Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 6: Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival"— Presentation transcript:

0 Louisiana: The History of an American State
Chapter 6 Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival Study Presentation ©2005 Clairmont Press

1 Chapter 6: Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival
Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana Section 2: Louisiana as a Proprietorship Section 3: A Royal Colony Again

2 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What were the effects of the French exploration of Louisiana?

3 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana
What word do I need to know? colony

4 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana
France wanted to expand trading area in New World 1673: exploration of Mississippi River (to discover Northwest Passage) by Louis Joliet & Father Marquette Return trip north due to risk of encounter with Indians / Spanish soldiers

5 Timeline: 1673 A.D. – 1712 A.D. 1673: Joliet & Marquette explored the upper Mississippi 1682: La Salle claimed Louisiana for France 1699: Iberville est. Fort Maurepas 1712: Crozat became proprietor

6 Timeline: 1714 A.D. – 1736 A.D. 1714: Natchitoches founded
1717: Company of the West became Louisiana proprietor 1718: New Orleans founded 1729: Natchez uprising 1736: Chickasaw War

7 Exploring the Mississippi
1682: exploration of La Salle, to find water route to China & spread religion of France All land drained by Mississippi River claimed by La Salle for Louis XIV Land named Louisiana (“Land of Louis”) Return of La Salle to France to report discovery Continuation of La Salle’s mission (a failure) Off-course route of fleets Frustration / deaths of many colonists La Salle’s men mutinied & he was murder by his men

8 The French Colony Set in motion by La Salle
French fort needed to guard Mississippi River (recognized by Louis XIV) Spanish fort built on the Gulf of Mexico at Pensacola Bay British hoped to build at the mouth of the Mississippi River French interests represented by French Commander Pierre Le Moyne and his younger brother, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne

9 Fort Maurepas Fort at Pensacola: held by Spanish – the best harbor near the Mississippi River Ship Island claimed by Iberville Primitive huts built as a temporary camp Letter to La Salle found in 1685 – proof 13 years later of French discovery of Mississippi River Gulf Coast: a better location for Iberville’s fort (near present-day Biloxi) Trees plentiful to build the fort

10 A Struggling Colony Challenges facing French colonists: the British
the local Indian tribes Bienville successfully bluffed a British captain into leaving the Mississippi River English Turn, along the Mississippi River, still on today’s map Blended with the Indians at first, but conflicts later initiated to keep them from unifying against the French

11 Other Forts Fort Mississippi built 54 miles above the mouth of the river Fort Maurepas, French headquarters, moved due to flooding New fort, Fort Louis: built to keep the English out of Mobile Bay – later became the city of Mobile Commanded by Henri de Tonti until his death from yellow fever in 1704

12 Leadership Happenings as Iberville returns to France War in Europe
Iberville required to return to military duty Iberville’s requests for colonists / supplies ignored Hard times in France created by war Supply ships involved in war effort Louisiana colony left defenseless / inadequate supplies

13 Leadership 1702: Death of Iberville (in Havana)
Challenges facing Bienville New leader of colony (1701) Faced criticism / complaints from officials & priests Conflicts regarding confusing structure of government Click here to return to Main Menu.

14 Section 2: Louisiana as a Proprietorship
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What were the effects of the Company of the West and the collapse of the Mississippi Bubble?

15 Section 2: Louisiana as a Proprietorship
What words do I need to know? proprietorship Superior Council land grant Mississippi Bubble slave plantation Code Noir

16 Louisiana as a Proprietorship
Introduction - Ending of costly war in Europe - Push by British colonies to expand trade with Native Americans - Colony needed as buffer against British Proprietorship established by King Louis XIV Charter (contract) given to one individual (proprietor) - Total control by proprietor - Certain requirements of proprietor Operate colony as a business Send on regular basis supplies/settlers Maintain French laws of government

17 Antoine Crozat 1712: Proprietorship of Louisiana given to Antoine Crozat by French royal government Money loaned to King Louis XIV by Crozat Expectations by Crozat to find gold/silver in colony Little interest in settlers/agriculture Primary motive as proprietor  profit Selection of new governor (Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de Cadillac)

18 Antoine Crozat Difficulties faced by Cadillac (as leader)
Refused to smoke Indian calumet Exhibition of rude personality Ongoing conflicts among government officials Cadillac’s credits for organizing colony Establishment of Superior Council to help govern colony 1st official suggesting indigo & tobacco be grown to sell Efforts to convince Crozat to send more people to Louisiana

19 Natchitoches Louis Juchereau de St. Denis selected by Cadillac to command fort at Natchitoches Possessed knowledge of Indian languages and frontier skills Educated in Paris 1714: Fort St. Jean Baptiste (present-day Natchitoches) built by French on banks of Red River Established to build trade with nearby Spanish (illegal)

20 Natchitoches Missions by St. Denis to seek trade
Eventually St. Denis jailed Warned to stay out of Spanish territory Continued trade efforts between Spanish colonists French goods desired by Spanish (especially medicine) Spanish silver desired by French

21 Crozat’s Failure Continued struggle of Louisiana colony
Ending of government support (death of Louis XIV, 1715) Trading with Spanish (illegal) and Indians - a failure French disinterest in farming No profit made from colony Contract as proprietor not totally fulfilled Gave up proprietorship (after 5 years)

