Presentation on theme: "HSP3U Chapter 1 Quiz Cultural & Linguistic Anthropology February 17 th, 2015."— Presentation transcript:
HSP3U Chapter 1 Quiz Cultural & Linguistic Anthropology February 17 th, 2015
C HAPTER 1 Q UIZ Sit one every other desk NO electronics/phones If you have a question, please raise your hand Read all questions carefully Good Luck!
F INISH C ULTURAL A NTHROPOLOGY Chart Paper Presentations Cultural Materialism Feminist Anthropology Post Modernism
B IAS What is Bias??? A particular tendency, trend, inclination, feeling, or opinion, especially one that is preconceived or unreasoned Ex. Illegal bias against older job applicants, the magazine’s bias toward art rather than photography, your strong bias in favour of an idea Unreasonably hostile feelings or opinions about a social group prejudice: accusations of racial bias (Dictionary.com)
L INGUISTIC A NTHROPOLOGY Linguistic anthropologists study human ___________ and how language affects and expresses _________ Language is such a huge part of how we all ___________ to each other. Remember, language can be demonstrated many ways, physically (sign language), verbally and ________ There are three areas: Historical linguistics Structural linguistics Sociolinguistics
H ISTORICAL L INGUISTICS Historical linguistic anthropologists compare the __________ and __________ of language structures so they can understand how __________ are related and how people __________ in the past This is an important field for _________ with no written languages Example: Edward Sapir – studied Aboriginal peoples of Canada and recorded their languages, often with the last living speaker Through analysis and historical reconstruction, he was able to trace the languages of Canada’s Aboriginal populations and set the foundation for understanding of the five major culture areas of Canada
S TRUCTURAL L INGUISTICS Structural linguistics is the study of how _______ are put together to make _________ Noam Chomsky is known as the _______ of modern structural linguistics He’s best known for developing the theory of universal _________ – that all human children are born with _________, universal rules for grammar and that they apply these rules as they learn their mother tongue According to Chomsky, the reason children so _______ master language is that they have innate ___________ of certain principles that guide them Our brains have a predisposition for the structure of language
C ONTRADICTING V IEW Evolutionary biologists __________ They claim that language is ______ an instinct encoded on the brain, but is a ________ skill For Chomsky’s theory to be true, all the languages must share some structural ____________ In fact, linguists have shown that the 5000 PLUS languages of the world do share rules and principles
S AME D IALECT We often _______ people on whether or not they use proper __________ However, if two people are _________ the same dialect (regional speech problem) and understand each other, then they are using linguistically good __________ Example: Henry: I ain’t got no shoes Pearl: I ain’t got none either The two speakers understand each other perfectly, even though the sentences don’t meet our expectations of standard English
S OCIOLINGUISTICS Sociolinguistics is the study of how people use language within their _______ to express _______ and ________ Example: You would probably use language differently when talking to a teacher in a classroom than with your friends on the weekend A study conducted in 1964 (Brown & Ford), showed that how people ________ each other can show the ___________ between them Example: Peers tend to address each other by their ______ names, while people who use a title and ______ name to address each other often have a business relationship
S OCIOLINGUISTICS C ONT ’ D If one person uses a title and last name, while the other uses a first name – there is a difference in ________ (Example: students and teachers) In some cases, people address each other by their last names with no title, particularly in a _______ context (some anthropologists suggest that this is a middle ground, indicating ________but not intimacy) Any other examples you can think of??
N OT JUST S POKEN L ANGUAGE Sociolinguists study not only spoken language, but also _______ language in different ________ contexts Examples: Many First Nation cultures, it is rude for students to look a teacher in the eye In Japan, showing your teeth is a sign of social dominance and is considered very rude - North Americans who tend to smile openly are often seen as aggressive or bullying in Japan Many large corporations ________ linguistic anthropologists to train their employees to work effectively in other ________ so that they are not misunderstood
R EFLECT & R ESPOND Complete the questions #’s 1-4 on pg. 33