学林出版社 第二册 普通高等教育 “ 十一 · 五 ” 规划教材 Beyond Oxford Practical college English Course Beyond Oxford Practical college English Course
学林出版社 2 BackNext Taboos Taboos 禁忌 Euphemisms Euphemisms 委婉语 Unit 1 Two Table of Contents Between Cultures 文化差异
学林出版社 3 Focus1 content BackNext S: Cultural differences S: Cultural differences L: A can of worms: taboos in America L: A can of worms: taboos in America L: A rude parrot L: A rude parrot S: A test of cultural IQ S: A test of cultural IQ R: American management R: American management W: Writing an email W: Writing an email Taboos 禁忌 Focus R: Proverbs R: Proverbs
学林出版社 4 focus1starter BackNext 1. Starter — Cultural differences Look at the pictures. Think about the following question. When a Chinese person talks with an American friend of the opposite sex, is it impolite to look in the other’s eyes? _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ No. Eye contact is regarded as polite in Western culture, though somewhat rude in Chinese culture.
学林出版社 5 2. A can of worms: taboos in America Listen to a dialogue about communication taboos in America and do the exercises. A. Answer the following questions. Next Focus 1. 2 Back 1. Which of the following does the professor mention as communication taboos in America? ( ) A. Greeting people with a kiss. B. Asking a woman how old she is. C. Picking your nose in public. D. Asking about another person’s salary. E. Asking about someone’s weight. F. Stepping on landmines. 2. Does the professor mention how to figure out a woman’s age? __________________________________________________ B E Yes, he does. You take ten years away from the age she looks.
学林出版社 6 BackNext Focus 1 2 B.The words and phrases in the box are taken from the professor’s talk. Match them with their meanings. sensitive watch your step it’s safe to say landmine sensible a can of worms 1. a situation which causes a lot of trouble for you when you start to deal with it _______________ 2.a bomb hidden in the ground that will explode if someone steps on it ____________ 3. be careful ___________________ 4. able to judge something well __________ 5. it’s definitely true _____________ 6. easily hurt or upset __________ watch your step a can of worms landmine sensible it’s safe to say sensitive 2. A can of worms: taboos in America
学林出版社 7 BackNext Focus 1 2 Su Hui: Professor, do you know anything about American taboos? Professor: Age. Yes, age is a very sensitive subject to many Americans, especially to women over the age of thirty. Su Hui: How would a woman respond if I asked her, “How old are you exactly?” Professor: That’s the last thing they want to be asked. It may result in replies like “How old do you think I am?” Su Hui: If I’m dying to know someone’s age? To be continued 2. A can of worms: taboos in America
学林出版社 8 BackNext Focus 1 2 Professor:You take ten years off the age they look. I’m sure you’ll get a big smile from that person, who will say: “Well, I’m already 38. Can you believe it?” Su Hui:What else do Americans mind? Professor:Weight. You’d better not ask how much they weigh, even if they are thin. Su Hui:But what if I have to bring up this subject? Professor:It’s always safe to say: “Hey, you look great. Very healthy.” Never say someone is fat. Su Hui:Well, those Americans! It’s difficult to avoid landmines. Professor:So, be sensible, watch your step and try not to open a can of worms. 2. A can of worms: taboos in America
学林出版社 9 BackNext Focus 1 2 Notes 1. Yes, age is a very sensitive subject to many Americans, especially to women over the age of thirty. 是的，对于许多美国人，尤其是三十岁以上 的女人来说，年龄是个非常敏感的话题。 *sensitive a. 敏感的 e.g. Laura’s sensitive about her weight. *subject n. 话题，主题；对象 e.g. This is a book on the subject of love. *especially ad. 尤其，特别 e.g. I’ve never liked long walks, especially in winter. 2. How would a woman respond if I asked her, “How old are you exactly?” 如果我问一位女士： “ 请问你的真实年龄是 …… ？ ” 她会怎样回答呢？ *exactly ad. 精确地，准确地，确切地 e.g. A TV replay showed exactly what had happened. 2. A can of worms: taboos in America
学林出版社 10 BackNext Focus 1 2 3. It may result in replies like “How old do you think I am?” 她们可能会 反问： “ 你认为我有多大了？ ” result in 导致 e.g. A diet with no exercise is bad for the health, because it will result in the loss of both fat and muscle tissue. 4. If I’m dying to know someone’s age? 如果我就是想知道某人的年龄呢？ be dying to do sth. 表示 “ 等不及，急切，迫不及待做某事 ” 。 e.g. We’re dying to get started. 5. So, be sensible, watch your step and try not to open a can of worms. 所 以啊，头脑要清醒些，说话谨慎点，不要去触及那些忌讳的话题。 ☆ sensible a. 明智的 e.g. It’s sensible to keep a note of your passport number. a can of worms 棘手之事 e.g. The court case has opened up a real can of worms. 2. A can of worms: taboos in America
学林出版社 11 3. A rude parrot Listen to a story. Complete each of the statements with its ending from the box. BackNext Focus 1 3 a) was about to ask what had caused such a change in its behavior. b)clean up the bird’s vocabulary. c)was fed up with it. d)yelled at it. e)in a moment of desperation. f)was afraid that the bird might have frozen to death.
