Presentation on theme: "Culture. 2 A society is any group of people (or, less commonly, plants or animals) living together in a group and constituting a single related, interdependent."— Presentation transcript:
2 A society is any group of people (or, less commonly, plants or animals) living together in a group and constituting a single related, interdependent community. Culture - Society
3 We might, for instance, comment upon some aspect of U.S. society. Or smaller groups of people, as when we refer to "rural societies" or "academic society," etc.
4 Culture - Society Society generally refers to the community of people While culture generally refers to the systems of meaning which govern the conduct and understanding of people's lives.
5 Culture - Society In common use of "society" or its derivative words; for example, when we refer to "societal problems," we are referring to conflicts which have as much to do with culture as they do with society.
6 Culture - Society weapons fire agriculture animal domestication video games religion political systems sports and social organizations It is all of the learned and shared ideas and products of a society
7 Culture - Society It is all of the learned and shared ideas and products of a society A shared way of life that includes values, beliefs, norms, mores Transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation.
8 Culture - Society Culture is learned Trial-and-error learning -personal Social learning -observed
9 Culture - Symbols Arbitrary units or models used to represent reality – unique to humans
10 Signs are direct representation – bell = food Culture - Symbols
11 Symbols they are not associated with any direct concrete item or physical activity they are more abstract. Colors of a flag Culture - Symbols
12 Culture is the historical accumulation of symbolic knowledge Culture - Symbols
The Components of Culture
14 Components of Culture Material culture is the physical products of human society
15 Components of Culture Nonmaterial culture refers to the intangible products
16 Components of Culture Belief/value systems overlap Because beliefs and values components of cultural systems play such a pervasive role in culture.
17 Components of Culture Beliefs and values affect virtually every learned behavior
18 Cultural Universals Shared essential behavior characteristics of all societies. Language, cooking, food taboos, numbers, personal names, religion toolmaking
19 Cultural Universals Language Cooking Food taboos Numbers Personal names Religion Toolmaking Work Ethic Education Marriage Money Family Relationships Music Transportation Independence
Culture - Values
21 Culture - Values A value system differentiates right feelings, thoughts and behavior from wrong feelings, thoughts and behavior. Value systems can and very often do grow out of belief systems.
22 Culture - Values For example the Good Samaritan Law A direct descendant of the Christian belief system A belief system whose story of the good Samaritan gives the law its name.
23 Culture - Values Other value systems appear to exist independently of formal belief systems. e.g.,those governing incest
24 Culture - Values Define what is good or bad, holy or unholy beautiful or ugly. They are the central aspect of the nonmaterial culture
25 Culture - Values Social control or imposition of order Defines the relationship with the physical environment moral, spiritual, environmental.
26 Culture - Values Right and wrong behavior Esteem of others Rewards Gossip & community pressure
27 Culture - Values Predominant values of the US are individual achievement and success, efficiency, progress, material comfort, equality, freedom Japan values cooperation and community interest
Culture - Beliefs
29 Culture - Beliefs Belief systems involve stories, or myths, whose interpretation can give people insight into how they should feel, think, and/or behave.
30 Culture - Beliefs The mythologies of the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations Good example of how belief systems can affect the daily life of a society's members.
31 Culture - Beliefs The most prominent systems of beliefs tend to be those associated with formal religions.
32 Culture - Beliefs
33 Culture - Beliefs Any system of belief in which the interpretation of stories affects people's behavior
34 Culture - Beliefs System of belief can be a living, contributing component of a given society's culture. -- a system of superstitions, for example --
35 Culture - Beliefs These concern what are true or false assumptions Specific descriptions of the nature of the universe and humanities place in it
36 Culture - Beliefs They reside at the level of assumptions and presuppositions They generate everyday practices, customs, expectations & laws
37 Culture - Beliefs Posses momentum – seldom subjected to examination These define why the value is important to them.
38 Culture - Beliefs People will believe what is pleasing, what they want to believe, what they think they ought to believe Values are generalized, beliefs are more specific Beliefs broken into two areas
39 Culture - Beliefs Scientific – practical Insight into the nature of the world i.e. how to obtain food and shelter
40 Culture - Beliefs Non-scientific – religious & artistic that portray universe & express deep feelings Ideas that make sense of their experiences
41 Culture - Beliefs Ideas that they hold to be true, factual, real Education is good = value Grading is the best way to evaluate students = belief Most people assume their beliefs are rational and grounded in common sense
42 Culture - Beliefs Worldview –provides a consistent orientation toward the world. It helps interpret the world around them.
43 Culture - Beliefs Ideology – cultural symbols and beliefs that reflect and support the interests of specific groups within a society
44 Culture - Beliefs Cultural hegemony – ideological control by one dominant group over beliefs and values.
Culture - Norms & Beliefs The “laws” of culture.
46 Culture - Norms Shared rules of guidelines that define how people ”ought” to behave under certain circumstances
47 Culture - Norms Norms expand the ideas behind values and beliefs USA individual work to support themselves, older adults do not live with children Agricultural societies older parents live with children
48 Culture - Norms Folkways – provide guidelines for behavior they are flexible Dress code violation
49 Culture - Mores Mores – are stronger than norms If violated punishment is severe Rob a person go to jail Women walk without face covered put into prison
50 Culture - Ideal vs. Real Ideal - what they say they do Real - what they do
51 Culture - Ideal vs. Real Communication behavior ex. Being rude Failure frequently is not intended ex stop at a traffic sign
52 Culture - Ideal vs. Real USA values equal opportunity for all Real life shows actual different economic, class, racial, ethnic treatment
53 Culture - Aspects Culture is shared to allow for the creative contributions and functioning of a society.
54 Culture - Aspects Individuals may have more expertise than others in a given culture.
55 Culture - Aspects Culture varies from person to person, but common understandings are present.
57 Cultural diversity Ethnocentrism – evaluating a culture based on ones own culture
58 Cultural diversity Cultural relativism – cultural traditions are understood within the context of the society
59 Cultural diversity Food and adaptation Pig taboo in various cultures
60 Cultural diversity Dress codes and symbolism Jean and sandals in the 60’s “power-suits” in the 80’s Hairstyles