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Vannevar Bush March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974 Marist College Lifetime Learning John F. McMullen Adjunct Professor, Purchase College BA, Iona College ; MSCS,

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Presentation on theme: "Vannevar Bush March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974 Marist College Lifetime Learning John F. McMullen Adjunct Professor, Purchase College BA, Iona College ; MSCS,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Vannevar Bush March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974 Marist College Lifetime Learning John F. McMullen Adjunct Professor, Purchase College BA, Iona College ; MSCS, MPA, Marist College

2 Introduction Vannevar Bush -- Forgotten Father of Today's Web Society, is a particular hero of mine - -- a hero because he not only was competent in advancing technology under the limitations of his day, he saw things as they would or should be. His contributions were, however, much more that his visionary insight --

3 The Beginnings Graduated from Tufts College in 1913 with both a Bachelor of Science and a Mastes of Science Took a job teaching at Tufts in 1914 Received a Doctorate in Engineering jointly from MIT and Harvard in !917 and returned to Tufts where he stayed until 1919 when he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at MIT

4 Moving On Up In 1922, Lawrence K. Marshall raised $25,000 to start the American Appliance Company and Bush and Charles G. Smith became two of the firm’s five directors – the firm is now know as Raytheon. In 1932, under MIT President Karl T. Compton. Bush became MIT Vice President and Dean of the School of Engineering.

5 Bush Goes To Washington May 1938 – becomes President of the Carnegie Institute of Washingtom August 1938 – appointed, as Vice Chairman, to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (“NACA”), the predecessor to NASA. 1940 – Bush approached President Franklin D Roosevelt with a plan to form the “National Refense Research Council” (“NDRC”). FDR approved and Bush became Chairman.

6 WWII Approaches 1941 – FDR establishes the “Office of Scientific Research and Development” (‘OSRD”) with Bush as Chairman. NDRC becomes part of OSRD with James B. Conant as its Chairman. The Committee on Uranium was also placed under OSRD 1941 – The Beginnings of the Manhattan Project

7 World War II As would occur once again during the Post-Sputnik Cold War period with the Internet, government funding in the 1940s brought the United States (and the world) into the “Computer Age”. Agreement between the United States of America and the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, dated June 5, 1943, called for six months of "research and development of an electronic numerical integrator and computer and delivery of a report thereon." This initial contract committed $61,700 in U.S. Army Ordnance funds. Nine supplements to this contract extended the work to 1946, increased the amount ultimately to a total of $486,804.22, assigned technical supervision to the Ballistic Research Laboratories, and called for the delivery of a working "pilot model," first to be operable at the University of Pennsylvania and then to be delivered to the Ballistic Research Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Ground.

8 John V. Atanasoff American physicist and inventor (October 4, 1903 – June 15, 1995) The 1973 decision of the patent suit Honeywell v. Sperry Rand named him the inventor of the first automatic electronic digital computer. His special-purpose machine has come to be called the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. Honeywell v. Sperry RandAtanasoff–Berry Computer Claim affirmed in court in 1978

9 J. Presper Eckert American electrical engineer and computer pioneer (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) -- Americanelectrical engineercomputer With John Mauchly, he invented the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC)John MauchlyENIAC

10 John Mauchly American physicist ((August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) -- Americanphysicist With J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the first general purpose electronic digital computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer made in the United States.J. Presper EckertENIACdigital computerEDVACBINAC UNIVAC IUnited States

11 ENIAC I “Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator" (ENIAC) – the world’s first electronic computer -- May 31, 1943, the military commission on the new computer began with John Mauchly as the chief consultant and John Presper Eckert as the chief engineer -- a/Eniac.htm a/Eniac.htm

12 ENIAC II The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, along with 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, 6,000 manual switches and 5 million soldered joints. It covered 1800 square feet (167 square meters) of floor space, weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of electrical power.vacuum tubes

13 ENIAC III It took the team about one year to design the ENIAC and 18 months and 500,000 tax dollars to build it. By that time, the war was over The completed machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14, 1946 and formally dedicated the next day It was formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps in July 1946. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947. There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955Aberdeen Proving GroundMaryland

14 ENIAC IV The ENIAC story from the Army -- story.html story.html The ENIAC story video – computer/9742-1_53-12988.html computer/9742-1_53-12988.html

15 ENIAC V Jean Bartik, the last surviving member of the group of women who programmed the Eniac, or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer, which is credited as the first all-electronic digital computer, dies at 86 -- k.html Eniac, or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer k.html She lived in Poughkeepsie at the time of her death

