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Kacy Peckenpaugh, PhD Weber State University 2014 CERCLL Conference Tucson, AZ.

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Presentation on theme: "Kacy Peckenpaugh, PhD Weber State University 2014 CERCLL Conference Tucson, AZ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kacy Peckenpaugh, PhD Weber State University 2014 CERCLL Conference Tucson, AZ

2 Developing intercultural competence is a process Deardorff, 2006 “And so it is also true of study abroad experiences; it is not the activity of leaving one’s homeland that creates learning, but the subsequent analysis of that activity where the real learning begins” Montrose, 2002, p. 6-7

3 Becoming Transcultural: Maximizing Study Abroad 3-credit General Education Course 25-30 students mostly pre-study abroad students also post-study abroad students Content culture, communication, value orientations, non/verbal communication, history, identity, language, pop culture, conflict, tourism, business, etc. Cultural Simulations Bargna/ 5-tricks Rocket Coursework Weekly in-class and bi-weekly online discussions 4 critical reflection essays midterm, exam

4 Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (Bennett, 1986) Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb, 1984) Transformative Learning Theory (Mezirow, 2000)

5 Theoretical model that underpins the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI; Hammer, Bennett, & Wiseman, 2003) Ethnocentric worldview defense – denial – minimization “ways of avoiding cultural difference, either by denying its existence, by raising defense against it, or by minimizing its importance” (p. 426) Ethnorelative worldview acceptance – adaptation – integration “ways of seeing cultural difference, either by accepting its importance, by adapting perspective to take it into account, or by integrating the whole concept into a definition of identity” (p. 426)

6 Widely used in study abroad literature (Mezirow & Associates, 2000; Montrose, 2002; Dupuy, 2006; Pusch & Merrill, 2008) “process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience” (p. 138) concrete experience  observation & reflection  form new knowledge or concepts  test out new knowledge or concept in a new situation forming new knowledge or concepts may be problematic if students have an ethnocentric point of view

7 Process of transforming “taken-for-granted frames of reference... to make them more inclusive, discriminating, open, emotionally capable of change, and reflective” frame of reference habit of mind set of assumptions – broad, generalized, orienting predispositions that act as a filter for interpreting the meaning of experience  expressed as a point of view premise reflection requires learners to evaluate and explore long-standing, culturally constructed attitudes, values, and beliefs in the face of new and unfamiliar experiences (Mezirow, 1991)

8 An American student in Germany Experience : American student wants to invite her German suitemate to dinner, but the German’s door is closed indicating, to the American, that her German roommate does not want to be interrupted Observation and reflection: this reoccurs  why is the door closed? New Knowledge “Danger:” she is closed off, uninviting, and rude (ethnocentric) Transformative Learning  premise reflection to shift frame of reference Germans have different “cultural rules” about doors being open/closed (ethnorelative) Additional step – “how” or “why” Test out new knowledge Professor’s office hour danger: reconfirm ethnocentric view TLT: add to ethnorelative inquiry

9 How does intercultural competence develop in post-study abroad students over the span of a semester-long course focused on the development of intercultural communication skills through critical reflection? 2 post-study abroad students quantitative measures CCAI scores decreased for emotional resilience qualitative measures students shifted their frames of reference over the course of the semester

10 Junior, Art History major, 5-week summer program in Orvieto, Italy; 5-week summer program in London, England; 2-week high school exchange in France CCAI: emotional resilience 73  66, personal autonomy 65  68 Experience “It was certainly just that, an Italian town that gave me the biggest culture shock of my life!... I enjoyed the Italian siesta and lenient work hours even if it had originally seemed strange compared to my Western ‘time is money’ mentality! I, an organically strict which chocolate mocha drinker, even began to look forward to the rigorous Italian rule of cappuccino at breakfast and espresso after lunch and dinner! I feel like I came home from my trip as a little bit of an Italian myself. Now when I see a stray cat on the side of the road my first instinct is to try and pet it regardless of it looks mean or dirty.” Online Discussion 8/30/2011

11 Fourth Critical Reflection Paper (12/1/2011) (Premise) Reflection: “The authors argue that not only does culture deeply affect one’s work ethic, but also the lens with which one judges other societies.” Uses new knowledge to test information in a new setting: independent interviews with her uncle and a Mexican-American friend Revisits original experience to reexamine initial interpretation

12 “I personally experienced the fallout from not remaining open to the myriad of existing cultural work-related values.... I was originally shocked by the Italian store hours. A majority of the Italian “negozi” closed during the mid-day afternoon for a “siesta.” The “siesta,” the Spanish word for nap, is a two hour-long break in which Italian workers and students go to lunch and take a nap to ward off the after meal drowsiness. In utter contrast to my American standards of appropriate store hours, which include 24 hour Walgreens, Targets, Walmarts, CVS’, and even restaurants and banks, the Italian siestas bewildered me beyond belief! Coming from a country home even to a “city that never sleeps” (NYC), the Italian siesta seemed at first to be a product of laziness and unreliability. My closed minded attitude, which prized the American value of living to work as the proper and correct means of business, lead to unjust prejudice and discrimination of Italian culture and society. However, after learning more about the true valued work-ethic of Italian culture, which prides itself on allowing for a life outside of employment for workers, I realized that my misconstrued signs of laziness was in actuality a form of self- respect for workers.... In short, Italians simply worked to live, while Americans live to work. Neither being wrong.”