学林出版社 12 3. A rude parrot BackNext Focus 1 3 ( ) 1. Almost every word the bird said was rude, so Jimmy worked hard to try to… ( ) 2. The bird said dirtier words because Jimmy… ( ) 3. Failing to change the bird’s vocabulary, Jimmy shouted at it because he… ( ) 4. The bird asked a silly question when Jimmy… ( ) 5. Jimmy saw no hope of changing the bird’s rude vocabulary and put it into the freezer… ( ) 6. When he didn’t hear a sound for half a minute, Jimmy opened the freezer door because he… b d c a e f
学林出版社 13 3. A rude parrot BackNext Focus 1 3 A Rude Parrot Jimmy received a parrot for his birthday. The parrot was fully grown, with a bad attitude and worse vocabulary. Jimmy tried hard to change the bird’s attitude by often saying polite words, playing soft music … anything he could think of to clean up the bird’s vocabulary. Nothing worked. Fed up with the bird, Jimmy yelled at it, and the bird got worse. He shook the bird and the bird got angrier and ruder. Finally, Jimmy put it in the freezer. For a few moments he heard the bird kicking and screaming. Then suddenly there was quiet. Not a sound for half a minute. Fearing that he might have hurt the bird, Jimmy quickly opened the freezer door. The parrot calmly stepped out onto Jimmy’s arm and said, “I believe I may have offended you with my rude language and behavior. I’m sincerely regretful for my bad manners and I will try at once to correct my rude behavior.” Jimmy was surprised at the change in the bird’s attitude and was about to ask what had changed him, when the parrot continued, “May I ask what the chicken did?”
学林出版社 14 3. A rude parrot BackNext Focus 1 3 Notes 1. The parrot was fully grown, with a bad attitude and worse vocabulary. 这是一只成年鹦鹉，态度非常恶劣，语言更是粗俗。 *attitude n. 态度；看法 e.g. Pete’s attitude towards women really scares me. 2....anything he could think of to clean up the bird’s vocabulary. …… 所有 他能想到的使鹦鹉不再说脏话的办法他都试过了。 clean up 清除；打扫干净 e.g. The mayor is determined to clean up the city. 3. Fed up with the bird, Jimmy yelled at it, and the bird got worse. 最后， 他忍无可忍，对着鹦鹉吼了起来，而鹦鹉却变得更加粗鲁。 be fed up (with) （对 …… ）受够了 e.g. Mary told me straight out that she was fed up and wanted to leave.
学林出版社 15 3. A rude parrot BackNext Focus 1 3 4. For a few moments he heard the bird kicking and screaming. 他听到鹦 鹉在里面又叫又踢了一会儿。 *scream vi. （因伤痛、害怕、激动等）尖叫，发出尖叫声 e.g. She screamed when she saw the robber. 5. The parrot calmly stepped out onto Jimmy’s arm and said, “I believe I may have offended you with my rude language and behavior. I’m sincerely regretful for my bad manners and I will try at once to correct my rude behavior.” 鹦鹉平静地走到吉米的手臂上说： “ 我想，我说了无礼的话， 做了无礼的事而冒犯了您。对于我的无礼我诚心悔过，我会立刻努力改 正我的粗鲁行为。 ” *calmly ad. 平静地，冷静地，沉着地 e.g. He spoke calmly, but every sentence carried weight.