16 John von Neumann I Hungarian American mathematician (The native form of this personal name is Neumann János) who made major contributions to a vast range of fields, [1] including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, economics and game theory, computer science, numerical analysis, hydrodynamics (of explosions), and statistics, as well as many other mathematical fields. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians in modern history ((December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) -- Hungarian Americanmathematicianpersonal name [1]set theoryfunctional analysisquantum mechanicsergodic theory economicsgame theorycomputer science numerical analysishydrodynamics statistics

17 John von Neumann II A principal member of the Manhattan Project and Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (as one of the few originally appointed)Manhattan ProjectInstitute for Advanced StudyPrinceton First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC – Concept of the “Stored Program” First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC

18 Back to Vannevar Bush Author of “As We May Think”, a 1945 article in the Atlantic and the precursor to The World Wide Web – The article itself -- /07/as-we-may-think/3881/ /07/as-we-may-think/3881/

19 Telecommunications Bush’s “As We May Think” was written prior to the advent of computer-based telecommunications Telecommunications brought the power of computers to users all over the world and facilitated outsourcing, e-commerce, m- commerce, home shopping and bill paying, social networking, etc. The Graphic Browser / World Wide Web became the “killer app” that brought computers into the home.

20 ARPAnet First conceived by J.C.R. Licklider in August 1962 as the “Intergalactic Computer Network”J.C.R. LickliderIntergalactic Computer Network In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and Control programs at the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency and, while there, convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this computer network concept was very important, meriting development, although he left ARPA before anyone worked on his concept.Ivan SutherlandBob Taylor

21 The Early Players I Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or "Lick" was an American computer scientist, considered one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. He is particularly remembered as an Internet pioneer, with an early vision of a world-wide computer network long before it was built -- scientist computer sciencecomputing historyInternet pioneer

22 The Early Players II Robert William Taylor (born 1932), known as Bob Taylor, is an Internet pioneer, who led teams that made major contributions to the personal computer, and other related technologies. He was director of ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office from 1965 through 1969, founder and later manager of Xerox PARC's Computer Science Laboratory from 1970 through 1983, and founder and manager of Digital Equipment Corporation's Systems Research Center until 1996 -- puter_scientist%29Internet pioneerARPA Information Processing Techniques OfficeXerox PARCDigital Equipment CorporationSystems Research Center puter_scientist%29

23 The Early Players III Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) [1] is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer. He received the Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery in 1988 for the invention of Sketchpad, an early predecessor to the sort of graphical user interface that has become ubiquitous in personal computers. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, as well as the National Academy of Sciences among many other major awards. -- [1]Americancomputer scientistInternetTuring Award Association for Computing MachinerySketchpadgraphical user interfacepersonal computersNational Academy of EngineeringNational Academy of Sciences

24 Planning the ARPAnet By mid-1968, Bob Taylor prepared a complete plan for a computer network, and, after ARPA’s approval, a Request for Quotation (RFQ) was sent to 140 potential bidders -- Only 12 RepliedRequest for Quotation ARPA considered only two contractors, and awarded the contract to build the network to BBN Technologies on April 7, 1969.BBN Technologies he BBN-proposed network closely followed Taylor’s ARPA plan: a network composed of small computers called Interface Message Processors (IMPs), that functioned as gateways (today called routers) interconnecting local resources.Interface Message Processorsrouters (All from

25 Deploying ARPAnet The initial ARPANET, which went “live” at 10:30 p.m, on October 29, 1969, consisted of four IMPs: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where Leonard Kleinrock had established a Network Measurement Center, with an SDS Sigma 7 being the first computer attached to it;University of California, Los AngelesLeonard Kleinrock SDS The Stanford Research Institute's Augmentation Research Center, where Douglas Engelbart had created the ground-breaking NLS system, a very important early hypertext system (with the SDS 940 that ran NLS, named "Genie", being the first host attached);Stanford Research InstituteAugmentation Research CenterDouglas EngelbartNLShypertextSDS 940 University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), with the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Centre's IBM 360/75, running OS/MVT being the machine attached;University of California, Santa BarbaraCullerIBM360/75OS/MVT The University of Utah's Computer Science Department, where Ivan Sutherland had moved, running a DEC PDP-10 running TENEX.University of UtahIvan SutherlandDECPDP-10TENEX

26 Growth of the APRANet 1973 -- a transatlantic satellite link connected the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) to the ARPANET, making Norway the first country outside the US to be connected to the network. At about the same time a terrestrial circuit added a London IMPNorwegian Seismic Array 1975 -- ARPANET was declared "operational". The Defense Communications Agency took control since ARPA was intended to fund advanced research.Defense Communications Agency 1983 -- ARPANET was split with U.S. military sites on their own Military Network (MILNET) for unclassified defense department communications.MILNET 1983 -- TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the ARPANET’s principal protocol, and the ARPANET then became one subnet of the early Internet.TCP/IP

