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HSRU is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates. The author accepts full responsibility for this talk. Health.

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Presentation on theme: "HSRU is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates. The author accepts full responsibility for this talk. Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 HSRU is funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorates. The author accepts full responsibility for this talk. Health Services Research Unit University of Aberdeen Understanding the dynamics of organisational culture change: creating safe places for patients and staff NIHR SDO Funded Project Authors: Professor Lorna McKee, Professor Adrian Grant, Professor Rhona Flin, Professor Derek Johnston, Professor Michael West, Christine Miles, Dr Sharon McCann, Dr Steven Yule, Mr Jeremy Dawson, Mrs Kathryn Charles.

2 Health Services Research Unit Outline Project aims / objectives Research problem Methodology Key findings SO WHAT?

3 Health Services Research Unit Project Aims To extend the evidence base on organisational culture change and organisational performance Identify high/low performance for patient safety and staff well-being and links to organisational culture Identify policy and environmental change context issues: focusing on the separation of change receptive and change intransigent contexts and their links to culture, leadership and staff well-being and patient safety performance

4 Health Services Research Unit Focus: why patient safety? Patient Safety is.. 'The avoidance, prevention and amelioration of adverse outcomes or injuries stemming from the process of healthcare.' (Vincent, Patient Safety, 2006, p14) One in ten patients admitted to hospitals in developed countries will be unintentional victims of error (OWM, 2000) 50% of errors avoidable (OWM, 2000) Acute general Hospitals – Severe harm 5017 incidents and 1548 resulting in death (NPSA: Patient Safety Incidents in the NHS 01/10/06 – 31/12/07)

5 Health Services Research Unit Why measure staff attitudes and experiences? The workforce of an organisation is its most important resource. The attitudes and behaviour of staff, and their experience at work, affect how well they perform in their jobs, and in turn the overall performance of the organisation. There are increasing challenges for health care organisations to create safe working environments for staff. Reported incidences of stress, violence and abuse against staff and staff injury are growing

6 Health Services Research Unit Organisational Culture Schein (1991) - Basic Assumptions, values, artefacts and creations The pattern of shared basic assumptions - invented discovered or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with the problems of external adaption and internal integration– that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems (Schein, 1995:6).

7 Health Services Research Unit Project team COMPARATIVE NATIONAL DATA STRAND ORGANISATIONAL STRAND STAFF WELL- BEING STRAND LEADERSHIP STRAND UNIVERSITY OF ASTON (West and Dawson) UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN (Johnston) UNIVERSITY OF DUNDEE (Jones) UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN (Flin and Yule) (McKee, McCann and Charles) UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN

8 Health Services Research Unit A multidisciplinary, multi-method research approach Four research strands: Organisational strand – organisational level Senior leadership strand – senior leadership level Staff well-being – frontline nursing staff Comparative data strand – NHS National Staff Survey identified eight acute Trusts (A-H) and informed comparative analysis

9 Health Services Research Unit Sampling frame criteria HIGH PERFORMANCE LOW PERFORMANCE STABLEUNSTABLE STABLE AND HIGH PERFORMING Trusts: B & E UNSTABLE AND IMPROVING Trusts: A & H. STABLE AND LOW PERFORMING Trusts: C & G UNSTABLE + WORSENING PERFORMANCE Trusts: D & F

10 Health Services Research Unit Data sources per strand StrandTrustsData sources Organisational4 Depth Case studies A B C D 4 Mini Case studies E F G H 100 semi-structured interviews, Trust documents, observation of five meetings 44 semi-structured interviews, observation of four meetings, Trust documents LeadershipTrusts A B C D E F G H7 semi-structured interviews with Trust CEOs 23 upward appraisal questionnaires completed by executive directors Staff well- being Trusts A B C D 233 self completed questionnaires by nurses 248 hand held diaries completed by nurses

11 Health Services Research Unit Key findings across strands What does patient safety mean? Priority for safety Barriers to patient safety Links staff well-being to patient safety Leadership matters Environmental shocks Insight into shift (nurses) climate

12 Health Services Research Unit Patient safety : confounded by complexity Lack of common understanding – risks, complaints, complications. No uniformity in roles and responsibilities Responsibilities for patient safety distributed Reporting processes – need to be stream lined

13 Health Services Research Unit What is patient safety? I just don’t think we’ve used the words ‘patient safety’ in a regular and repetitive way. I think it’s a bit like the word ‘ hygiene’, ‘ hygiene’ never featured in any documentation, we talked about Infection Control, and Infection Control Team will have talked about the problems that they had encountered in getting it high on Agenda, Nursing Director

14 Health Services Research Unit What is an incident? You know, something goes wrong, maybe the appendix is very stuck to the bowel and therefore they can’t get it off, you know they can’t make a clean incision, it’s stuck to everything, so they have to (unclear) and actually they nick the bowel while they’re doing it so they have to over sew the bowel and maybe do a de-functioning colostomy, now they wouldn’t see that as an incident. Risk Manager

15 Health Services Research Unit Lack of awareness Long chains of consequences: And secondly I think that genuinely some people come to work even in health cultures where they are completely oblivious to the consequence of what they do because they only see themselves in the context of what they do and not in the context of what they do and the impact it has on others, and they don’t understand the chain of consequence. Chief Executive

16 Health Services Research Unit Safe care: an invisible intangible norm - but is it a priority ? Competing priorities – financial, achievement of performance targets Some trusts better at balancing priorities – adopt a ‘gradualist approach’.