学林出版社 16 3. A rude parrot BackNext Focus 1 3 *offend vt. 触怒，得罪，冒犯 e.g. I didn’t mean to offend you. *regretful a. 后悔的；失望的，惋惜的，遗憾的 e.g. He is regretful for what he has done. 6. Jimmy was surprised at the change in the bird’s attitude and was about to ask what had changed him, when the parrot continued, “May I ask what the chicken did?” 鹦鹉态度的改变让吉米感到很吃惊。他正想问它怎么会 突然发生如此大的改变时，鹦鹉接着说： “ 我可以问一下那只鸡犯了什么 错吗？ ” be about to do sth. 刚要，即将做 …… e.g. As she was about to speak, I frowned her down.
学林出版社 17 1. You are hosting a meeting in Wisconsin for Chinese business people. Which is not a blunder? A. Holding the meeting in Room 444. B. Passing out green caps. D. Serving Wisconsin cheese at every meal. 4. A test of cultural IQ BackNext Focus 1 4 Discover your cultural IQ by deciding on the answers to the questions and giving reasons. Note The number four is regarded by many Chinese as inauspicious ( 不吉利的 ) (it sounds like die); a green hat means you are a cuckold ( 戴绿帽子的丈 夫 ); many Chinese are lactose-intolerant ( 无法忍受乳糖的 ). C. Staying up late entertaining your guests.
学林出版社 18 2. Spitting is extremely ugly in many places, and is actually against the law in which country? A.The UK. B. China. 3. A golden lotus in ancient China refers to. A. the most beautiful lotus C. the shoe a beauty wears 4. A test of cultural IQ BackNext Focus 1 4 Singapore also prohibits chewing gum, jay-walking ( 乱穿马 路 ), and smoking in public places. C. Singapore. Note B. a bound foot
学林出版社 19 Cross-cultural differences are often worth paying attention to. They include the dress code for appointments, the manner in which we introduce ourselves and greet others, expressing thanks to the hosts as well as proper etiquette for the presentation of gifts, and corporate management. Translation 美国管理 文化差异经常值得投以关注，包括约 会着装规范、自我介绍和打招呼的方式 、向主人表达感谢和送礼的礼节以及公 司管理文化。 5. American Management Focus 1 5 BackNext *code n. 准则 e.g. The new code of conduct lays down the ground rules for management-union relations. ☆ appointment n. 约会，预约 e.g. I’ve made an appointment for a facial next week. *express vt. 表达，表示 e.g. Learning to express oneself well is an important part of education. *presentation n. 赠送；授予；陈述， 介绍 e.g. One of the mayor’s jobs is the presentation of prizes.
学林出版社 20 BackNext The American and Japanese companies located in an industrial park decided to engage in a boat race. Both teams practiced hard and long to reach their peak performance. On the big day they felt ready. The Japanese won by a mile. Translation 位于工业园区的美国公司和日 本公司决定来个划船比赛。两支队 伍都很努力地训练，希望达到最佳 水平。比赛的日子来了，两队都做 好了准备。日本队以领先一英里的 距离获胜。 Focus 1 5 *industrial a. 工业的，产业的 e.g. The industrial exposition will be held in September. engage in 参加，参与 e.g. Is it wise to engage in active sports at your age? *performance n. 表现；表演 e.g. They criticized his performance as mayor. 5. American Management
学林出版社 21 BackNext The American team was discouraged by the loss. Morale sank low. Corporate management decided that the reason for the crushing defeat had to be found, so a consulting firm was hired to investigate the problem and recommend corrective actions. Translation 美国队失败了，感到很气馁。员 工的士气大跌。公司管理层决定找 出惨败的原因，于是聘请了一家咨 询公司调查问题，找出对策。 Focus 1 5 ☆ discourage vt. 使气馁 e.g. He is easily discouraged by difficulties and obstacles. 该词的反义词是 encourage ，两者 都有 discourage / encourage sb. to do sth. 的结构。 △ morale n. 士气，斗志 e.g. A sincere compliment boosts one’s morale. ☆ sink vi. 下沉 e.g. My feet sank into the mud. *defeat n. 失败，击败 e.g. He was depressed by his defeat. *consult vt. 咨询，向 …… 请教 e.g. You had better consult a doctor soon. consult with 表示 “ 与 …… 商议 ” 。 e.g. On the subject of funds, you may consult with Mr. White. ☆ investigate vt. 调查，研究 e.g. The police are investigating the murder. *recommend vt. 建议，推荐 e.g. Can you recommend a good dictionary to me? 你能为我推荐 一本好词典吗？ 常用结构： recommend that someone do something, recommend doing something 5. American Management
