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Sir John Sinclair, the county surveys and the collection and dissemination of knowledge Heather Holmes.

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Presentation on theme: "Sir John Sinclair, the county surveys and the collection and dissemination of knowledge Heather Holmes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sir John Sinclair, the county surveys and the collection and dissemination of knowledge Heather Holmes

2 Sir John Sinclair

3 General view of the agriculture of ‘x’

4 The Pyramid of Statistical Inquiries 1. The Code of Agriculture In one volume 2 The General Report of Scotland In 3 vols (and 2 appendixes) 3. The county surveys of Great Britain Containing 85 Districts 4. The Statistical Account of Scotland. Containing 938 Parishes

5 The ‘original’ surveys

6 Publication of the Scottish surveys YearNo. surveys published Surveys 17932Ayr, Midlothian 179422Aberdeen, Angus, Argyll and western Inverness-shire, Banff, Berwick, Clydesdale, Dumbarton, Dumfries, East Lothian, Elgin or Moray lying between the Spey and the Findhorn, Fife, Galloway, Hebrides, Nairn and the east coast of Inverness- shire and part of Elgin and Forres, Carse of Gowrie, Southern districts of Perth, Central Highlands, Renfrew, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Tweedale, West Lothian 17953Clackmannan, Kincardine, Northern counties and Islands, 17961 (+ appendix to MLO) Stirling, Midlothian (private appendix) 17971Kinross

7 Subject areas in the ‘original’ surveys No. Subject 1. Soil and climate13. Seed time and harvest25. Price of provisions 2. Land ownership14. Inclosures26. State of roads 3. Occupation of land15. Advantages from inclosing land27. State of farm houses and offices 4. Land use16. Size and nature of inclosures28. Nature of leases 5. Grass cultivation; species of stock; status of breeds 17. Impact on inclosure on population 29. Extent of commerce or manufactures in the district 6. Watering of land18. Common fields30. Practices in the district applicable to other districts 7. Types of grains cultivated19. Difference in rent common fields/inclosure 31. Societies for the improvement of agriculture 8. Rotation of crops20. Extent of waste lands32. Spirit of improvement and its excitement 9. Fallowing21. Wage rates; price of labour; work hours 33. Improvements to be undertaken in livestock or husbandry 10. Use of manures22. Draining of land34. Obstacles to improvement 11. Ploughs, carts and other implements 23. Paring and burning35. The most active farmers who could correspond with the Board of Agriculture 12. Use of oxen and horses24. Woodlands

8 The quarto format

9 The ‘corrected’ or ‘revised’ surveys

10 Differences in geographical scope of the ‘original’ and the ‘revised’ surveys Changes in geographical area ‘original’ and ‘revised’ surveys Same survey areaAberdeen, Angus, Ayrshire, Banffshire,Berwickshire, Clackmannan, Dumbarton, Dumfries, East Lothian, Kinross, Moray, Fife, Galloway, Hebrides, Mearns, Clydesdale, Midlothian, Tweedale, Renfrew, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Stirling, West Lothian Counties and parts of a county brought within a survey area Argyll and the Western Coasts of Inverness - (Argyll) Nairn and Eastern part of Inverness - (Nairn) Monteath and Strathern in Perthshire, Interior districts in the Highlands and Carse of Gowrie - (Perth) A group of counties given their own survey Northern counties - (Ross-shire, Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney Isles, Shetland Isles) New surveyBute

11 Surveyors of both the ‘original’ and ‘reprinted’ surveys SurveyorScottish SurveySurveyorEnglish Survey James NaismithClydesdale (Lanarkshire) John Bailey and George Culley Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmoreland George RobertsonMidlothianJohn BoysKent James TrotterWest LothianJohn HoltLancaster James RobertsonPt of PerthshireNathaniel KentNorfolk Robert LoweNottingham John BillingsleySomerset William PittStafford Arthur YoungSuffolk Thomas DavisWiltshire John TukeNorth Riding of Yorkshire Messrs Rennie, Shirreff& Broun West Riding of Yorkshire

12 Plan of the ‘revised’ reports Chapter number Chapter headingChapter number Chapter heading Preliminary observations10.Woods and plantations 1.Geographical state and circumstances 11.Wastes 2.State of property12.Improvements 3.Buildings13.Live stock 4.Mode of occupation14.Rural economy 5.Implements15.Political economy, as connected with or affecting agriculture 6.Inclosing – fences - gates16.Obstacles to improvement 7.Arable land17.Miscellaneous observations 8.GrassConclusion 9.Gardens and orchardsAppendix

13 The octavo format

14 Publication of the ‘original’ surveys YearNo. Scottish surveys published No. English surveys published No. Welsh surveys published Total no. surveys published 17932507 179422421276 17953205 17961 (+ appendix to MLO) 214 17971001 Total29511393

15 Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (1) YearNo. Scottish surveys No. English surveysNo. Welsh surveys Total no. surveys 17951102 17960303 17970505 179832 (+2 nd edn)(+3 rd edn)05 (+ edns) 17991203 180011 (+ edn)02 (+ edn) 18010000 18021001 18030101 180401 (+3 rd edn) (2 nd survey) 01 (+ edn) (2 nd survey) 18051 (+2 nd edn)1 (+2 nd edn)(+3 rd edn)02 (+ edns)