17 Health Services Research Unit PRIORITY FOR PERFORMANCE TARGETS CLASH WITH PATIENT SAFETY The four hour waiting target for A&E and the requirement to reduce the bed base to save money resulted in the number of medical patients that out lied into surgical beds and at one point in time we were in the situation where we put in extra beds in the wards to accommodate patients – there were clear patient safety issues associated with those practices. Director of Nursing. A FOCUS ON HIGH PERFORMANCE MEANT THAT STRUCTURES WERE TIGHTLY COUPLED -THERE WAS NO SLACK IN THE SYSTEM We are a hamster on a wheel because you know clinical areas are very busy and corporately there’s a lot to do – so we’ve stripped out as many of the inefficiencies or cushions that we can – which is good but there’s no room – there’s no slack in the system. Director Corporate Affairs.

18 Health Services Research Unit Perceived barriers to patient safety Perceived barriers to patient safety Staffing – shortages, skill mixes, access to training, displacement of staff Poor communication – professional diversity Failure to document procedures Limited awareness of risk Limitations in physical infrastructure

19 Health Services Research Unit Staffing If you know you are running a ward with 27 patients and you are the only trained member of staff on and you are working a 12 hour night shift with no break, then clearly you are not doing your best for the patients or for yourself ….and it is a major, major risk. Risk Manager

20 Health Services Research Unit Skill mixes I think the skill mix is wrong and I think with the changes that are happening in the NHS at the moment, reducing the length of stay obviously means the client group changes as well and their dependency changes. Matron

21 Health Services Research Unit Staffing If I could knit them half a dozen nurses I would sit and knit some. But I can’t, and I would have to say from my point of view that staffing has to probably be the biggest single threat. Risk Manager

22 Health Services Research Unit Links staff well-being and patient safety Some of the staff well-being is related to them being stressed out, because there aren’t enough staff, and clearly is going to immediately going to link into patient safety on two grounds, a), the staff are stressed and may not pay attention so much to what they’re doing and b), there’s not enough of them, so I’m quite sure they are linked. Medical Director

23 Health Services Research Unit Links staff well-being and patient safety I think a very happy member of staff, somebody who is happy in their work, they have got job satisfaction, gives a better service to the patient. The patient feels a lot better because people are happier around them, they’re smiling and you know they are more likely to ask a nurse or point out that something is not right so if they feel unwell or anything like that, any of those complications they may pick up earlier. Deputy Director of Nursing

24 Health Services Research Unit Leadership matters Leadership matters Senior leadership prioritisation of patient safety affects performance Major environmental pressures distracted many senior leadership teams High performing Trusts could buffer environmental pressures Transformational leadership styles influence performance CEO can galvanise staff – communicates vision

25 Health Services Research Unit Leadership matters Tenure and stability of senior leadership linked to patient safety and staff well-being performance Transactional and transformational styles of leadership important Dispersed leadership linked to patient safety performance Informal leadership role models critical

26 Health Services Research Unit Broader context and Trust culture affect patient safety and staff well-being Broader context and Trust culture affect patient safety and staff well-being Environmental ‘shocks’: 1.PCT reconfiguration 2.Trust merger 3.Reduction in commissioned services 4.MRSA and C-Difficile outbreaks 5.Leadership instability 6.Financial deficit

27 Health Services Research Unit Adaptation to environmental pressures Linked to: Cultural attributes – staff engagement Organisational capabilities – learning processes Stability - Longevity of tenure - senior leadership and staff

28 Health Services Research Unit Typology of Trusts Resilient Adaptive In Recovery Conservative / Passive

29 Health Services Research Unit The distribution of Trusts according to magnitude of environmental pressure and staff engagement High Engagement Low Engagement Low Pressure/ Stability High Pressure / Change Resilient Trusts A and H A and H Adaptive Trusts C, D and F Conservative/ Passive Trust E In Recovery Trusts B and G Cultural attributes: Good relationships embraces change Clinical involvement, learning culture Leadership: Directive/ Democratic Processes: Highly developed Staff well-being – High performance Patient safety – High performance Cultural attributes Leadership – Consensual, Inclusive, Cohesive relationships, learning culture Processes – Highly developed Staff well –being – low performance Patient Safety – Improving performance Cultural attributes: Closed, Performance focused Community affiliation, strong relationships Leadership: Bureaucratic Processes – slow Staff well-being – High performance Patient safety – High performance Cultural attributes Performance priority, clinical relationships strong, Leadership not Trusted Leadership: Transformational Distracted, bad behaviours (B) Processes – reporting improving, blame culture Staff well-being – Low performance Patient safety – Low performance

30 Health Services Research Unit So What? Policy Implications Ensuring senior leadership continuity Assessment frameworks for environmental, cultural and organisational capability assessment Explicit strategy framework for patient safety Streamlining of reporting and feedback processes Emphasis on dispersed leadership Staff engagement promoted – informal methods Role models – buffering change Use of PDA diaries to monitor ward safety climate

31 Health Services Research Unit Thank You More information: Project webpage ent_policy/UDOCC_safeplaces/ This presentation presents independent research commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Service Delivery and Organisation (SDO) Programme. The views expressed in this publication/presentation are those of the author's) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. The NIHR SDO programme is funded by the Department of Health.

32 Health Services Research Unit Future research Exploration of dispersed leadership The role of senior leadership in promoting patient safety Exploration of links between staff well-being and patient safety Multi-disciplinary research designs Patient experiences of patient safety


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