学林出版社 22 BackNext The consultant ’ s finding: The Japanese team had eight people rowing and one person directing; the American team had one person rowing and eight people directing. Translation 咨询专家的调查结果：日本队是八个 人划船，一个人控制方向；美国队是一个 人划船，八个人控制方向。 Focus 1 5 ☆ row v. 划船 e.g. He rowed across the lake. *direct vt. 指挥 e.g. He directed the building of the new bridge. 5. American Management
学林出版社 23 BackNext After a year of study and millions spent analyzing the problem, the consulting firm concluded that too many people were directing and not enough were rowing on the American team. So as race day neared again the following year, the American ’ s team management structure was completely reorganized. The new structure: four directing managers, four area directing managers, and a new performance review system for the person rowing the boat. The next year, the Japanese won by TWO miles! Translation 经过一年花费数以百万的调查研究 ，咨询公司得出结论：美国队中，控 制方向的人太多，划船的人太少。于 是，随着第二年划船比赛的临近，美 国队把队员管理结构作了彻底调整。 新的分工如下：四名方向主管，四名 区域主管，对划船的人有一个新的评 估体系。第二年，日本队以领先两英 里的距离获胜。 Focus 1 5 ☆ analyze vt. 分析，解析 e.g. Let’s analyze the problem and see what went wrong. *conclude vi. 作结论；结束 e.g. From his appearance we may safely conclude that he is a chain smoker. *review n. 评审；复习 e.g. The terms of the contract are under review. *system n. 体系，系统 e.g. Do you know how to log in to the system? 5. American Management
学林出版社 24 BackNext Insulted, the American company laid off the rower for poor performance and gave the managers a bonus for discovering the problem. Translation 美国公司感到很丢脸，于是辞退了 表现不好的划船手，而发给各位主管 一笔奖金，因为他们发现了问题。 Focus 1 5 ☆ insult vt. 侮辱，羞辱 e.g. She felt insulted by the low offer. ☆ bonus n. 奖金；额外津贴；特 别补助 e.g. The workers are expecting a large Christmas bonus. 5. American Management
学林出版社 25 ( ) 1. In the first race, the Japanese team was one mile behind the American team. ( ) 2. A consulting firm was hired to look into the reason for the defeat and to give advice. ( ) 3. The finding of the investigation was that there were more management people in the Japanese team than in the American team. ( ) 4. The next year, the American team was further behind the Japanese team in the boat race. ( ) 5. The American team discovered the problem but didn’t solve the problem in a correct way. BackNext Focus 1 5 A. Decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the passage. F T F T T 5. American Management
学林出版社 26 1. take note of ______________ 2. and ______________ 3. take part in ______________ 4. look into ______________ 5. fire ______________ BackNext Focus 1 5 B. Find in the text the phrases which mean the following. pay attention to as well as engage in investigate lay off 5. American Management
学林出版社 27 6. Writing an email BackNext Focus 1 6 There is a big scare in the hotel. Everyone thinks swine flu has come to the hotel because four or five guests were coughing in the lobby this afternoon. One guest heard them coughing and will not come out of her room. After an examination, the coughing guests were found to be in good health. They stayed out singing karaoke too late last night and smoked too many cigarettes. Write an email to the guest who thinks it is swine flu. Convince the guest it is safe to come out of her room.
学林出版社 28 To: Ms. Unusually Scared From: Fuller Gondola Date: Wednesday 11 May 2009 Subject: ______________ Dear Ms. Scared, ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ With warmest regards, Fuller Gondola BackNext Focus 1 6 In this very worrying time of global diseases, I can understand your fear of the swine flu, but please rest assured that the guests you heard coughing in the lobby have been checked by a doctor and found to be perfectly healthy. It turns out it is due to too much smoking, drinking, and singing karaoke last night that they had sore throats this morning. If you have any further concerns, please dial 100 and ask for me by name. I will be happy to calm your fears. Health concerns 6. Writing an email
学林出版社 29 7. Read me! BackNext Focus 1 7 Read the following proverbs. A cracked bell can never sound well. A little pot is soon hot. Diamond cuts diamond. Don’t put the cart before the horse. In for a penny, in for a pound. Silence is golden. Speak of the devil and he will appear. Nobody’s enemy but his own.
