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Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances Rich Novy.

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Presentation on theme: "Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances Rich Novy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Potato Breeding: Methods, Genetic Constraints, and Disease and Pest Resistances Rich Novy

2 Overview of Presentation History of Potato Potato Breeding Methodology Germplasm Resources Genetic Constraints Breeding for Resistance at Aberdeen –Fungal-Like: Late Blight –Viruses Potato Leafroll Virus (PLRV) Potato Virus Y (PVY) –Insect: Potato Psyllid Concluding Remarks

3 Transport of Potato from the New World to the Old World

4 Market Classes: Modern Day  Russets Dual-Purpose Dual-Purpose Single Use Single Use  Long Whites Processing, some Fresh Processing, some Fresh  Round Whites Processing into Chips Processing into Chips  Reds  Specialties e.g., Pigmented Fleshe.g., Pigmented Flesh

5 Potato Breeding Seedling Tuber Production

6 New Varieties Seed Increase Over Years Seed Increase Over Years Replicated Field Evaluations—Yield & Disease Replicated Field Evaluations—Yield & Disease Storage, Sensory & Processing Evaluations Storage, Sensory & Processing Evaluations Commercial Evaluations, Input, & Interest Commercial Evaluations, Input, & Interest Development of Management Profiles Development of Management Profiles Why years? years

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8 Traits Evaluated Over Years Agronomic Total and marketable yield, stand count, vine maturity, and tuber size distribution Tuber Attributes Appearance, skin/flesh, shape, dry matter, processing and culinary qualities, nutrients, storage Stress and defect resistance Water and nutrient stress, internal defects, external defects Disease and Pest resistance Fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens; insect and nematode

9 Germplasm Resources 104 Potato Species –100 “Wild” –4 cultivated Wide geographic range Most 2n=2x=24 Cultivated Potato = 4x Hybridization –Haploids –Chromosome doubling –2n gametes –Somatic hybridization

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11 S. microdontum

12 S. etuberosum

13 Species Utilization in Breeding Species Utilization in Breeding Wild species represented in varieties: –S. demissum: LB, PLRV –S. acaule: Viruses, nematode, frost –S. chacoense: Viruses, insects –S. spegazzinii: Nematodes –S. stoloniferum: PVY and PVA –S. vernei: Nematodes, high starch Additional 9 species: In a few varieties Primitive Cultivated: adg, stn, phu

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15 Summary: Genetic Resources Potato rich in genetic resources Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats –Importance of collection and preservation –Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI Few species widely used in enhancement –Specific industry and consumer expectations –Undesirable traits along with desirable –More pre-breeding necessary Increased interest in host plant resistances –Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs –Benefits to consumers and the environment

16 Breeding for Resistance Very good crop for Irish –1.5M to 9M from Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Great Potato Famine –>1.0 million died – million emigrated next decade Reduced diversity –Surviving varieties: Partial resistance –Influx of new germplasm from South America (tbr) –More formal “controlled hybridizations” –Beginning of “Breeding for Resistance”

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18 Defender Released in 2004 Released in 2004 Primarily Processing Primarily Processing High Yield & Specific Gravity High Yield & Specific Gravity High Vitamin C High Vitamin C Bulks Rapidly Bulks Rapidly Good for Organic Production Good for Organic Production  Resistant to Late Blight Foliage Tuber-Very Also Resistant to: Tuber early blight, PVX, net necrosis Moderate Resistance: Early dying, pink rot, corky ringspot, PVY O, and soft rot American J. of Potato Research (2006) 83:9-19 Weaknesses: Blackspot, Scab, Greening, Shorter Dormancy

19 Late Blight Screening Trial Bonners Ferry, Idaho No Fungicides -Late Blight Inoculated Late Blight Susceptible: Dead Vines Defender Courtesy of Dr. Jeff Miller

20 Defender Grown in Bangladesh

21 Palisade Russet (A LB) Dual-Purpose Russet Strengths Good Yield High % No. 1’s Late Blight Resistance Good Processor for LB Low % of Sugar Ends Weaknesses Susceptible to Blackspot Bruise Very High Specific Gravity

22 Palisade Russet, Foliar and Tuber Late Blight Data Corvallis, OR Foliar Area Under Disease Progress Curve Tuber Rot from Late Blight (%) Palisade Russet 322 b3 b3 b Ranger Russet 1145 a32 a Russet Burbank 1126 a6 b6 b

