1 Chapter 6: Louisiana’s French Colonial Era: Struggle and Survival Section 1: The French Come to LouisianaSection 2: Louisiana as a ProprietorshipSection 3: A Royal Colony Again
2 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What were the effects of the French exploration of Louisiana?
3 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana What word do I need to know?colony
4 Section 1: The French Come to Louisiana France wanted to expand trading area in New World1673: exploration of Mississippi River (to discover Northwest Passage) by Louis Joliet & Father MarquetteReturn trip north due to risk of encounter with Indians / Spanish soldiers
5 Timeline: 1673 A.D. – 1712 A.D.1673: Joliet & Marquette explored the upper Mississippi1682: La Salle claimed Louisiana for France1699: Iberville est. Fort Maurepas1712: Crozat became proprietor
6 Timeline: 1714 A.D. – 1736 A.D. 1714: Natchitoches founded 1717: Company of the West became Louisiana proprietor1718: New Orleans founded1729: Natchez uprising1736: Chickasaw War
7 Exploring the Mississippi 1682: exploration of La Salle, to find water route to China & spread religion of FranceAll land drained by Mississippi River claimed by La Salle for Louis XIVLand named Louisiana (“Land of Louis”)Return of La Salle to France to report discoveryContinuation of La Salle’s mission (a failure)Off-course route of fleetsFrustration / deaths of many colonistsLa Salle’s men mutinied & he was murder by his men
8 The French Colony Set in motion by La Salle French fort needed to guard Mississippi River (recognized by Louis XIV)Spanish fort built on the Gulf of Mexico at Pensacola BayBritish hoped to build at the mouth of the Mississippi RiverFrench interests represented by French Commander Pierre Le Moyne and his younger brother, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne
9 Fort MaurepasFort at Pensacola: held by Spanish – the best harbor near the Mississippi RiverShip Island claimed by IbervillePrimitive huts built as a temporary campLetter to La Salle found in 1685 – proof 13 years later of French discovery of Mississippi RiverGulf Coast: a better location for Iberville’s fort (near present-day Biloxi)Trees plentiful to build the fort
10 A Struggling Colony Challenges facing French colonists: the British the local Indian tribesBienville successfully bluffed a British captain into leaving the Mississippi RiverEnglish Turn, along the Mississippi River, still on today’s mapBlended with the Indians at first, but conflicts later initiated to keep them from unifying against the French
11 Other FortsFort Mississippi built 54 miles above the mouth of the riverFort Maurepas, French headquarters, moved due to floodingNew fort, Fort Louis: built to keep the English out of Mobile Bay – later became the city of MobileCommanded by Henri de Tonti until his death from yellow fever in 1704
12 Leadership Happenings as Iberville returns to France War in Europe Iberville required to return to military dutyIberville’s requests for colonists / supplies ignoredHard times in France created by warSupply ships involved in war effortLouisiana colony left defenseless / inadequate supplies
13 Leadership 1702: Death of Iberville (in Havana) Challenges facing BienvilleNew leader of colony (1701)Faced criticism / complaints from officials & priestsConflicts regarding confusing structure of governmentClick here to return to Main Menu.
14 Section 2: Louisiana as a Proprietorship ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What were the effects of the Company of the West and the collapse of the Mississippi Bubble?
15 Section 2: Louisiana as a Proprietorship What words do I need to know?proprietorshipSuperior Councilland grantMississippi BubbleslaveplantationCode Noir
16 Louisiana as a Proprietorship Introduction- Ending of costly war in Europe- Push by British colonies to expand trade with Native Americans- Colony needed as buffer against BritishProprietorship established by King Louis XIVCharter (contract) given to one individual (proprietor)- Total control by proprietor- Certain requirements of proprietorOperate colony as a businessSend on regular basis supplies/settlersMaintain French laws of government
17 Antoine Crozat1712: Proprietorship of Louisiana given to Antoine Crozat by French royal governmentMoney loaned to King Louis XIV by CrozatExpectations by Crozat to find gold/silver in colonyLittle interest in settlers/agriculturePrimary motive as proprietor profitSelection of new governor (Antoine de Lamothe, Sieur de Cadillac)
18 Antoine Crozat Difficulties faced by Cadillac (as leader) Refused to smoke Indian calumetExhibition of rude personalityOngoing conflicts among government officialsCadillac’s credits for organizing colonyEstablishment of Superior Council to help govern colony1st official suggesting indigo & tobacco be grown to sellEfforts to convince Crozat to send more people to Louisiana
19 NatchitochesLouis Juchereau de St. Denis selected by Cadillac to command fort at NatchitochesPossessed knowledge of Indian languages and frontier skillsEducated in Paris1714: Fort St. Jean Baptiste (present-day Natchitoches) built by French on banks of Red RiverEstablished to build trade with nearby Spanish (illegal)
20 Natchitoches Missions by St. Denis to seek trade Eventually St. Denis jailedWarned to stay out of Spanish territoryContinued trade efforts between Spanish colonistsFrench goods desired by Spanish (especially medicine)Spanish silver desired by French
21 Crozat’s Failure Continued struggle of Louisiana colony Ending of government support (death of Louis XIV, 1715)Trading with Spanish (illegal) and Indians - a failureFrench disinterest in farmingNo profit made from colonyContract as proprietor not totally fulfilledGave up proprietorship (after 5 years)