学林出版社 30 Focus 2 content BackNext L: Our little aunt L: Our little aunt L: Talking in a euphemistic way L: Talking in a euphemistic way S: Identifying euphemisms S: Identifying euphemisms R: Cross-cultural advertising gaffes R: Cross-cultural advertising gaffes W: Writing a request letter W: Writing a request letter R: Taboo food R: Taboo food S: Euphemisms S: Euphemisms Euphemisms 委婉语 Focus 原因状语从句与结果状语从句
学林出版社 31 Focus2 1 BackNext 1. Starter — Euphemisms Look at the pictures. Which picture shows the euphemism for: A B C D
学林出版社 32 1. lavatory _______________ 2. old person _________________ 3.firing ________________ 4.retire ________________________________ 5. pregnant _____________________ 6. losing weight ___________________ Focus2 1 BackNext 1. Starter — Euphemisms E F B washroom C senior citizen A downsizing D spend more time with his pension F slimming E expecting
学林出版社 33 Focus2 2 Back Next 2. Our little aunt Lesley is talking with her colleague Su Wei at Su Wei’s home. Listen to the dialogue and decide whether the statements agree with the information given in the dialogue. Write TRUE if the statement is true according to the dialogue FALSE if the statement is not true according to the dialogue StatementAnswer 1. The girl is a relative of Su Wei’s and a member of the family._______ 2. Little aunt in Chinese means a lady in a family whose sole job is to clean the floor. _______ 3. Lesley is confused by the title “little aunt”._______ 4. A girl who wants to be called “little aunt” instead of “baomu” is hoping that we will treat her with more respect and kindness. _______ 5. “Housekeeper” is a more polite word for “little aunt”.________ FALSE TRUE FALSE
学林出版社 34 Focus2 2 Back Next Lesley: Hey, Su Wei, who is this girl? I’ve never seen her before. Su Wei: Oh, she is a new member of our family, our little aunt (xiao ayi). Lesley: Little aunt? A new member? But you don’t look like relatives. I’m confused. Su Wei: Ha ha, little aunt means baomu in Chinese. Lesley: Baomu? Housekeeper? Su Wei: Well, sort of. Sometimes it means nanny or cleaning lady, too. Lesley: Why? A housekeeper is a housekeeper, and a nanny is a nanny. Why do you call her “little aunt”? So confusing. Su Wei: That’s a euphemism for housekeeper in Chinese. Calling her little aunt avoids embarrassment. What’s more, this term makes the girl feel comfortable. 2. Our little aunt
学林出版社 35 Focus2 2 Back Next Notes 1. I’m confused. 我有点糊涂了。 *confuse vt. 使糊涂，使困惑 e.g. They asked so many questions that they confused me. This cannot but make people feel confused. 下文的 confusing 是其现在分词形式。 2. What’s more, this term makes the girl feel comfortable. 而且，这种 称呼可以让那个女孩感到舒服点。 *comfortable a. 使人舒服的；舒适的 e.g. I don’t feel comfortable in the same room with her. Were it not for science, we could not live a comfortable life. 2. Our little aunt
学林出版社 36 Focus2 3 Back Next 3. Talking in a euphemistic way Read and listen to the dialogue between Andrew and Julia. Complete the table with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
学林出版社 37 Focus2 3 Back Next EuphemismIntended Meaning feel under the weather ____________ on unemployment benefits ___________ __________ fire workers ___________________ go on strike sanitary engineer ______________ be slightly ill out of work garbage worker downsize take industrial action 3. Talking in a euphemistic way
学林出版社 38 Focus2 3 Back Next Notes 1. In fact I’m on unemployment benefits. What are you up to lately, Andrew? 实际上，我正靠领失业金生活。安德鲁，你最近在忙些什 么？ *unemployment n. 失业 e.g. She qualifies for unemployment benefits. *benefit n. 救济金；益处，好处 e.g. Are you entitled to unemployment benefits? ☆ lately ad. 最近 e.g. Good news has been thin on the ground lately. (on) unemployment benefits （靠）失业救济金（生活） e.g. You are not entitled to unemployment benefits if you have never worked. 3. Talking in a euphemistic way
