Brief Introduction a.England b.Scotland c.Ireland d.Weather e.The Union Jack (flag)
Brief introductionintroduction England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
P-2 The four parts of the country: England, Scotland, Wales & Northern Ireland Cities: England: London Oxford Manchester Scotland: Edinburgh Glasgow Aberdeen Wales: Cardiff- capital, C-university-low living-cost Northern Ireland: Belfast
Seamus Heaney won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1995. Born in rural Northern Ireland, he left his native land to avoid political and religious violence, but his poetry remained centered on the people and places he encountered during his early years in the countryside
Big Ben is the great bell in the Clock Tower on the eastern end of the Houses of Parliament. It was named after Sir Benjamin Hall, London’s chief commissioner of works in 1858 when the bell was hung. The clocks in the 98-m (320- ft) Clock Tower have been keeping time since 1859. Big Ben, London
Covent Garden 伦敦中部一个蔬菜花卉市场 The name Covent Garden dates back to when the area belonged to Westminster Abbey and was a Convent Garden. This was London's Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable market for many years. The market was moved to Nine Elms some time ago and in 1980 Covent Garden was turned into a leisure area featuring novelty shops, restaurants, cafes and pubs. When visiting Covent Garden don't miss the opportunity of eating at Porters English Restaurant, which specialises in serving quality English food at affordable prices.Porters English Restaurant
Wellington Arch This monument was built in honour of The Duke of Wellington in 1828 as the northern gateway into Buckingham Palace, and now stands on the island in the middle of the traffic that circumnavigates Hyde Park Corner.
Edwin Lutyens designed and completed building it in 1920. Its sides are slightly concave and convex, which represents infinity. The cenotaph is decorated only with the flags of the three military services and the Merchant Navy. Built originally to commemorate those who died in the First World War, this monument is now the focal point for the memory of those killed in both wars and since then.
Queen Victoria Memorial, The The Mall, London, SW14 7EN
5. St James's Palace and the Chapel Royal 6. St James's Park 7. The Mall: The Mall that exists today is part of a national monument to Queen Victoria and created in 1903 8. Whitehall: The area known as Whitehall was formerly an enormous royal palace 10. Palace of Westminster 11. the Abbey
Spencer House From its conception, Spencer House was recognised as one of the most ambitious aristocratic town houses ever built in London and is, today, the city's only great eighteenth-century private palace to survive intact. Spencer House was built in 1756-66 for John, first Earl Spencer, an ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales (1961-97). Situated in the heart of St James's, Spencer House is a short distance from St James's Palace, Buckingham Palace and the Palace of Westminster, and has a splendid terrace and garden with magnificent views of Green Park. The Spencer family last lived in the House in 1926, they then let the building to a variety of tenants. As a result, the state rooms were used as offices from the late 1920s until 1985, when RIT Capital Partners plc acquired the lease.
Tower of London, The Begun by William the Conqueror in 1078, The Tower of London is one of the world 抯 most famous fortified buildings, and now welcomes two million visitors each year.
Founded nearly a millennium ago and expanded upon over the centuries since, the Tower of London has protected, housed, imprisoned and been for many the last sight they saw on Earth. It has been the seat of British government and the living quarters of monarchs... the site of renown political intrigue, and the repository of the Crown Jewels... It has housed lions, bears, and (to this day) flightless ravens... not to mention notorious traitors and framed members of court, lords and ministers, clergymen and knights.
The Tower Bridge spans the Thames River from the Tower of London to Southwark on the south side of the Thames. It was the only movable bridge crossing the Thames when it was completed in 1894. The bridge was designed by Sir Horace Jones and built by Sir John Wolfe Barry. London’s Tower Bridge
British Museum, London The British Museum in London was established in 1753. The museum has more than 90 galleries of artifacts from around the world. The national library is kept at the Museum, where Karl Marx wrote his famous Capital.
Houses of Parliament The seat of the British government is in London in the Houses of Parliament, officially the New Palace of Westminster. The current building was built in the mid-19th century and was designed by British architect Sir Charles Barry.
Houses of Parliament, The Home of the British Government, the building is actually called the Palace of Westminster, but is more commonly known as the Houses of Parliament, due to the two parts of government that live here.
St Paul's Cathedral Work on this, the most impressive church in London began in 1675 to a design by SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN. It was built to replace old St Paul's which was destroyed by the GREAT FIRE OF LONDON in 1666. The present building has been luckier. It survived the World War II bombings which flattened a great many of the surrounding buildings.
