THEME The theme is the life lesson of the story or the author’s message. When you think of theme, think… THE MESSAGE
THEME The theme is not a word, it is a sentence. EXAMPLES: Money can’t buy happiness. Don’t judge people based on the surface.
THEME With the exception of fables, the author will not tell readers what the theme or lesson of the story is. Themes are not explicit (clearly stated) Themes are implied (suggested but not directly expressed)
THEME Find the “BIG IDEA” Think beyond the small world elements of the story to extract the big world lesson of the theme
THEME LET’S PRACTICE: Tim hated his old baseball glove. He wanted to play with a new glove, but he didn’t have any money, so he decided to steal it. But when Tim got caught stealing the glove, his parents said he couldn’t play baseball all summer. DON’T WRITE
CHARACTERS You can learn a lot about a character in a story through direct and indirect characterization.
DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION Narrator explicitly describes a character. EXAMPLE: Tom struggled in school but tried hard. Pam was lazy but learned quickly.
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION Character traits are revealed through actions. They are implicit (not clearly stated; implied). EXAMPLE: Jamie left the pizza crust on her floor. Michael helped old Ms. Jones with her bags.
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION Characters can reveal their personality through: Actions Thoughts Dialogue, speech Appearance Effect on others characters; how other characters treat them
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION EXAMPLE: Mr. Morton was teaching the students about characterizations. Sergio let out a big yawn. “Indirect Characterizations are implied, not explicitly stated,” said Mr. Morton. Sergio is bored or tired. Ex: He yawned, which shows he’s tired.
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION EXAMPLE: After class, Sofia asked Dana a question, “I’m sorry, Dana, but my little brother was sick and my parents made me stay home and watch him yesterday. Can I see your reading notes?” Dana huffed and rolled her eyes. She replied to Sofia, “Uh, I don’t know where they are right now.” Dana is rude, uncaring, and unhelpful. Ex: Sofia asks Dana for something reasonable. Rather than politely declining, Dana does a bunch of rude things.
SETTING The setting includes the moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place and helps start the main backdrop and mood for a story. Setting affects the story with mood, meaning, and thematic connotation
SETTING Place might include such things as a city, state, country, castle, cottage, playground, ship, mountain, or stadium. Time might include clues that let us know it is the afternoon, evening, the future, colonial times, or clock time. Environment might include details that describe the weather, the noise level, or darkness.
EXIT SLIP DIRECTIONS: Take out a half-sheet of paper and write your name, date and period on the top right corner. Answer the 3 questions below in complete sentences. Submit your answers before you leave the classroom. 1. Describe the setting in Hero – from beginning to the end? 2. How does the setting affect the conflict in the story? Give examples from Hero. 3. How does light and color impact the mood of the setting?
CONFLICT Conflict is essential to plot. Without conflict there is no plot. It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. Within a short story there may be only one central struggle, or there may be one dominant struggle with many minor ones.
CONFLICT There are two types of conflict: 1) External - A struggle with a force outside one's self. 2) Internal - A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc.
CONFLICT There are four kinds of conflict: 1) Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals. 2) Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her.
3) Man vs. Society (social) - The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people. 4) Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) - The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc. (Continued) CONFLICT