学林出版社 39 Focus2 3 Back Next 2. My company is downsizing. Luckily I was not fired, but there is an across-the-board drop in pay. 我们公司在裁员。我很幸运没丢工 作，但是大家的薪水都减少了。 △ downsize v. （公司、企业等）裁员，精简 e.g. It’s rumored that the company is going to downsize; everyone is feeling anxious. △ across-the-board a. 全面的，全盘的 e.g. The union arranged an across-the-board raise of five percent. 3. And so did the sanitary engineers. 环卫工人也罢工了。 △ sanitary a. 卫生的，清洁的 e.g. The Sanitary Board is trying to stamp out the epidemic. 3. Talking in a euphemistic way
学林出版社 40 Focus2 4 Back Next 4. Identifying euphemisms Work with your partner. Read each sentence (a—l) to your partner, who will find an expression (1—8) matching the euphemism in the sentence. ( )1. poor ( )2. an argument ( ) 3. lying ( ) 4. drunk ( )5. pregnant ( ) 6. unemployed ( ) 7. bathroom ( ) 8. die c, g a b h d f i k e, j, l
学林出版社 41 跨文化广告的误译 你们中许多人可能都听说过跨 国公司在翻译品牌名称或广告词 时所犯的可笑的错误。 Focus2 5 BackNext Many of you may have heard of these infamous errors made by multinational corporations when translating brands or slogans abroad. Translation 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes △ infamous a. 声名狼藉的 e.g. This area is infamous for drug abuse. That infamous killer has received the death sentence. *multinational a. 多国的，跨国 的 e.g. He wants to apply for a job in a multinational corporation. *translate v. 翻译；改变 e.g. Can you translate the sentence into English? It ’ s amazing how well the play has been translated to film. ☆ brand n. 商标，牌子 e.g. How well do you think this washing powder stacks up against your usual brand? She ’ s gone over to a milder brand of cigarettes. △ slogan n. 口号，标语 e.g. What is the Democrats ’ campaign slogan? I wish the exclamation mark had not been painted out. It would have made the slogan more forceful.
学林出版社 42 肯德基进入中国市场时，震惊地 发现他们的广告词 “ 吮指美味 ” 被译 成 “ 吃掉你的指头 ” 。 饮料生产商曾遇到过这样的问题 。在意大利，在为 “ 奎宁水 ” 做销售 策划时，把奎宁水翻译成了难以解 渴的 “ 花露水 ” 。 Focus2 5 BackNext When Kentucky Fried Chicken entered the Chinese market, to their horror they discovered that their slogan “finger lickin’ good” came out as “eat your fingers off”. Soft drink makers have problems. In Italy, a sales plan for “Tonic Water” translated the name into the much less thirst satisfying “Toilet Water”. Translation △ lick vt. 舔 e.g. The children licked their lips as the cake was cut. *satisfy vt. 使 …… 满足；使 …… 满意 e.g. Just to satisfy my curiosity, how much did you pay for your car? It is by no means easy to satisfy everyone. 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 43 有时候广告语会因一字之差而使意 思完全改变。派克笔公司把一种圆珠 笔打入墨西哥市场时，它的广告语本 来所要表达的意思是 “ 不会因放在口袋 里漏墨而引起尴尬 ” 。但是公司误把西 班牙语 “ 怀孕 ” 一词理解成尴尬，这样广 告的意思就变成了 “ 不会因放在口袋里 漏墨而使你怀孕 ” 。 Focus2 5 BackNext Sometimes it’s one word of a slogan that changes the whole meaning. When Parker Pen marketed a ballpoint pen in Mexico, its ads were supposed to say “It won’t leak in your pocket and embarrass you.” However, the company mistakenly thought the Spanish word “embarazada” meant embarrassed. Instead the ads said “It won’t leak in your pocket and make you pregnant.” Translation *suppose vt. 假设，认为 e.g. They were supposed to be here an hour ago. We suppose that the situation will improve. ☆ leak v. 渗漏；泄露 e.g. The details were supposed to be secret but somehow leaked out. Who leaked the news to the press? 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 44 沙龙牌香烟在美国的广告词为 “ 沙龙 香烟 —— 自由无限 ” ，但在日本市场却 被译成 “ 吸沙龙牌香烟，神清气爽，头 脑空荡。 ” 通用汽车将雪佛兰新星引进南美市 场时遇到了一个很令人费解的问题： 尽管尽了最大努力，但销售业绩依然 平平。最后，他们发现 “ 新星 ” 在西班牙 语里的意思是 “ 不会走 ” 。于是，该汽车 被重新命名为 “ 加勒比 ” （意指加勒比海 ），销售量大大提高了。 Focus2 5 BackNext The American slogan for Salem cigarettes, “Salem — Feeling Free,” got translated in the Japanese market into “When smoking Salem, you feel so refreshed that your mind seems to be free and empty.” General Motors had a perplexing problem when they introduced the Chevy Nova in South America. Despite their best efforts, they weren’t selling many cars. They finally realized that in Spanish, “nova” means “it won’t go”. Sales improved dramatically after the car was renamed the “Caribe” — the Caribbean (Sea). Translation *cigarette n. 