Presentation on theme: "Staff on the Naughty Step: Dealing with counterproductive workplace behaviour Sandra Henry School Manager, School of Languages and Cultures, University."— Presentation transcript:
Staff on the Naughty Step: Dealing with counterproductive workplace behaviour Sandra Henry School Manager, School of Languages and Cultures, University of Sheffield and Network Coordinator AUA Departmental Administrators Network AUA Branch Meeting, University of Kent Thursday 10 July 2014
Definitions and terminology Workplace ASB "..any behaviour that brings harm, or is intended to bring harm to an organisation, its employees, or its stakeholders" aggression sabotageE.g.: confidentiality violations, fraud, aggression, discrimination, theft, violence, sabotage, lying, harassment, revenge and whistleblowing Workplace Incivility low intensity deviant behaviours that are rude and discourteous, with ambiguous intent to harm the target E.g.: interactions which are demeaning, abusive, derogatory, or threatening, social isolation, rudeness CWB "An emotion- based response to stressful organizational conditions." "A cognition-based response to experienced injustice." aggressionE.g.: Overt acts: aggression, conflict, sabotage and theft. Passive acts: doing work incorrectly, and failing to follow instructions. Dysfunctional Behaviour acts that have negative consequences for individuals/a group of individuals (a team) and/or the organization itself. aggressionE.g.: violent aggression, physical and verbal assault. Nonviolent: theft, revenge, absence, drug/alcohol use. Organizational Misbehaviour "..anything you do at work you are not supposed to do.” working against core organizational and/or societal norms) sabotage,E.g.: sabotage, failing to work hard/consistently, practical joking, pilferage,, sexual misconduct Organizational Deviance "behaviour which violates significant organizational norms and in doing so threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both." sabotageE.g.: spreading rumours and embarrassing co- workers, theft, sabotage, bullying, sexual harassment
What CWB is not: Labelling people. Genuine sickness absences. Genuine medical conditions, for which a diagnosis exists. Genuine differences of opinion or disagreements expressed in a respectful way. Authorised absences/lateness.
Harm aimed at an organization Coming to work late without permission Facebook Sabotage Timewasting Leaving early without permission Trying to look busy while doing nothing Being rude to customers Failing to report a problem so that it gets worse Absenteeism Presenteeism Taking long breaks
Harm aimed at an individual Derogatory or nasty comments Negativity Hostility Facebook Silent protests Not returning a phone call to someone you should Outbursts (crying/anger) Skiving Ignoring someone at work Playing games Misuse of humour Criticism/undermining others Making someone look bad Dirty looks Verbally abusing a colleague
Bullying Being ignored Withholding information Unrealistic targets Belittling remarks Intimidation Criticisms Excessive work monitoring Feeling being cut off Being shouted at Afraid to take sick leave Verbal & physical threats Bullying characteristics Stress Anger Confusion Powerlessness Depression Feeling undermined Sadness Feeling isolated Humiliation Fearful Bullying emotions Ayoko, Callan and Hartel 2003
Performance problems Time wasting Withholding effort Withholding efficiency Slow working Not following procedures Ignorance about rules Shirking Job neglect Noncompliance
Costliness of CWB (1) Staffing problems: Retention issues Wellbeing Morale Disruption to teams Problematic working relationships Commitment Staff turnover Sickness absence Recruitment costs
Costliness of CWB (2) Mental health related difficulties Stress Anxiety Workplace depression Nervous conditions Emotional distress Panic attacks
organizational & interpersonal Production Deviance Leaving early Taking excessive breaks Intentionally working slow Wasting resources Property Deviance Sabotaging equipment Accepting kickbacks Lying about hours worked Stealing from company Political Deviance Showing favouritism Gossiping about co-workers Blaming co-workers Competing non-beneficially Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from co-workers Endangering co-workers
Exercise A member of your team is unhappy with her performance review. She believes the feedback and rating you gave her are not fair or accurate, and she responds by badmouthing you, to the rest of the team, and her comments get back to you. Is this a problem? How would you handle it?
Key features of CWB CWB Cognitive processing Individual differences Situational factors
Some reasons for CWB Boredom Role conflict and/or role ambiguity Unhappiness with grade/job Job stress related to role conflict and ambiguity, and workload Negative feedback from the manager Feeling betrayed or let down by a manager or senior staff Perceived injustice Unrest/uncertainty (change) Restructures or office reorganization Frustration
The role of frustration (Spector 1997) Environmental Frustrator Cognitive Appraisal Experienced Frustration Behavioural Reaction
Passive leadership Definition: “Managers who display a passive leadership style model an apathetic, indifferent mode of behaviour consistent with the “whatever” mentality that allows incivility to flourish.” Harold and Brian (2014)
Passive leadership What is it? a reticence to act or failure to provide leadership a lax, informal work environment a pattern of inaction neglecting workplace problems less likely to define and clarify behavioural expectations generally don’t take proactive steps to model and reward appropriate conduct Harold and Brian (2014)
Examples of Workplace incivility: negative eye contact giving someone the silent treatment asking for input and then ignoring it "forgetting" to share credit for collaborative work, or not giving credit where its due waiting impatiently over someone's desk to gain their attention side conversations during a formal meeting or presentation public reprimands
Personality…. Psychopaths, Narcissists, Machiavellian’s PSYCHOPATHY Superficial charm Lack of Remorse Irresponsible Egocentric Antisocial MACHIAVELLIANISM “views and manipulates others for his/her own purpose” NARCISSISM Fantasies of power Need for admiration Sense of entitlement Lack of empathy Exploitation People Management 2010
Personality traits Charisma (good with people) Self-confidence Ability to influence Persuasive Risk taker Visionary thinker Action oriented Superficial charm Grandiosity/pomposity Manipulative Exploitative Impulsive Fantasies of power Poor at planning Desirable traits Undesirable traits People Management 2010
CWB involving Facebook Virgin Atlantic New Park Nursing Home Royal Bank of Scotland Argos Royal Scots Guard 'Her and William drove past me on Friday and all I got was a s****y wave while she looked the opposite way from me, stupid, stuck-up cow. Am I not good enough for them! Posh b****. Who really gives a f*** about her?'
The goal is to develop the skill of stepping outside the situation to ask “what’s happening, why is it happening”, and then using this understanding to take positive action. What can managers do?
CWB caused by the manager? Failing to understand their own managerial style, and the role this plays in the situation Excusing CWB because of “talent” Failing to act Failing to address problems as they arise Showing favouritism Being inconsistent Setting a bad example Job design and management procedures
Nick and Carol
Managerial action (1) (corrective &/or preventative) Understand your own managerial, professional and behavioural style. Adopt vigilant selection and management procedures. Facilitate good communication. Consider the role that structure, job design and processes play in creating CWB or other deviant behaviour. Look how work is allocated.
Managerial action (2) (corrective &/or preventative) Implement effective supervision/line management Adopt a zero tolerance approach…how? Get help (HR, Line manager, peers) Develop your ability to deal with difficult situations (training, skill building) Tackle bad behaviour