St Paul's Cathedral This is the fourth Cathedral to stand on this site. The first, a Saxon building, was built in AD 604. The 360ft high dome which dominates the city's skyline is the second largest in the world. The church itself is the largest Protestant church in England. From inside too, the dome is stunning and it is well worth climbing, up to the galleries. The whispering gallery is so named because of the way a whisper will echo there. Saint Paul’s Cathedral, a major landmark in London, is one of British architect Sir Christopher Wren’s greatest achievements. After the Great Fire of London destroyed the old Saint Paul’s in 1666, the city commissioned Wren to design a replacement, which was completed in 1710.
Higher still, there is access to the stone gallery on the exterior of the cathedral. At the very top is the Golden Gallery which has arguably the best view in London. The cathedral is packed with fine statues and interior detail. The beautiful woodcarvings are the work of Grinling Gibbons and the exquisite ironwork is by Jean Tijou. The mosaic work is mainly Byzantine and created by Victorian craftsmen to designs by Wren. Many of the rich or great are buried here.
Saint James’s Palace in London was the monarch’s principal residence from 1608 to 1837. It was built by Henry VIII between 1530 and 1560 on the site of a leper hospital dedicated to Saint James the Less. Much of the original palace was destroyed in a fire in 1809. Today it is the official residence of Charles, Prince of Wales. Saint James’s Palace
Victoria Station, London (Victoria Station is London’s second busiest rail terminal and the city’s busiest tourist information center. It is located in the Westminster part of London. The original station was built in 1860, but it was rebuilt early in the 20th century.
St. Mary Le Bow Architect: Sir Christopher WrenSir Christopher Wren Location: Cheapside, London, EnglandLondonEngland Date: 1670 to 1683 Building Type: church church Construction System: cut stone masonry Climate: temperate Context: urban Style: English Renaissance Notes: Notable steeple.
Photo, exterior of steeplePhoto, exterior of steeple
Ocean Currents The major surface currents in the world’s oceans are caused by prevailing winds. The currents may be cold, as in the instance of the West Wind Drift, or warm, as the Gulf Stream. Currents circulate in paths called gyres, moving in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere.
United Kingdom Climate Temperatures (Average Daily Lows And Highs) Precipitation (Average Monthly) London Edinburgh London Edinburgh Jan. 0°C (33° F) 0° C (33° F) 50 mm (2 in) 60 mm (2 in) 7° C (44° F) 6° C (43° F) July: 11° C (52° F) 10° C (51° F) 60 mm (2 in) 80 mm (3 in) 22° C (71° F) 19° C (66° F) The average rainfall is about 1000 mm. In some places there are even over 260 rainy days a year.
MonthAvg.HighAvg. LowRecord HighRecord LowAvg. Precip. January 42/46° F32/36° F 55.0° F 9.0° F 2.1/2.2 in. February43/46° F32/35° F 63.0° F 7.0°F 1.3/1.4 in. March 47/51° F 34/38° F 68.0° F 19.0° F 1.7/1.8in. April 52/56° F 36/40° F 73.0° F 23.0° F 1.7/1.8 in. May 59/63° F 42/46° F 83.0° F 26.0° F 1.9/2 in. June 65/68° F 48/51° F 91.0° F 34.0° F 1.9/2 in. July 69/73° F 52/55° F 93.0° F 39.0° F 1.7/1.8 in. August 69/72° F 50/54° F 95.0° F 36.0° F 1.9/2 in. September63/67° F 46/50° F 82.0° F 34.0° F 2.1/2.2in. October56/60° F 42/46° F 77.0° F 24.0° F 2.2/2.3in. November48/52° F 36/40° F 63.0° F 18.0° F 2.1/2.2in. December45/48° F 35/38° F 59.0° F 12.0° F 2.2/2.3 in. centigrade = 5 / 9 X(F – 32 ) Fahrenheit = C X 9 / 5 +32 100 F = 37.7C -20F = -28.8 C 1 inch = 2.5399mm
Questions for Thoughts 1. It is said if you’re tired of London, you’re tired of life. Do you think so? Why or why not? 2. What do you think of the weather in Great Britain? Do you think that the uncertainty of the weather really has a definite effect upon the Englishman’s character? And how does it influence the Englishman’s character?