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21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 2: Part C.

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2 21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 2: Part C

3 Assignment CheckupAssignment CheckupAssignment CheckupAssignment Checkup Text BText BText BText B Listening PracticeListening PracticeListening PracticeListening Practice Oral PracticeOral PracticeOral PracticeOral Practice AssignmentAssignmentAssignment Unit 2: Part C Way Manners Matter

4 Assignment Checkup Word BuildingEx. VWord BuildingEx. VWord BuildingWord Building Word BuildingEx. VIWord BuildingEx. VIWord BuildingWord Building

5 Assignment Checkup Ex. V, p. 48 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. V, p. 48

6 Assignment Checkup to mean: the state of having a particular quality. altitudeaptitudeattitude fortitude latitude longitude multitude solitude Examples: to be used to form nouns suffix -itude

7 Assignment Checkup Complete each of the following sentences with one of these words. altitudeaptitudeattitudefortitude latitude longitude multitude solitude 1. In general, the climate in the mountains becomes colder, wetter, and windier as the ________ increases. 2. Edison had a remarkable ________ for inventing new things. altitude aptitude

8 Assignment Checkup Complete each of the following sentences with one of these words. 3. He seems to have undergone a change in ________ recently, and has become much more cooperative. 4. Our current position is ________ 20 degrees east, latitude 30 degrees north. attitude longitude altitudeaptitudeattitudefortitude latitude longitude multitude solitude

9 Assignment Checkup Complete each of the following sentences with one of these words. 5. It takes a lot of ________ to sail around the world alone. 6. A ________ of problems has delayed the construction project and it is now impossible to finish it in time. fortitude multitude altitudeaptitudeattitudefortitude latitude longitude multitude solitude

10 Assignment Checkup Complete each of the following sentences with one of these words. 7. Differences in ________ affect climate in a number of ways. 8. Experienced mountaineers typically climb in teams of two or more, but they sometimes climb alone for the increased challenge and ________. latitude solitude altitudeaptitudeattitudefortitude latitude longitude multitude solitude

11 Assignment Checkup Ex. VI, p. 48 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. VI, p. 48

12 Assignment Checkup to mean: together, mutually, joint or jointly. co-workercoordinatecoowner coeducation co-authorcooperation coexist copilot Examples: combines freely with nouns and verbs prefix co-

13 Assignment Checkup Complete following sentences these words in their proper forms. co-workercoexistcoordinatecoeducation co-authorcooperationco-owner copilot 1. The teacher designed several games to improve the children ’ s physical ___________. 2. Can love and hate ________ in the same person. coordination coexist

14 Assignment Checkup Complete following sentences these words in their proper forms. co-workercoexistcoordinatecoeducation co-authorcooperationco-ownercopilot 3. Doctor Young and his ___________ successfully developed a new breed ( 种) of rice last year. 4. As _________ of the new bookstore, the two companies differ in their opinions as to what books to sell in it. co-workers co-owners

15 Assignment Checkup Complete following sentences these words in their proper forms. co-workercoexistcoordinatecoeducation co-authorcooperationco-ownercopilot 5. The book ___________ by Prof. Morgan and his colleagues will be published soon. 6. ___________ can accomplish many things that no individual could do alone. co-authored Cooperation

16 Assignment Checkup Complete following sentences these words in their proper forms. co-workercoexistcoordinatecoeducation co-authorcooperationco-owner copilot 7. _____________ refers to the teaching of male and female students together in the same school or college. 8. After the captain of the airliner (大型客机) suffered a heart attack, the ________ had to handle the plane on his own. Coeducation copilot

17 Pre-reading TaskPre-reading TaskPre-reading TaskPre-reading Task Text B: Language PointsText B: Language PointsText B: Language PointsText B: Language Points ComprehensionComprehensionComprehension Unit 2: Text B

18 Ex. XIII, p. 59 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XIII, p. 59 Text B: Pre-reading Task

19 XIII. The following sentences are taken from the article Why Manners Matter. Read these sentences and try to figure out the meaning of the underlined words or expressions from the context. Text B: Pre-reading Task

20 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 1.Americans today believe, erroneously, that acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly and naturally from personal virtue, (Para.1) A)commonlyB)confidently C)incorrectlyD) universally Text B: Pre-reading Task 1.Americans today believe, erroneously, that acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly and naturally from personal virtue, (Para.1) A)commonlyB)confidently C)incorrectlyD) universally