23 Palisade Russet Disease Responses Cultivar Early BlightLate Blight Vert. Wilt Pink Rot Black Dot Com. ScabFoliarTuberFoliarTuber Palisade R.RRRMSMR RR Ranger R.MR--SSMSSVS R. BurbankSSSMRSMSSS

24 PVY & PLRV Most important viruses of potato Reduce crop vigor and yield –Especially with secondary infection Reduction in Tuber Quality –PVY: Tuber necrotic strains –PLRV: Net necrosis No resistance to either virus in the most widely grown potato cultivars in North America

25 Somatic Hybrids (E + TxB) 1 st Generation Etb nd Generation 4 th Generation A

26 Molecular Markers RFLP Markers –Used for localization –PLRV resistance linked with TG443 – Chrom. 4 Gillen & Novy Euphytica. 155: PCR Markers- Rlr etb –More closely linked –13.6 cM Kelly et al Mol. Breeding. 23: Current Research –Dr. Joe Kuhl 3.8 cM from Rlr etb BAC Library

27 1000 bp 850 bp 650 bp 500 bp 400 bp 300 bp S. etuberosum GemStar Russet AO (S) AO (R) DNA Markers for PLRV Resistance

28 Progeny from etb-ber somatic hybrid Green Peach AphidGreen Peach Aphid Reduced fecundity Reduced fecundity Growth inhibition Growth inhibition Decreased nymph survival Decreased nymph survival Novy et al., AJPR 79:9-18 Novy et al., AJPR 79:9-18 Colorado Potato BeetleColorado Potato Beetle Reduced field defoliation Reduced field defoliation WirewormWireworm Reduction in tuber damage Reduction in tuber damage Comparable/better than Mocap Comparable/better than Mocap Potato Psyllid?Potato Psyllid? Possible based on exhibited diversity of insect resistances Possible based on exhibited diversity of insect resistances Psyllid Yellows: Reduction in yield and tuber quality Psyllid Yellows: Reduction in yield and tuber quality Insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum) Insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum) Vector resistance could aid in the control of Zebra Chip (ZC) disease Vector resistance could aid in the control of Zebra Chip (ZC) disease Butler et al., Crop Protection 30: Butler et al., Crop Protection 30: John Trumble, UC-Riverside Juan Alvarez, DuPont

29 Concluding Remarks Breeding & Genetics Potato rich in genetic resources Few species widely used in enhancement –Specific industry and consumer expectations –Undesirable traits along with desirable –More pre-breeding necessary Increased interest in host plant resistances –Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs –Benefits to consumers and the environment Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats –Importance of collection and preservation –Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI

30 Variety Development

31 The New Potato Marketplace

32 Variety Development History Private breeding era ( ) Private breeding era ( ) Burbank, Irish Cobbler, White Rose Early public breeding era ( ) Early public breeding era ( ) LaSoda, Pontiac, Katahdin, Kennebec, Modern era ( ) Modern era ( ) Russet Norkotah, Shepody, Atlantic, Snowden, Ranger Russet Plant Variety Protection Era (2000-present) Plant Variety Protection Era (2000-present)

33 Market Perceptions Historically all potatoes were used for fresh consumption Historically all potatoes were used for fresh consumption Three types of potatoes Three types of potatoes – good for baking, frying Russets – good for baking, frying – good for baking, boiling Round whites – good for baking, boiling – summer potatoes, good for boiling Reds – summer potatoes, good for boiling

34 Market Diversification Current Russets  Fresh market for baking Russets  Fresh market for baking Russets  French fry processing Russets  French fry processing Russets  Fresh market for baking Russets  Fresh market for baking (Dual Purpose)  French fry processing (Dual Purpose)  French fry processing Long whites  Fresh market for baking Long whites  Fresh market for baking Long whites  French fry processing Long whites  French fry processing

35 Market Diversification Current Round whites  Fresh market for baking, boiling Round whites  Fresh market for baking, boiling Round whites  Potato chip processing Round whites  Potato chip processing Reds  Fresh market for boiling Reds  Fresh market for boiling Specialty  Misc. fresh market uses Specialty  Misc. fresh market uses Specialty  Misc. processing uses Specialty  Misc. processing uses

36 Successful Varieties Important characteristics High yield High yield Wide adaptation Wide adaptation Good consumer quality Good consumer quality

