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Introduction to Psychology Studying the mind of the individual.

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1 Introduction to Psychology Studying the mind of the individual

2 Psychological Test A woman, while at the funeral of her own mother, met a guy whom she did not know. She thought this guy was amazing. She believed him to be her dream, she fell in love with him right there but did not ask for his number, and no matter how hard she tried, she could not find him. A few days later, she killed her sister.

3 Are you a psychopath? What is her motive in killing her sister? Answer: She was hoping that the guy would appear at the funeral again. This test was used by an American Psychologist to test if one has the same mentality as a killer. Serial killers who have taken the test, all answered the question correctly. IF you answered incorrectly – GOOD!! IF you answered correctly – Let me know so I can ask you to be removed from my class or I’ll just be extra nice to you from now on!!!

4 What does Psychology Focus on? Instead of studying how humans function in cultures or societies, psychologists focus on the individual, and the personal and unique experiences that influence how the individual feels, acts and thinks

5 Branches of Psychology Psycho-analysis: Unconscious Minds Behavioural: We can only study what we can observe Structuralism: Asks people to examaine their thoughts Cognitive: Studies mental processes (i.e. memory, intelligence tests) Biological/Functionalism: Studies the development of children and the differences of the genders Social/ Humanistic/ Cultural: Focuses on unique qualities of human beings

6 Branch of PsychologyTopics of Study in the Psychology Unit EXPERIMENTAL/STRU CTURALISM The Bystander Effect CLINICAL Mental Illness BEHAVIOURAL Developmental Theories - how people develop throughout their lives COGNITIVE Learning and Memory, Autism PSYCHO-ANALYTIC How events in our lives impact our personality (especially in childhood), conscious and subconscious mind – nature vs. nurture BIOLOGICAL Nature vs. Nurture, Serial Killers, How drugs effect your brain,

7 What is Psychology? study of how and why humans act as they do focuses on the individual, (not groups) and the personal and unique experiences that influence how/why the individual acts, behaves and thinks the way they do

8 History of Psychology Ancient Native Tribes – those who behaved strongly were possessed by evil spirits. Dreams were a sign of a person’s deepest wishes. Ancient Greeks- abnormal behaviour caused by disease, a blow to the head, or chemical imbalances. Identified witches and warlocks. Phrenology – late 1700s, read personalities by feeling the bumps on people’s heads. Freud – 1800s, Psychoanalysis, examine memories of past experiences to find the origins of their problems 20 th Century - Behaviourism

9 Uses of Psychology To study our work habits in order to improve our job efficiency To study our buying patterns to make us better consumers Study how we perceive things in order to find out why we make mistakes

10 Psychology: A Human Process Cognitive Process: Interpreting and manipulating mental ideas and images to obtain information, to reason, and to solve problems

11 Encounter Problem Encode or Store Information Infer possible relationships Map Information Apply possible responses Does Answer Work? Respond

12 Cognitive Process Unique to Humans: sets us apart from other species (problem solving, abstract thinking, inductive and deductive reasoning)

13 Deductive Reasoning Applying general to assumptions to specific cases All humans have brains. Sonia is human, therefore Sonia has a brain. More accurate/precise. Based on facts.

14 Inductive Reasoning Collecting specific information to form a general assumption Most men enjoy sports. I am a man. I enjoy sports. Based on assumptions/opinions (i.e. Sam is rude. Sam is American. All Americans must be rude.)

15 Dot Test Connect the 9 dots, using four straight lines, without lifting your pencil from the paper.... Show all your attempts at solving the problem to see your brain work!!

16 Example of human behaviour and response to a situation: The Case of Kitty Genovese Broad Example of Psychology:

17 The Case of Kitty Genovese The Case of Kitty Genovese - Kitty was murdered on the street outside her New York City apartment after loud shouting was heard - 38 people witnessed the murder but did nothing to stop it Psychologists have long been interested in our unwillingness to get involved in uncomfortable situations even if someone’s personal safety is at risk

18 People have a tendency see themselves as bystanders in such situations rather than as ACTORS ACTORS are people who become active participants in a situation The Bystander Effect - Kitty Genovese The Bystander Effect - Kitty Genovese

19 When Bystanders Join In 4 years after Genovese was murdered, two psychologists, John Darley and Bibb Latane, wanted to identify the factors that influence bystanders’ decisions to get involved in public situations

20 Conclusions?  Whether or not we intervene in a situation depends on the cues that we get from the participants and other bystanders Relation to Genovese case?  It suggests that if one bystander had joined in to try to help her, others might well have come forward too When Bystanders Join In

21 Look at these examples: wLcIuw&feature=related wLcIuw&feature=related WZdHzaA WZdHzaA 3Scfk&feature=related 3Scfk&feature=related mTu-CE&feature=relmfu mTu-CE&feature=relmfu What Would You Do? Bystander Effect:

22 Bystander Effect Bystander – person who is not an active participant in a situation – they are standing by and witnessing

23 What do we know about the bystander effect? Diffusion of Responsibility = the more people in the group, the less likely individuals are to act b/c they think that the responsibility rests with all other bystanders as opposed to when they are the only ones witnessing the situation People will act differently in various situations…

24 Factors that Cause People to Act Morals – parents taught you the right thing to do – i.e. damaging someone’s property Damage done in their community Fear – don’t want to get in trouble for not helping Personal – if you were in that situation, you would want help Stereotypes – racial profiling, gender, age Pressure from others - conformity

25 Factors that Cause People NOT to Act Fear – personal safety, mistake (hurting someone…, judgment) “Not my business” – i.e. conflict in a family Lack information on the situation Don’t know people involved Assume someone else will do it – diffusion of responsibility Inconvenient – busy, don’t want to get involved, don’t have time…

26 Extreme Example of Bystander Effect The Holocaust – Memories of the Camp (15:00-17:30)

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