13 Note: it appears that Liz was probably already on the path to shifting her frame of reference while abroad, but needed a framework to interpret and describe her experience Siesta: changed her “bewilder[ment]” and her initial judgment that Italians were “lazy”  “self-respect for workers” by applying the concept that culture affects work ethic

14 Junior, majoring in Accounting, 8-week summer program to Bangalore, India CCAI: emotional resilience 94  82; personal autonomy 70  71 Experience: in Indian classroom, observing “quick-fix” approach (Premise) Reflection 1. uses theory of value dimension (new knowledge) to explain ethnocentric worldview “Geert Hofstede’s theory of value dimensions helps individuals understand their culture by comparing it to other cultures on the basis of power distance, masculinity, uncertain avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation. After applying Hofstede’s theory to my stay in Bangalore, India, I immediately noticed the significant power that exists there. Individuals who wield their power over others in every means possible. The police hassled me several times for bribes, getting tourist information from the government required a bribe, and even the school teachers there required complete blind obedience from their students. Students were really discouraged from asking their teachers questions or commenting on the lecture.” First Reflection Paper, 9/19/2011

15 (Premise) Reflection 1. uses theory of value orientation (new knowledge) to explain ethnocentric worldview Another approach to comparing cultures is to focus on the society’s values instead of their ideology. Kluckhon and Strodtbeck’s value orientation compares cultures by asking questions regarding human nature, preferred personality, time orientation, and the relationships among humans and nature. I noticed the India culture to have present- minded time orientations. The Indian people generally use a cheap and temporary quick fix mentality for everything. For example, if a window breaks they tape the glass together, or if the sidewalk cement is breaking apart they simply pour more cement on top of the cracks. This time value orientation differs from the American culture’s future-oriented approach where everything that breaks is thrown away and replaced with something new. First Critical Response Paper, 9/19/2011

16 (Premise) Reflection 2. final exam: critically reexamines original interpretation by looking at how his cultured frame of reference brought about his analysis I had never previously thought about how culture was developed, and why cultural differences exist.... Martin and Nakayama [2011] discuss the connection between perception and culture in their book. They define perception as “… ways of looking at the world,” and describe culture as, “… sort of a lens through which we view the world.”... While I was in India I immediately recognized the difference in time orientation between Americans and Indians. Americans typically have a future-oriented time orientation, while Indians have a present-minded time orientation. They use the “quick-fix” approach for everything. I once witnessed a local student there tape a pencil together that was broken in half. The sidewalks there are uneven and bumpy, since the construction crew simply pours cement on top of the deteriorating sidewalks, instead of gutting it and building a new one. I was unable to determine why this difference in orientation existed prior to taking your class. Learning about Geert Hoftsede’s theory of value dimensions in your class has allowed me to better understand why these differences in values occur between cultures.... Perhaps the Indian people prefer a quick fix solution when it comes to their belongings because they don’t measure their success in life through the products they acquire? Final Exam, 12/2/2011

17 (Premise) Reflection 2. final exam: critically reexamines original interpretation by looking at how his cultured frame of reference brought about his analysis “Taking German 150b this semester has helped me digest my previous experiences while traveling abroad. Throughout the semester I was able to associate what I was learning in class with my attempts at intercultural communication in India. In one paper I discussed the differences between American and Indian universities with emphasis on the power distances. Learning about power distance helped me understand why the teachers in Bangalore behaved the way they did. They did not ignore any questions or comments we had during class because they did not care about my opinions as I originally thought, but rather because they had a bigger distance of power between students and teachers.” Final Exam, 12/2/2011

18 Testing in new environment reflection on previous experience reflection on new experiences “Being actively aware of culture, and being able to analyze intercultural communication has changed my perception of normally regular activities. My parents and I went to Temple for my grandfather’s yahrzeit, which in Yiddish means anniversary of death, over thanksgiving break. I could not help but recognize the religious culture associated temple. For example everyone was praying in Hebrew, and all the guys wearing kippahs (small hats). My brother brought his wife with him to Temple, who has never been to a synagogue before. I could tell that she was exercising culture shock, but everyone else was oblivious to this.” Final Exam 12/2/2011

19 Liz and Patrick used coursework in intercultural communication as a forum to reflect on experiences abroad to transform their experiences, ultimately shifting their frames of reference to ethnorelative points of view Decreases in CCAI sub score of emotional resilience Adler (1981) reentry slightly more difficult than initial entry transition Limitations discussion limited to two students volunteer bias Future studies larger scale with data from IDI to place student development follow students pre-, during, and post-study abroad


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