香烟 e.g. He lit a cigarette in order to calm his mind. *motor n. 发动机，马达 e.g. I stopped the car but left the motor ticking over. △ perplex vt. 使 …… 困惑，使 …… 为难 e.g. She was perplexed by his questions. Faced with that dilemma, he was perplexed. ☆ dramatically ad. 巨大地， 令人吃惊地 e.g. Accounting and banking have changed dramatically in the light of recent developments in computers. The story begins dramatically but the plot peters out before the end. 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 45 布兰尼夫航空公司为其机内装饰做 的广告为 “ 皮饰空间，翱翔苍穹 ” ，翻译 成西班牙语却成了 “ 裸飞 ” 。 伊卡璐染发护发产品公司把一种名 为 “ 迷朦棒 ” 的卷发器引进德国，最终发 现 “ 迷朦 ” 一词在德语里是 “ 肥料 ” 的意思 。 美国迈阿密一家 T 恤衫制造厂为西班 牙市场印制广告衫，为即将来访的教 皇作宣传，原本想印刷的 “ el Papa （我 看见了罗马教皇） ” 被印成了 “ la papa （ 我见到了土豆） ” 。 Focus2 5 BackNext When Braniff translated an advertisement for its upholstery, “Fly in Leather,” it came out in Spanish as “Fly Naked.” Clairol introduced the “Mist Stick,” a curling iron, into Germany, only to find out that “mist” means “manure”. An American T-shirt maker in Miami printed shirts for the Spanish Market which promoted the Pope’s visit. Instead of “I Saw the Pope” (el Papa), the shirts read “I Saw the Potato” (la papa). Translation *naked a. 裸体的；不加掩饰 的 e.g. This star is not visible to the naked eye. His face broke into an expression of naked anxiety. *print vt. 印制，印刷 e.g. They had printed their own design on the T-shirt. The company ’ s name was printed in bold letters across the top of the page. ☆ promote vt. 促进；晋级 e.g. The government decided to promote public welfare. The young army officer was promoted to the rank of captain. 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 46 Focus2 5 BackNext A. Complete the table with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Gaffe in Intended Meaning GermanItalianSpanish _________tonic water _____________ _________ embarrassed _________naked ______mist in leather pregnant∕embar azada toilet water manure 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 47 Focus 2 5 BackNext B. Choose the best answer to complete each statement. 1. “Multinational corporation” in the passage means. A. a large company belonging to many countries C. a large company that takes on employees from different cultures D. a large company under the direction of the United Nations 2. “Toilet water” in the passage was intended to mean. A. water from the toilet C. a perfumed liquid D. an alcoholic drink 3. “Thirst satisfying” in the passage means. B. able to put out a fire C. able to stop the desire for power D. able to give someone pleasure B. a large company that produces and sells goods in many different countries B. a soft drink A. able to meet someone’s need for a drink 5. Cross-cultural Advertising Gaffes
学林出版社 48 以会议组织方的名义写信给宴会经理，告知与会者的不同文化背景，提出他 们的餐饮特殊要求。 主要内容： 1. 与会者主要来自美国和中国； 2. 早餐安排英式早餐和中式早餐； 3. 有几位与会者是素食主义者； 4. 有几位与会者患有糖尿病； 5. 有几位与会者来自中东国家； 6. 中餐和晚餐要考虑上述因素。 Words for reference: 与会者： attendee 素食主义者： vegetarian 糖尿病： diabetes Focus2 6 BackNext 6. Writing a request letter Write a letter according to the following prompts. For Reference Answer Click Here Amalgamated Inc. 1231 South Ketone Avenue New Emphysema, Michigan USA 41339 (807) 672-9653 Fax: (807) 672-9611 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@amalwidg.com
学林出版社 49 February 30, 20xx Mr. Vernon Wells Mega Restaurant Supply 978 East Ipecac Lane Carbuncle, Indiana 50021 Dear Mr. Wells, ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Sincerely yours, (signature) Susan Walters Focus2 6 BackNext My name is Susan Walters, and I am the meeting planner here at Amalgamated Corporation. I’m now writing to you to confirm our catering arrangement for the three-day seminar. To start with, there should be both English breakfast and Chinese breakfast since we have attendees mainly coming from the USA and China. Then, for lunch and supper, buffets are preferred. We need vegetarian food, food with less sugar, and food with no pork to meet the needs of some of our vegetarian attendees, those with diabetes, and those coming from Middle East countries. We hope our special dietary requests can be met during the scheduled days. Your attention is appreciated. 6. Writing a request letter
