Presentation on theme: "Where did all the behaviour problems go? Social, Emotional and Mental Health difficulties in the new Code of Practice Colette Shearer, Specialist Senior."— Presentation transcript:
Where did all the behaviour problems go? Social, Emotional and Mental Health difficulties in the new Code of Practice Colette Shearer, Specialist Senior Educational Psychologist Dr Jennifer Gilling, Senior Practitioner Educational Psychologist
The Iceberg Model
Aims To have a better understanding of: – Emotional wellbeing and the role schools play in its promotion – Where behaviour fits in the new Code of Practice – A psychological model used to explore ‘behaviour’ To have an opportunity to discuss concerns in relation to the issues outlined above.
Creating an inclusive ethos to support emotional needs As an inclusive society we all have a responsibility to encourage the emotional wellbeing of all children. We know that the ability to learn is adversely affected by emotional and psychological difficulties. There will always be children and young people in our schools facing life challenges that detract from their ability to engage with learning. Children learn better and are happier in school if their emotional needs are met.
What is emotional wellbeing? “…the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions.” (Salovey and Mayer 1990) Good social and emotional skills help young people to make friendships, work in teams, solve problems, deal with conflict, manage strong feelings, to be calmer and optimistic, recover from setbacks, compete fairly, respect others' rights and value diversity.
The emotional development of children Emotional growth is a process of developing feelings and learning how to handle them appropriately. Sadness, fear, anger, and happiness are our most common feelings. Emotional development and behaviour are based on the child's developmental stage and temperament.
Emotional Development Piaget Rationality Kohlberg Moral Development Erikson Identity
Emotional Development - Infancy Warm, attentive care, especially during the first year of life, helps babies to gain a sense that the world is a safe and welcoming place. That sense of security can be a good base for the development of other healthy emotional responses.
Emotional Development – Toddler Stage Children gain a sense of self, separate from their parents and siblings. Can be frequent frustrations, may be prone to temper tantrums or other difficult behaviours. Toddlers begin to show the first signs of compassion. Most are likely to have some understanding of emotional language such as happy and sad. Some may not have the language skills to describe their feelings at all.
Emotional Development - Preschool Between the ages of 2 and 5, children gradually learn how to manage their feelings. For example, a toddler may get upset and have a tantrum if a toy is taken away. As the child matures emotionally, he or she will learn to express anger in other ways. Young children also begin to develop moral emotions and to feel ashamed or guilty when they do something wrong. When bad things happen, young children may feel responsible for no logical reason. Children do not always know the words to explain how they feel.
Emotional Development – School Age Become more able to exert self-control and be responsible and cooperative. Programmes focus on developing children’s knowledge, understanding and skills in four key social and emotional aspects of learning: empathy, self-awareness, social skills and motivation. Children’s vocabulary is extended from happy and sad to include understanding of words like excited, worried, scared, angry and frightened. Of course many children will come into school with an understanding of this vocabulary but others may not.
Emotional development – 6 to 11 yrs As children move into Years 1 and 2 their vocabulary may extend to nervous/worried comfortable/uncomfortable They would also be introduced to concepts such as solve a problem, set a goal, calm down, welcome and belong. By the time children have reached Years 5 and 6 their social and emotional vocabulary should have widened further: teamwork, motivation, enthusiasm, bravery, respect, anticipation, excitement, nervous, nervousness, worried, anxiety, anxious, petrified, frightened, terrified.
Emotional development - Teens The teen years can be challenging with additional stresses put on adolescents that they may not have encountered in the past. Social and school responsibilities and a natural desire to make their own decisions without the input of their parents, can cause distress as well as opportunities for growth.
Emotional development - Teens All young people will experience strong feelings in response to a range of everyday situations (falling out with peers, feeling angry at perceived injustice, feeling jealous of what others have or can do, etc.) and the majority of them will find ways of managing and dealing with these strong feelings in ways that are not detrimental to themselves or other people. Some young people find it harder than others to manage their emotions which can result in aggressive and anti-social behaviour or in withdrawal and self-harming behaviour.
Biological Theory Changes in the Brain Prefrontal Cortex – impulse control Cerebellum - movement Pineal Gland - melatonin Right Ventral Striatum –risk
Biological Theory Hormones Testosterone/Oestrogen – drive body changes in adolescence THP – (allopregnanolone) Cortisol
Code of Practice – Four broad areas of need Communication and interaction Cognition and learning Sensory and physical needs Social, emotional and mental health difficulties
Social, emotional and mental health needs in detail Manifested in a range of ways: – Withdrawal or isolation – Challenging or disruptive behaviour Does not mean that the child has SEN – may be a short term need Schools should have clear processes to support young people
BESD were reclassified as - “I’m having problems because... I can’t explain” I don’t understand” I’ve got problems at home” I’ve got a mental health problem” Communication & Interaction Cognition & Learning Social problems: try CAF Mental or emotional health 19
Case Study Max is in Year 8 He has started refusing to go to his lessons He started by hanging about in corridors and avoiding staff When challenged, now he is verbally aggressive and rude to staff Staff say he purposefully breaks the rules and doesn’t take responsibility for his actions.
Case study ENVIRONMENTAL / SOCIAL Parental separation Name calling at school Poor presentation Insensitive handling in school Teacher reinforces through attention Domestic violence BIOLOGICAL Puberty Hormonal changes ADHD BUT ALSO: Cares for younger sibling Good at art and PE Good relationship with Mrs Brown, LSA Usually polite Caring towards peers COGNITIVE / LEARNING Poor concentration Low literacy levels Low verbal abilities EMOTIONAL Anxiety Rationality Motivation BEHAVIOURAL Refusing to go to lessons Disruptive behaviours Verbal aggression Rude Literacy intervention Speech and language Praise for appropriate behaviours
Risk and resilience factors Risk factors Can relate to the child, their family, their school or their community Cumulative effect Resilience factors Self esteem & self-efficacy, adaptation, social problem solving Difficult events can disrupt the balance between risk and protective factors: – Loss or separation – Life changes – Traumatic events Schools are well placed to notice these changes and intervene early
Mental health and behaviour in schools In order to help their pupils succeed, schools have a role to play in supporting them to be resilient and mentally healthy Where severe problems occur schools should expect the child to get support elsewhere as well Schools should ensure that pupils and their families participate as fully as possible in decisions There are things that schools can do to intervene early for all their pupils, for those showing early signs or for families exposed to several risk factors
SEN Support in Schools Assess ReviewPlan Do
Universal Effective whole school frameworks for promoting emotional well- being and mental health Quality first teaching of social and emotional skills to all children through SEAL programme Targeted Skills-focused interventions Small group SEAL for children who need help to develop social and emotional skills SEAL-related work with families Specialist Therapeutic interventions Individual and small group Complementary to SEAL Graduated Response
Partnership Work Emotional well being is everybody’s business Partnership working is a must Multi- modal approaches are often the most effective