22 The Company of the West Next proprietor of colony (group of investors) John Law (head of proprietorship group)Developed paper money system for France1717: Company of the West created by John Law to operate Louisiana colony1718: Settlement designed / laid out by Bienville (became city of New Orleans)Land grant given to directors in exchange for settlers to live on the land
23 A Search for ColonistsEarly real estate advertising used by John Law in efforts to attract people to LouisianaGerman farm families recruited as colonistsExperienced, hard-working peopleCleared land, planted gardensSaved colony from starvingNeed still for more settlersPrisoners sent to colony rather than jailArrival of dangerous criminals (unable or unwilling to work)Problems in the colonyVagrants (homeless people) shipped to colonyGoods not often sent to colony by the CompanyAvailable goods more costly
24 The Collapse of the Mississippi Bubble Continued investments / expansion of the Company1721: Collapse of the Company (called Mississippi Bubble)The Company of the Indies (in charge of colony)Continuation of Bienville as governorNeeds of Louisianaan adequate armymore dependable settlersa good export crop
25 The Code Noir1716: Beginning of slavery in Louisiana (to provide workers for colony)slaves from West Africarice added as staple food for colony (assistance from slaves)Indigo & tobacco (Louisiana’s 1st cash crops)1724: Code Noir established by Bienvillegoverned conduct / treatment of slavesprotected slaves as property
26 A New Governor Complaints about Bienville as governor Etienne de Perier – new governorMission: to bring harmony to colonyWell-respected in French navySaw potential in Louisiana’s forestsDesired to improve trade with French colonies of West Indies
27 The Natchez UprisingPeaceful relations between colonists and Indians at Fort Rosalie (built 1716: Fort Rosalie built on land belonging to Natchez Indians)Good land seized from Natchez Indians by fort’s commanderNatchez Indian attack of Fort Rosalie (called “Natchez Uprising” – deaths of 250+ colonists)Loss of farms / tobacco plantations / desire to stay in colony1731: Colony returned to King by Company of the WestClick here to return to Main Menu.
28 Section 3: A Royal Colony Again ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What problems were faced by the various groups that attempted to colonize French Louisiana?
29 Section 3: A Royal Colony Again What word do I need to know?casket girls
30 Bienville Returns Challenges facing Bienville upon return as governor: Calm the settlers / restore ties with IndiansShortage of livestock & good toolsInadequate supply of moneyFew ships available to transport goodsFood rationing in colony & reliance on barter and warehouse credit
31 War with the ChickasawConflicts between tribes used often to advantage of French and BritishFrench goods generally preferred by ChoctawBritish (trading partners & allies with Chickasaw)Chickasaw (enemies of French & Choctaw)French fearful of peaceful relations between Chickasaw and ChoctawFrance’s colony threatened by possible trading partnership between Choctaw and BritishEventual war lasting for several years between Chickasaw and FrenchSeveral defeats suffered by Bienville1742: Retirement of Bienville as governor of colony
32 A Different Kind of Governor 1742: New governor (Pierre Francois de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil)Halted Indian raids on settlementsWorked out peace agreement with ChickasawUsed kindness and dignity to calm internal conflicts in colonyImproved living conditions & prosperity for colonyFormal ceremonies & parties establishedGovernor credited with 1st Louisiana Mardi Gras ball
33 The Last French Years 1752: Vaudreuil designated as governor of Canada Louis Billouart, Chevalier de Kerlerec appointed governor of colonyTensions between French and British increasingStage set for French and Indian warCaught in middle of squabbles with commissary commissioner1762: Colony given to Spain
34 Life in the ColonyBegan as a struggle in French colonial Louisiana in the wildernessChallenging environmentAdaptation of people to suit locationDaily hardships faced by colonistsElements of culture added to improve their lives
35 The People Early explorers and promoters (hardy French Canadians) Free-spirited woodsmen (coureur-de-bois – “woods runner” in FrenchPreferred independent lifestyle to settling in colonyEarly French colonistsLacked survival skills for harsh environmentMany interested in search for gold & silverGerman farmers (hardy, saved colony)
36 The PeopleAfrican slaves (hard labor, created economic growth in colony)Soldiers (considered as rejects of army)WomenScarce in the colonyAbsence, causing instability in colony1728: Arrival of “casket girls”Some women of bad reputation sent from the streets of Paris
37 ReligionRoman Catholic: official religion of France and the Louisiana colonyChurch supported by the governmentNuns & priests provided for the colonyFew of the early priests lived among the Indians as missionariesSchools established by nuns & priestsEarly days: Mardi Gras & other church holidays celebrated
38 LifestylesEarly population of Louisiana between 6,000 & 7,000 when colony given up by FranceGambling & card playing main entertainmentFew elegant homes, majority of logs or bricksIgnorant about diseases / health awarenessJean Louis: money left in will (provisions for a charity hospital in New Orleans)Clothing: made mostly from imported cloth – elegant clothing (from France) worn by wealthy
39 Success or FailureFactors contributing to success or failure of French colony of LouisianaColony under regulations of FranceColony affected by hurricanes, mosquitoes, heat, & humidityThe first colonists – a poor choice?Leaders of the colonyThose seeking to benefit colonyThose seeking profits for themselvesTrade restrictionsInadequate funding & suppliesClick here to return to Main Menu.