21 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 2.The distinction between morals and manners has become blurred. (Para.1) A)vagueB)delicate C)obviousD) incomprehensible Text B: Pre-reading Task 2.The distinction between morals and manners has become blurred. (Para.1) A)vagueB)delicate C)obviousD) incomprehensible

22 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 3.This denies that people might be separated by basic, genuinely irreconcilable differences – philosophical, political, or religious – and assumes that all such differences are no more than misunderstandings. (Para.2) A)considerableB)indescribable C)noticeableD)incompatible Text B: Pre-reading Task 3.This denies that people might be separated by basic, genuinely irreconcilable differences – philosophical, political, or religious – and assumes that all such differences are no more than misunderstandings. (Para.2) A)considerableB)indescribable C)noticeableD)incompatible

23 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 4.Many forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. (Para.2) A)rules of polite behavior; strong dislikes B)directions for action; sharp disagreements C)words of advice; fundamental conflicts D) regulation of social activities; striking contrasts Text B: Pre-reading Task 4.Many forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. (Para.2) A)rules of polite behavior; strong dislikes B)directions for action; sharp disagreements C)words of advice; fundamental conflicts D) regulation of social activities; striking contrasts

24 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 5.Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life. (Para. 3) A)in close connection with; national B)in entire agreement with; moral C)in direct violation of; racial D) in consequence of; emotional Text B: Pre-reading Task 5.Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life. (Para. 3) A)in close connection with; national B)in entire agreement with; moral C)in direct violation of; racial D) in consequence of; emotional

25 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 6.In the days of obligatory formal visiting, “Madam is not at home” was clearly understood to mean, “Madam can’t face you anymore than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.” (Para. 3) A)respectfulB)delightful C)dutifulD) compulsory Text B: Pre-reading Task 6.In the days of obligatory formal visiting, “Madam is not at home” was clearly understood to mean, “Madam can’t face you anymore than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.” (Para. 3) A)respectfulB)delightful C)dutifulD) compulsory

26 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 7.With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. (Para. 3) A)the visitor who is not welcome B)the person who pays an unexpected call C)the caller who disturbs somebody’s privacy D) the stranger who illegally enters somebody’s property Text B: Pre-reading Task 7.With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. (Para. 3) A)the visitor who is not welcome B)the person who pays an unexpected call C)the caller who disturbs somebody’s privacy D) the stranger who illegally enters somebody’s property

27 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 8.They become indignant because people who ask them “How do you do?” don’t really want to hear about the malfunctioning of their bowels, and they demand an alternative signing letters “Your truly” when writing to those whose trulies they don’t want to be. (Para) A)improper workingB)aching C)uncomfortableD)unnecessary moving Text B: Pre-reading Task 8.They become indignant because people who ask them “How do you do?” don’t really want to hear about the malfunctioning of their bowels, and they demand an alternative signing letters “Your truly” when writing to those whose trulies they don’t want to be. (Para. 4) A)improper workingB)aching C)uncomfortableD)unnecessary moving

28 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. Text B: Pre-reading Task 9.Today, each person claims the right not only to design his won etiquette but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. (Para. 5) A)examine carefully; inform…of B)make favorable comments on; remind…of C)follow; make…aware of D)take notice of; convince…of 9.Today, each person claims the right not only to design his won etiquette but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. (Para. 5) A)examine carefully; inform…of B)make favorable comments on; remind…of C)follow; make…aware of D)take notice of; convince…of

29 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. Text B: Pre-reading Task 10.A gentleman opens a door for a lady because his mother taught him that ladies appreciate such courtesy, but this one turns around and split in his eye because he has insulted her womanhood. (Para. 6) A)make an angry gesture to him B)expresses hatred to him C)feels insulted by him D)screams at him 10.A gentleman opens a door for a lady because his mother taught him that ladies appreciate such courtesy, but this one turns around and split in his eye because he has insulted her womanhood. (Para. 6) A)make an angry gesture to him B)expresses hatred to him C)feels insulted by him D)screams at him