27 The Internet Protocol Suite The set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks, commonly also known as TCP/IP named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.communications protocolsInternet Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol Developed primarily by Robert E. Kahn and Vinton CerfRobert E. Kahn Vinton Cerf

28 More Key Players I Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American Internet pioneer, engineer and computer scientist, who, along with Vinton G. Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet -- Internet pioneerengineercomputer scientist Vinton G. CerfTransmission Control ProtocolInternet ProtocolInternet Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with American computer scientist Bob Kahn. [ His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees, and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, [1] the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, [8] and membership in the National Academy of Engineering. computer scientistthe fathersof the Internet Bob Kahn National Medal of Technology [1]Turing AwardPresidential Medal of Freedom [8]National Academy of Engineering

29 The Internet Definition – “The Internet Is A Network of Networks Based On Standards and Client / Server Technology” The Internet is Infrastructure – NOT – what we do on it. The Infrastructure of New York is the streets, highways, tunnels, and bridges – not the cars, motorcycles, buses, and bicycles that use them

30 Network of Networks Marist College local area network connected to NYSERNET which connects to … which connects to ….. No central authority is in charge The lack of central authority is a threat to sovereignty – and governments resent this “First Amendment is a local ordinance”

31 Standards There is ONE standard for the Internet – TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) The Internet uses 12 digit numbers to identify users; four quadrants with three digits in each - - – each of the three digits may range from 1 to 255 (with no leading zeroes) The Internet utilizes packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching)

32 Client / Server Technology Central Processing – “Main Frame” Model Decentralized Processing – Processing split by location or function; all the data must come together Client / Server Technology – the Postal Service Model

33 Standards Again There is one standard for the Internet (Infrastructure) – TCP/IP Each of the functions that we do on the Internet has its own standard –E-mail: X400, X500 –File Transfer: ftp –World Wide Web: url, http, html

34 More Key Players II Raymond Samuel Tomlinson (born 1941, Amsterdam, New York) is a programmer who implemented an email system in 1971 on the ARPANET. Email had been previously sent on other networks such as AUTODIN and PLATO. It was the first system able to send mail between users on different hosts connected to the ARPAnet. (Previously, mail could be sent only to others who used the same computer.) To achieve this, he used the @ sign to separate the user from their machine, which has been used in email addresses ever since. -- Amsterdam, New YorkprogrammeremailAUTODIN PLATOARPAnet @ sign

35 More Key Players III Ward Christensen, born in West Bend, Wisconsin, U.S., is the founder of the CBBS bulletin board, the first bulletin board system (BBS) ever brought online. He started development during a blizzard in Chicago, Illinois, and officially established CBBS four weeks later, on February 16, 1978. Christensen was noted for building software tools for his needs. He wrote a cassette-based operating system before floppies and hard disks were common. When he lost track of the source code for some programs he wrote ReSource, an iterative disassembler for the Intel 8080, to help him regenerate the source code. When he needed to send files to Randy Suess he wrote XMODEM -- BendWisconsinCBBSbulletin board systemChicagoIllinoissoftwareoperating systemfloppieshard diskssource codeprogramsdisassemblerIntel 8080source code

36 Ted Nelson I Theodor Holm Nelson (born June 17, 1937) is an American sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. He coined the terms "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1963 and published it in 1965. He also is credited with first use of the words transclusion, virtuality, intertwingularity and teledildonics. The main thrust of his work has been to make computers easily accessible to ordinary people. -- pioneerinformation technologyhypertexthypermediatransclusionvirtuality intertwingularityteledildonics

37 Ted Nelson II Nelson’s motto – “A user interface should be so simple that a beginner in an emergency can understand it within ten seconds.” Nelson’s 4 Maxims -- “most people are fools, most authority is malignant, God does not exist, and everything is wrong” Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. The effort is documented in his 1974 book Computer Lib / Dream Machines and the 1981 Literary Machines. Much of his adult life has been devoted to working on Xanadu and advocating it.Project Xanadu Computer Lib / Dream MachinesLiterary Machines

38 HyperText Hypertext is “deep” rather than linear and supports Bush’s vision of associative thinking as specified in “As We May Think” Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other electronic device with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or keypress sequence. Apart from running text, hypertext may contain tables, images and other presentational devices. Hypertext is the underlying concept defining the structure of the World Wide Web, making it an easy-to-use and flexible format to share information over the Internet.-- Wide Web

