8While George was having a cavity filled by his dentist, the drill hit a nerve that had not been dulled by anesthetic, a couple of times. Each time he cringed in pain. George now gets anxious each time he sees the dentist.The drill hitting a nerveUnconditioned stimulusUnconditioned responseConditioned stimulusConditioned response
9Every time a psychology instructor enters the classroom, she goes straight to the board to write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has long finger nails and each time she writes the outline, her nails screech on the board, making students cringe. After a few weeks of this, students cringe at the sight of the teacher entering the classroom.Sight of the teacherUnconditioned stimulusUnconditioned responseConditioned stimulusConditioned response
10LaToya was viciously bitten by a chihuahua LaToya was viciously bitten by a chihuahua. Now when she sees chihuahuas, she’s frightened.Being frightened by chihuahuas nowUnconditioned stimulusUnconditioned responseConditioned stimulusConditioned response
14Famous Experiment “Little Albert” John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920)
15Operant & Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events.Preview Question 8: What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning?
16Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Shaping ReinforcementTypesPositiveNegativePositiveNegativeReinforcementAdd goodRemove badPunishmentAdd badRemove goodKid in the grocery store.Get frustrated by studying do you stop?
21Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative PunishmentWhen Olivia makes rude noises at the dinner table, she gets her mouth washed out with soap. She doesn’t make rude noises that often anymore.Little Joey gets yelled at when he acts up in class. Now he’s acting up even more.Because Tameka earned an A in each of her classes, she doesn’t have to do her usual chore of vacuuming this month. She’s studying even more now.Ray came home past his curfew, so he was not allowed to drive for the following week. He hasn’t missed a curfew since.What behavior is changing?Is it increasing or decreasing?Why is it increasing or decreasing?Pos PPos RNeg RNeg P
22Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative PunishmentMaria put in extra hours at work helping her boss finish a major project. She received a big bonus for her contributions. She’s now looking for other ways to contribute at work.When Thuy and Gurpreet were running around the living room, they crashed into the Playstation, breaking it. They now carefully walk through the living room.Chandler’s girlfriend, Monica, keeps bugging him to take her dancing. He finally agrees, and she quits bugging him. The next time she starts bugging him, he quickly agrees to do whatever it is. (Chandler’s behavior is changing.)Monica’s boyfriend, Chandler, gives in when she starts bugging him about something. Now whenever she wants something, she just starts bugging him. (Monica’s behavior is changing.)5. Pos R6. Neg P7. Neg R8. Pos R