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The Use of Basalt Fibers to Lower the Cost of Composites Lewis Haynes MEEN 3344, Fall 2012 Picture taken from:

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1 The Use of Basalt Fibers to Lower the Cost of Composites Lewis Haynes MEEN 3344, Fall 2012 Picture taken from:

2 Composite Laminates Fiber “Plies” are created from weaving continuous fibers into cloth. Plies are layered so that the angle of their fibers is oriented for maximum benefit (ie plywood). Stacks of cloth are then infused with some form of resin, usually under pressure to allow for full saturation The type of the composite depends on: – Fiber material (fiberglass, carbon, Kevlar, or Basalt - new) – Weave & orientation of fibers – Type of resin used – Thickness/ number of layers or plies.

3 New Fiber – Basalt Basalt is melted and then formed into long bars Bars are slowly heated on one end and stretched to provide long continuous filaments Filaments are them woven into yarn. The thickness of the yarn will affect its applications. Yarn is woven into cloth, weave pattern & ply thickness can affect application. Weave pattern can also affect its tensile strength, flexural strength (ability to stay intact while bending), ballistic and impact properties.

4 Basalt vs S-Glass Fiber S2 Glass – The leading Material for composites – Expensive, time consuming to produce. Basalt – Naturally occurring igneous rock formation found worldwide. – Can be mined and processed in large quantities cheaply. – Fabrics woven from yarns made from continuous-filament show good adhesion characteristics for coatings Non-combustible/ fire-resistant Excellent tensile strength maintain integrity at temperatures up to 1800°F / 982°C Resistant to electromagnetic radiation Tested and Found comparable by Army Test Facility Aberdeen Proving Grounds for: – tensile strength – flexural strength (ability to stay intact while bending) – ballistic and concussive force blocking abilities.

5 Basalt –vs- Carbon Fiber Due to its relative light weight, high tensile strength in composites, and low cost for materials. Basalt fiber cloth is being tested as a replacement for carbon fiber composites in high performance venues. Such as: High performance watercraft and cars Wind turbine propellers High performance sports equipment

6 Basalt Fiber Construction Applications A Basalt fiber Geo-Mesh can be added to asphalt in layers to strengthen roads by reducing cracking and increase wear out time with less asphalt Basalt cloth can be wrapped and twisted then introduced to a resin that will form a basalt based rebar that can be used as a replacement for iron rebar in construction for concrete re- enforcement Unused basalt cloth can be shredded in a fine grain and introduced to other materials to make them more heat resistant – Basalt shingles are weather resistant (acid rain), fire resistant, and help block heat absorption from the sun – When mixed with tar to re-seal roads it adds to the durability of the sealant and reduces heat exchange from the asphalt.

7 Basalt Fiber Environmental Applications Basalt Fiber Geo-Mesh – can be used when applied in layers into soil to reduce natural erosion – mixed with concrete to re-enforce existing slopes to avoid rock slides – Its anti-corrosive properties have made it ideal for landfill construction and as a defense from acid rain. Coated Basalt Fiber Mesh Filtration – Low cost combined with heat resistance and anti- corrosive properties make it an ideal screening material for: Bag filters for industrial air screening/filtration High performance air intake systems High grade water filtration systems for water and waste treatment plants

8 References Marine Corps Force Protection Equipment for Operation Iraqi freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Findings of the House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services, Sea Power and Expeditionary Forces Subcommittee. Held January 16 th, 2007 Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications. by David M. Spagnuolo, Eugene Napadensky, Tomoko Sano, and James P. Wolbert. Published November 2011 Post- Impact Mechanical Characterisation of E-glass/Basalt Woven Fabric Interply Hybrid Laminates. By I. M. De Rosa, F. Marra, G. Pulci, C. Santulli*, F. Sarasini, J. Tirillò, M. Valente. Published December 4 th, 2010 The Application Research of Basalt Fiber in Technical Non-woven Fabric. By Chen Xingfen1 Hu Xianqi2 Shi Qianhua2 Basalt Fibers: Alternative To Glass? By Anne Ross. Posted on 8/1/2006 on Composites World. Investigation of Basalt Woven Fabrics for Military Applications. Published by the Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD April 1 st, 2012

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