37 Selection Criteria Market acceptance Market acceptance Market delivery (maturity, storability) Market delivery (maturity, storability) Economic benefit (better/different than current varieties) Economic benefit (better/different than current varieties)Productiveness Adaptation to different environments Tuber quality Resistance to physiological problems Resistance to pests Production efficiency

38 Russet Burbank

39 Description and usage: Long russet tubers, the standard for fresh and processing russets Yield+ Grade- - - Specific gravityo Overall fresh quality+ Overall processing quality+ Storability+++ Adaptability- Disease resistance- Other:Long dormancy, susceptible to many stress problems

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41 Russet Norkotah Description and usage: Long russet tubers, used for early and storage fresh market Yield- - Grade++ Specific gravity- - Overall fresh qualityo Overall processing quality- - - Storability+ Adaptabilityo Disease resistance- - - (PVY, Vert.) Other:Early maturing, very susceptible to early dying, off-flavor

42 Ranger Russet

43 Description and usage: Long russet tubers, utilized primarily for french fry processing Yield++ Grade+ Specific gravity++ Overall fresh qualityo Overall processing quality++ Storability+ Adaptability++ Disease resistance++ Other:Very susceptible to blackspot bruise, resistant to most field diseases

44 Umatilla Russet

45 Description and usage: Long russet tubers, primarily used or french fry processing Yield+ Grade+ Specific gravity++ Overall fresh qualityo Overall processing quality++ Storabilityo Adaptabilityo Disease resistance+ Other:Produces pear-shaped tubers, at times has small size

46 Alturas

47 Alturas Description and usage: Oblong, lightly russeted tubers, very high yield potential Yield+++ Grade++ Specific gravity++ Overall fresh quality- Overall processing quality++ Storability0 Adaptability+ Disease resistance+++ Other:Bred for dehydration processing, resistant to most field diseases

48 Tri-State Potato Varieties Alpine Russet Clearwater Russet Teton Russet

49 Classic Russet

50 Dark Red Norland

51 Description and usage: Oval red tubers, used in the non-storage red market Yield+ Grade++ Specific gravity+ Overall fresh quality++ Overall processing qualityNA Storability- - Adaptability++ Disease resistance- Other:Earliest of the red varieties, poor storability

52 Atlantic

53 Atlantic Description and usage: Round buff tubers, standard for field delivery chip processing Yield+ Grade++ Specific gravity+++ Overall fresh quality- Overall processing quality+ Storability- - Adaptability++ Disease resistanceo Other: Susceptible to internal defects, worldwide usage, poor storability

54 Yukon Gold

55 Description and usage: Round yellow-skinned tubers with yellow flesh, specialty fresh market potato Yieldo Grade++ Specific gravityo Overall fresh quality++ Overall processing quality- Storabilityo Adaptability+ Disease resistanceo Other:Relatively low yielding, good name recognition

56 Yukon Gem

57 Huckleberry Gold

58 Purple Majesty

59 Purple Majesty Retail Bags

60 Klondike Rose

61 Plant Variety Protection (PVP) The Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 is an intellectual property statute in the US. PVP gives breeders up to 20 years of exclusive control over new, distinct, uniform, and stable sexually reproduced or tuber propagated plant varieties. Breeders or their representatives typically charge growers licensing and/or royalty fees for producing protected varieties for sale

62 Plant Variety Protection A major expression of plant breeders rights in the United States, the PVPA grants protection similar to that available through patents, but these legal forms of protection differ in critical respects. A PVP certificate gives the breeder the right to exclude others from selling the variety, or offering it for sale, or reproducing it for 20 years.

63 Potato Variety Management Institute PVMI is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation that handles the licensing and royalty collection on Tri-State potato varieties

64 Trademarks A trademark is a distinctive sign or indicator, used by an individual or business to identify that the products with which the trademark appears originate from a unique source, and to distinguish its products from those of other entities A trademark is typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements

65 Trademarks Registered trademarks confer exclusive rights upon the registered owner, including the right to exclusive use of the mark in relation to the products or services for which it is registered The owner of a registered trademark may commence legal proceedings for trademark infringement to prevent unauthorized use of that trademark.

66 Klondike Rose Trademarked Variety

67 Klondike TM Varieties Klondike Gourmet Klondike GoldustKlondike Minis Klondike Rose


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