16 Publication of ‘revised’ surveys (2) YearNo. Scottish surveys No. English surveysNo. Welsh surveys Total no. surveys 18060 (+2 nd edn)000 (+ edns) 180702 (+2 nd edn)02 (+ edns) 180814 (+2 nd edn), (+2 nd edn)05 (+ edns) 18091607 18104419 181155 (+ 1 vol in 3 vols, 1811, 1815, 1817) 010 (+ edns) 18126309 18131 (+2 nd edn)001 (+ edns) 18143014 181502 (+ vol 2) (2 nd survey)0 18161001 181700 (+ vol 3)0

17 Publication of ‘revised’ Scottish surveys YearNo. surveysSurveys 17951Midlothian 17983Argyll, Clydesdale, Roxburgh and Selkirk 17991Perth 18001Fife 18021Peebles 18051 (+2 nd edn)East Lothian, Argyll (2 nd edn) 18060 (+2 nd edn)Clydesdale (2 nd edn) 18081Inverness 18091Berwick 18104Galloway, Hebrides, Kincardine, Ross & Cromarty 18115Aberdeen, Ayr, Dumbarton, Moray and Nairn, West Lothian 18126Banff, Caithness, Dumfriesshire, Renfrew, Stirling, Sutherland 18132 (+2 nd edn)Angus, Perth (2 nd edn), Shetland Islands 18143Clackmannan, Kinross, Orkney Islands 18161Bute

18 Price of the revised Scottish surveys -1 st edns Price of surveySurvey 4sClydesdale (1798) 5sEast Lothian (1805) 6sArgyll (1798), Fife (1800), Midlothian (1795), Perth (1799), Roxburgh and Selkirk (1798) 7sPeebles (1802) 9sDumbarton (1811), Galloway (1810), Ross and Cromarty (1810), West Lothian (1811) 10s 6dBanff (1812), Kincardine (1810), Orkney and Shetland Islands (1814), Renfrew (1812) 12sBerwick (1809), Sutherland (1812) 14sInverness (1808), Moray and Nairn (1811) 15sAberdeen (1811), Caithness (1812) 18sAyrshire (1811), Dumfries (1812) L1 1 0Hebrides (1810)

19 Edinburgh, London and Dublin booksellers EdinburghLondonDublin A. Constable& Co.Faulder& Son, Bond StreetJohn Archer W. CreechJ. Harding, St James’s StreetM. Keene T. Bryce & Co.J. Asperne, Cornhill SilvesterDoigBlack, Parry and Kingsbury, Leadenhall Street John Ballantyne& Co.Richard Phillips, Bridge Street Andrew StirlingCadell& Davies, Strand Reyolds, Oxford Street G. & W. Nicoll, Pall-Mall G. & J. Robinson, Paternoster Row Robinson &Wilkie, Paternoster Row Sherwood, Neely & Jones, Paternoster Row

20 Regional and local centres of distributionand sale Book Centre Surveys published 1795-1804 Surveys published between 1805-11 1805-8 1810-11 Surveys published 1812-16 GlasgowArgyll, Roxburgh and Selkirk Argyll, Clydesdale, East Lothian, Inverness Ayr, Dumbarton, Kincardine, Moray and Nairn Bute, Moray and Nairn, Renfrew, Roxburgh and Selkirk PerthInverness, Nairn and Moray Inverness AberdeenRoxburgh and Selkirk Argyll, Clydesdale, East Lothian, Inverness Kincardine, Moray and Nairn, Kincardine, Moray and Nairn,Roxburgh and Selkirk DundeeInvernessMoray and Nairn Inverness Moray and Nairn, Ross and Cromarty Banff, Caithness, Inverness, Moray and Nairn, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland StirlingAyr PaisleyRenfrew GreenockRenfrew

21 Phases in the distribution of the Scottish ‘revised’ surveys PeriodCharacter of distribution 1795-1804 Use of key bookselling centres. The surveys were primarily sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. Only in exceptional cases were surveys sold by regional or local booksellers. 1805-11 Development and use of a more extensive network of booksellers. The surveys were sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. The surveys weredistributed by a larger number of booksellers in regional and local centres. 1812-16 Use of two broad patterns of bookselling networks. Some surveys that were published for the first time were only sold by (a smaller number of) booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin. Some surveys were sold by booksellers in London, Edinburgh and Dublin and were also sold in regional and local centres.

22 SubscribersAnalysis Geographical location Towns and villages and other places in Peebleshire Farms and estates in Peebleshire Neighbouring counties (egLanarkshire, Midlothian, Edinburgh, East Lothian) Counties farther afield in other parts of Scotland (egClackmannan, Fife, Perth, Inverness, Elgin, Ayr, Glasgow, Renfrewshire, Dumfries) Outside Scotland (specific locations in England, Wales and Ireland) Distribution of the subscribers to the ‘revised’ Peebles survey

23 Social and occupational groups of subscribers to the ‘revised’ Peebles survey GroupsAnalysis Social and occupational groups Landed classes and landowners Farmers Members of Parliament Honorary members of the Board of Agriculture Surveyors to the Board of Agriculture Agricultural writers Educationalists (university, college, parish school) Professions (law, medicine, education, military, ministry) Others associated with agriculture (saddler, land surveyor) Public officials (provosts, sheriffs, collectors of taxes) Other occupational groups (merchant, accountant, banker, insurance-broker)

24 Thank you!


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