学林出版社 50 Focus 2 7 Back Next 7. Read me! Read the following passage and answer the questions. 1. According to the passage, what foods are forbidden for Jews? _____________________________________________________ 2. Why is beef not eaten in India? ____________________________________________________ 3. Why don’t people in most Western countries eat insects? ____________________________________________________ 4. Why are new types of foods often avoided? ____________________________________________________ 5. When will people begin to introduce new foods to their regular dishes? ____________________________________________________ Pork, shellfish, and birds of prey are forbidden for Jews. Because cows are considered holy in India. Because insects are considered to be dirty. Because they are often viewed as against tradition. When they have grown used to eating them.
学林出版社 51 Focus 2 7 Back Next 7. Read me! Taboo Food Taboo food is that which people avoid for religious ( 宗教的 ), cultural, or health reasons. Certain religions forbid the eating of certain types of meat. For example, Muslims and Jews can’t eat pork. Eating shellfish and birds of prey ( 猛禽 ) would also go against the religious laws of the Jews. In India, the cow is holy, thus it is not eaten. Some food taboos are not based on religion but on traditions and customs of the society, and sometimes also on the appearance of the food. Neither dogs nor insects are eaten in most Western countries. Dogs are a taboo food in the Western world because people consider these animals their pets, their friends. Insects are not eaten because the general opinion is that these are dirty animals one doesn’t want to digest ( 消化 ).
学林出版社 52 Focus 2 7 Back Next 7. Read me! The taboo food of one ’ s culture is learnt during childhood. The taboos based on religion are not easy to change. But new types of foods are introduced to the market. They are often viewed as against tradition and therefore avoided. But later some taboos begin to change when people have grown used to eating a certain food and have maybe also found new uses for it in their regular dishes.
学林出版社 53 Focus2 Grammar Back Next Grammar Exercise Choose the best answer to complete each sentence. 1. ______ offensive were his words that his girlfriend left without saying goodbye. A.VeryB. TooC. Quite 2. ______ how to deal with the trouble of the computer, Martin had to ask his brother for help. A. Not know B. Not known C. Not to know 3. Hitler turned his war from England to Russia ______ be totally defeated. A. simply to C. as to D. to D. So D. Not knowing B. only to
学林出版社 54 Focus2 Grammar Back Next Grammar 4. So loudly ________ that the audience in the back heard him clearly. A. does he speak C. he speaks D. he spoke 5. ______ his ankle injury, his coach decided that he stop training for the time being. A. Giving C. Having given D. Being given 6. ______ by his class, he felt miserable in school. A. Looking down on B. Having looked down on C. To be looked down on B. did he speak B. Given D. Being looked down on
学林出版社 55 Focus2 Grammar Back Next Grammar 7. The Golden Touch was ______ to turn his daughter into gold as well. A. so powerfulB. enough powerful D. such powerful 8. ______ that we were all bored with what he was saying, he changed his topic. A. To see C. Seen D. Being seen 9. More volunteers ______ for the 2010 Shanghai Expo, many college teachers have signed up for it. B. are needed C. are being neededD. needed 10. There ______ no electricity, we had to put off the experiment till the next day. B. was C. be D. is C. powerful enough B. Seeing A. being needed A. being