22 The Company of the West Next proprietor of colony (group of investors)
John Law (head of proprietorship group) Developed paper money system for France 1717: Company of the West created by John Law to operate Louisiana colony 1718: Settlement designed / laid out by Bienville (became city of New Orleans) Land grant given to directors in exchange for settlers to live on the land

23 A Search for Colonists Early real estate advertising used by John Law in efforts to attract people to Louisiana German farm families recruited as colonists Experienced, hard-working people Cleared land, planted gardens Saved colony from starving Need still for more settlers Prisoners sent to colony rather than jail Arrival of dangerous criminals (unable or unwilling to work) Problems in the colony Vagrants (homeless people) shipped to colony Goods not often sent to colony by the Company Available goods more costly

24 The Collapse of the Mississippi Bubble
Continued investments / expansion of the Company 1721: Collapse of the Company (called Mississippi Bubble) The Company of the Indies (in charge of colony) Continuation of Bienville as governor Needs of Louisiana an adequate army more dependable settlers a good export crop

25 The Code Noir 1716: Beginning of slavery in Louisiana (to provide workers for colony) slaves from West Africa rice added as staple food for colony (assistance from slaves) Indigo & tobacco (Louisiana’s 1st cash crops) 1724: Code Noir established by Bienville governed conduct / treatment of slaves protected slaves as property

26 A New Governor Complaints about Bienville as governor
Etienne de Perier – new governor Mission: to bring harmony to colony Well-respected in French navy Saw potential in Louisiana’s forests Desired to improve trade with French colonies of West Indies

27 The Natchez Uprising Peaceful relations between colonists and Indians at Fort Rosalie (built 1716: Fort Rosalie built on land belonging to Natchez Indians) Good land seized from Natchez Indians by fort’s commander Natchez Indian attack of Fort Rosalie (called “Natchez Uprising” – deaths of 250+ colonists) Loss of farms / tobacco plantations / desire to stay in colony 1731: Colony returned to King by Company of the West Click here to return to Main Menu.

28 Section 3: A Royal Colony Again
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What problems were faced by the various groups that attempted to colonize French Louisiana?

29 Section 3: A Royal Colony Again
What word do I need to know? casket girls

30 Bienville Returns Challenges facing Bienville upon return as governor:
Calm the settlers / restore ties with Indians Shortage of livestock & good tools Inadequate supply of money Few ships available to transport goods Food rationing in colony & reliance on barter and warehouse credit

31 War with the Chickasaw Conflicts between tribes used often to advantage of French and British French goods generally preferred by Choctaw British (trading partners & allies with Chickasaw) Chickasaw (enemies of French & Choctaw) French fearful of peaceful relations between Chickasaw and Choctaw France’s colony threatened by possible trading partnership between Choctaw and British Eventual war lasting for several years between Chickasaw and French Several defeats suffered by Bienville 1742: Retirement of Bienville as governor of colony

32 A Different Kind of Governor
1742: New governor (Pierre Francois de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil) Halted Indian raids on settlements Worked out peace agreement with Chickasaw Used kindness and dignity to calm internal conflicts in colony Improved living conditions & prosperity for colony Formal ceremonies & parties established Governor credited with 1st Louisiana Mardi Gras ball

33 The Last French Years 1752: Vaudreuil designated as governor of Canada
Louis Billouart, Chevalier de Kerlerec appointed governor of colony Tensions between French and British increasing Stage set for French and Indian war Caught in middle of squabbles with commissary commissioner 1762: Colony given to Spain

34 Life in the Colony Began as a struggle in French colonial Louisiana in the wilderness Challenging environment Adaptation of people to suit location Daily hardships faced by colonists Elements of culture added to improve their lives

35 The People Early explorers and promoters (hardy French Canadians)
Free-spirited woodsmen (coureur-de-bois – “woods runner” in French Preferred independent lifestyle to settling in colony Early French colonists Lacked survival skills for harsh environment Many interested in search for gold & silver German farmers (hardy, saved colony)

36 The People African slaves (hard labor, created economic growth in colony) Soldiers (considered as rejects of army) Women Scarce in the colony Absence, causing instability in colony 1728: Arrival of “casket girls” Some women of bad reputation sent from the streets of Paris

37 Religion Roman Catholic: official religion of France and the Louisiana colony Church supported by the government Nuns & priests provided for the colony Few of the early priests lived among the Indians as missionaries Schools established by nuns & priests Early days: Mardi Gras & other church holidays celebrated

38 Lifestyles Early population of Louisiana between 6,000 & 7,000 when colony given up by France Gambling & card playing main entertainment Few elegant homes, majority of logs or bricks Ignorant about diseases / health awareness Jean Louis: money left in will (provisions for a charity hospital in New Orleans) Clothing: made mostly from imported cloth – elegant clothing (from France) worn by wealthy

39 Success or Failure Factors contributing to success or failure of French colony of Louisiana Colony under regulations of France Colony affected by hurricanes, mosquitoes, heat, & humidity The first colonists – a poor choice? Leaders of the colony Those seeking to benefit colony Those seeking profits for themselves Trade restrictions Inadequate funding & supplies Click here to return to Main Menu.

40 Click here to return to Main Menu.

Download ppt "Chapter 6: Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google