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Learning Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Chapter 7

2 What is the purpose of learning?

3 Associative Learning Learning to associate one stimulus with another.


5 Classical Conditioning
Acquisition Meat Powder Salivation Tone Meat Powder Salivation Tone Salivation

6 Pixie Powder Salivation Pavlov Pixie Powder Salivation Pavlov Salivation


8 While George was having a cavity filled by his dentist, the drill hit a nerve that had not been dulled by anesthetic, a couple of times. Each time he cringed in pain. George now gets anxious each time he sees the dentist. The drill hitting a nerve Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response

9 Every time a psychology instructor enters the classroom, she goes straight to the board to write an outline on it. Unfortunately, she has long finger nails and each time she writes the outline, her nails screech on the board, making students cringe. After a few weeks of this, students cringe at the sight of the teacher entering the classroom. Sight of the teacher Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response

10 LaToya was viciously bitten by a chihuahua
LaToya was viciously bitten by a chihuahua. Now when she sees chihuahuas, she’s frightened. Being frightened by chihuahuas now Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response

11 Classical Conditioning
Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization Discrimination

12 Spontaneous Recovery

13 Stimulus Generalization

14 Famous Experiment “Little Albert”
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920)

15 Operant & Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events. Preview Question 8: What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning?

16 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Shaping
Reinforcement Types Positive Negative Positive Negative Reinforcement Add good Remove bad Punishment Add bad Remove good Kid in the grocery store. Get frustrated by studying do you stop?

17 Shaping



20 Davidson College

21 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment When Olivia makes rude noises at the dinner table, she gets her mouth washed out with soap. She doesn’t make rude noises that often anymore. Little Joey gets yelled at when he acts up in class. Now he’s acting up even more. Because Tameka earned an A in each of her classes, she doesn’t have to do her usual chore of vacuuming this month. She’s studying even more now. Ray came home past his curfew, so he was not allowed to drive for the following week. He hasn’t missed a curfew since. What behavior is changing? Is it increasing or decreasing? Why is it increasing or decreasing? Pos P Pos R Neg R Neg P

22 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment Maria put in extra hours at work helping her boss finish a major project. She received a big bonus for her contributions. She’s now looking for other ways to contribute at work. When Thuy and Gurpreet were running around the living room, they crashed into the Playstation, breaking it. They now carefully walk through the living room. Chandler’s girlfriend, Monica, keeps bugging him to take her dancing. He finally agrees, and she quits bugging him. The next time she starts bugging him, he quickly agrees to do whatever it is. (Chandler’s behavior is changing.) Monica’s boyfriend, Chandler, gives in when she starts bugging him about something. Now whenever she wants something, she just starts bugging him. (Monica’s behavior is changing.) 5. Pos R 6. Neg P 7. Neg R 8. Pos R

23 Reinforcement Schedules

24 Intrinsic vs External Motivation
Why do you want to do a good job learning psychology in this class?

25 Learning by Observation
© Herb Terrace Preview Question 14: What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons? ©Herb Terrace

26 Mirror Neurons Reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Subiaul et al., Science 305: (2004) © 2004 AAAS.

27 Observational Learning: Modeling
Albert Bandura Bobo Doll Experiment Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University

28 Observational Learning

29 What impact is television having on people?

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