39 Early HyperText Systems I NLS or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the 1960s. collaboration systemDouglas EngelbartAugmentation Research CenterStanford Research The Mother of All Demos is a name given retrospectively to Douglas Engelbart's December 9, 1968, demonstration of experimental computer technologies that are now commonplace. The live demonstration featured the introduction of the computer mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, email, hypertext, word processing, hypermedia, object addressing and dynamic file linking, bootstrapping, and a collaborative real-time editor -- Douglas Engelbart'scomputer mousevideo conferencingteleconferencingemailhypertext word processinghypermediaobject addressingdynamic file linkingbootstrappingcollaborative real-time editor

40 Early HyperText Systems II Aspen Movie Map (1977) -- ENQUIRE (1980) -- Guide (1984) -- HyperCard (1987) --

41 World Wide Web I The World Wide Web, developed at CERN by Tim Berners- Lee, brought the concept of Hypertext to the Internet.CERNTim Berners- Lee The World Wide Web was developed on a NeXT Computer.NeXT Computer By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: [7] the first web browser (which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and the first web pages, [8] which described the project itself. [7]first web browser [8] On August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. -- The initial interface for users throughout the world was a text-based “Telnet” interface.

42 Tim Berners-Lee Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA (born 8 June 1955 [1] ), also known as "TimBL", is a British physicist, computer scientist and MIT professor, credited for his invention of the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989. [2] On 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet.OM KBEFRSFREngFRSA [1]Britishphysicist computer scientistMITWorld Wide Web [2]Robert CailliauCERN Hypertext Transfer Protocol server

43 Mosaic I The popularity of the World Wide Web did not develop until Graphic Web Browsers came into use. Mosaic, developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign beginning in late 1992, was the browser responsible for the initial rapid spread of the web’s use. While often described as the first graphical web browser, Mosaic was preceded by the lesser-known Erwise [5] and ViolaWWW - - Center for Supercomputing Applications University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign graphicalErwise [5]

44 Mosaic II The lead developer of Mosaic, Marc Andreessen, upon his graduation, with Jim Clark, co-founded Mosaic Communications Corporation which was soon renamed Netscape Communications Corporation. Marc AndreessenJim Clark Netscape Communications Corporation Netscape introduced the first commercial browser, Netscape Navigator in November 1994Netscape Navigator

45 Marc Andreessen Marc Andreessen (born July 9, 1971) is an American entrepreneur, investor, software engineer and multi-millionaire best known as co-author of Mosaic, the first widely-used web browser, and co-founder of Netscape Communications Corporation. ] He founded and later sold the software company Opsware to Hewlett-Packard. He is also a co- founder of Ning, a company which provides a platform for social-networking websites. He sits on the board of directors of Facebook, eBay, [ and HP, ] among others. Andreessen is a frequent keynote speaker and guest at Silicon Valley conferences.Mosaic web browserNetscape Communications Corporation ]software OpswareHewlett-PackardNing ]

46 Mosaic III Spyglass licensed the technology and trademarks from NCSA for producing their own web browser but never used any of the NCSA Mosaic source codeSpyglass Microsoft licensed Spyglass Mosaic in 1995 for US $2 million, modified it, and renamed it Internet Explorer. -- $Internet Explorer

47 Mosaic IV The Netscape Navigator web browser was succeeded by Netscape CommunicatorNetscape Communicator Netscape Communicator's 4.x source code was the base for the Netscape-developed Mozilla Application Suite, which was later renamed SeaMonkeyMozilla Application SuiteSeaMonkey Netscape's Mozilla Suite also served as the base for a browser-only spinoff called Mozilla Firefox and Netscape versions 6 through 9. -- Firefox Netscape

48 Progression Web 1.0 – 1 Way – Institutions such as the New York Times, Sears, Apple, Amazon, e-Bay, etc. publish things for the user to read and, possibly have limited interaction (such as purchasing or commenting) Web 2.0 (really a misnomer because it is not just the Web) – User-provided content

49 Web 2.0 Blogs Wikis Pictures – Flica, Picassa Video -- YouTube Social Networks – MySpace, Facebook, Ning (to build your own) 3DVR – Second Life, There, World of Warcraft Google Earth User Apps – Facebook, Google Open Social, iPhone SDK

50 “Internet Beauty” There is no required hardware – Mainframe, Mini, Micro, Smartphones, etc. There is no required Operating System – Windows, MacOS, UNIX There is no require applications software: Outlook, Entourage, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Flock, Chrome What must be adhered to is the Standard


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