (IT) Services in the Department of Defense requires that ‘all salient metadata be discoverable, searchable, and retrievable’ through use of the DSE Even if all authoritative sources are registered at DSE, it does not achieve its goal because Heterogeneous definitions and descriptions No benefits of inferencing and of rapid introduction and definition of new terms IAO will go some way to solving these problems through semantic tagging

26 Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)
top level mid-level (generic hub) domain level (spokes populating downwards) Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) Information Artifact Ontology(IAO) IAO-Science IAO-Intel IAO-Computing IAO-Biology IAO-Physics IAO-Intel-Navy IAO-Intel-Army IAO-Intel- FBI IAO-Software EMO- Ontology * = dedicated NIH funding Each module built by downward population from its parent

27 Continuant BFO IAO Independent Continuant Specifically Dependent
Generically Dependent Continuant Material Entity Quality Information Content Entity Information Bearing Entity Information Quality Entity depends_on concretized_by

28 that Target Value Matrix
Independent Continuant Specifically Dependent Continuant Generically Dependent Continuant Material Entity Quality Information Content Entity Information Bearing Entity Information Quality Entity depends_on concretized_by universals this hard drive, that book this excitation pattern, that pattern of piles of ink this pdf file, that Target Value Matrix instances

29 IAO and BFO BFO: Generically Dependent Continuant
BFO: Independent Continuant BFO: Specifically Dependent Continuant Information Content Entity (ICE) Information Quality Entity (Pattern) (IQE) Information Structure Entity (ISE) Information Bearing Entity (IBE)

30 Example of IAO-Intel Organization
Information Artifact IBE ISE ICE MS Word file (.doc, .docx) Hard drive (magnetized sector) MS Word format Varies KML file KML Map overlay JPEG file (.jpg) JPEG format Image file Internet Message Format (e.g., RFC 5322 compliant) Message USMTF Message file A specific government network USMTF Format Passport Paper document; (may include photographs, RFID tags) ID formats, security marking formats … Name, Personal data, Passport number, Visas … Title Deed Official paper document Report Overlay Sheet ( e.g. Map Overlay Sheet) Acetate sheet MIL-STD-2525 Symbols; FM Operational Terms and Graphics

31 DSGS-A Ontologies US Army’s Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) Standard Cloud (DSC) initiative as part of a strategy for the horizontal integration of many different types of warfighter intelligence data DSGS-A Ontologies providing a common framework for Explica­tion of general terms used in source intelligence artifacts and in data models, terminologies and doctrinal publications which provide typo­logies of intelligence-related IAs to semantically enhance data in a way that enables computational integration and reasoning Annotation of the instance-level information captured by such IAs to aid retrieval of information about specific persons, groups, events, documents, images, and so forth

32 Acknowledgements Thanks are due also to Mathias Brochhausen, Werner Ceusters, Mélanie Courtot, Janna Hastings, James Malone, Bjoern Peters, Jonathan Rees, and Alan Ruttenberg for their work on IAO.

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