30 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 11.A young lady offers her seat in a crowded bus to an elderly, frail gentleman, and he gives her a dirty look because she has insulted his manhood. (Para. 6) A)looks at her gracefullyB)looks at her in disgust C)glances at her sadlyD)stares at her rudely Text B: Pre-reading Task 11.A young lady offers her seat in a crowded bus to an elderly, frail gentleman, and he gives her a dirty look because she has insulted his manhood. (Para. 6) A)looks at her gracefullyB)looks at her in disgust C)glances at her sadlyD)stares at her rudely

31 Choose by guessing the best definition of each word and expression below. 12.The idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insults, where the all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed,” absolves one of any obligation or responsibility. (Para. 7) A)shakes…offB)assists…in C)involves…inD)declares… free from Text B: Pre-reading Task 12.The idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insults, where the all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed,” absolves one of any obligation or responsibility. (Para. 7) A)shakes…offB)assists…in C)involves…inD)declares… free from

32 Language Points Text B Why Manners Matter Judith Martin Judith Martin

33 Why Manners Matter Why Manners Matter Judith Martin Judith Martin Judith Martin (b. 1938) writes the international syndicated United Features column “Miss Manners” and is a drama and film critic for The Washington Post. A version of the ideas in her book Common Courtesy, as she expressed them in a speech given at Harvard University, is reprinted below. 1 Americans today believe, erroneously, that acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly and naturally from personal virtue. The distinction between morals and manners has become blurred. All you need is a good heart, most people assume, and the rest will take care of itself. You don’t have to write thank-you notes. acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly and naturally from personal virtueAll you need is a good heart, most people assume, and the rest will take care of itself.acceptable social behavior follows effortlessly and naturally from personal virtueAll you need is a good heart, most people assume, and the rest will take care of itself. Language Points

34 2 The “natural” approach to human relations presumes that to know any person well enough is to love him, that the only human problem is a communication problem. This denies that people might be separated by basic, genuinely irreconcilable difference – philosophical, political, or religious – and assumes that all such differences are no more than misunderstandings. Many forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. 2 The “natural” approach to human relations presumes that to know any person well enough is to love him, that the only human problem is a communication problem. This denies that people might be separated by basic, genuinely irreconcilable difference – philosophical, political, or religious – and assumes that all such differences are no more than misunderstandings. Many forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. The “natural” approach to human relationsMany forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. The “natural” approach to human relationsMany forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. Language Points

35 3 Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life. In the days of obligatory formal visiting, “Madam is not at home” was clearly understood to mean, “Madam can’t face you any more than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.” Nowadays, we never allow ourselves the convenience of being temporarily unavailable, even to strangers. With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. 3 Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life. In the days of obligatory formal visiting, “Madam is not at home” was clearly understood to mean, “Madam can’t face you any more than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.” Nowadays, we never allow ourselves the convenience of being temporarily unavailable, even to strangers. With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life.Madam can’t face you any more than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life.Madam can’t face you any more than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty.With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, and it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. Language Points

36 4 I receive much mail from correspondents who consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonesty. Whey become indignant because people who ask them “How do you do?”don’t really want to hear about the malfunctioning of their bowels, and they demand an alternative to signing letters “Your truly” when to writing to those whose truly they don’t want to be. It is a little annoying to have to check the weather report before venturing to say “Good morning.” Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “Do I look all right?” 4 I receive much mail from correspondents who consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonesty. Whey become indignant because people who ask them “How do you do?”don’t really want to hear about the malfunctioning of their bowels, and they demand an alternative to signing letters “Your truly” when to writing to those whose truly they don’t want to be. It is a little annoying to have to check the weather report before venturing to say “Good morning.” Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “Do I look all right?” consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonestymalfunctioning of their bowelsthey demand an alternative to signing letters “Your truly” when to writing to those whose truly they don’t want to be Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “Do I look all right?”consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonestymalfunctioning of their bowelsthey demand an alternative to signing letters “Your truly” when to writing to those whose truly they don’t want to be Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “Do I look all right?” Language Points

37 5 The lack of standardization of manners results in an often angry, chaotic society, where even trivial act is interpreted as a revelation of the moral philosophy of the individual actor, who is left standing naked in his mores. Today, each person claims the right not only to design his own etiquette but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. The lack of standardization of manners results in an often angry, chaotic society, where even trivial act is interpreted as a revelation of the moral philosophy of the individual actor, who is left standing naked in his mores.Today, each person claims the right not only to design his own etiquette but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. The lack of standardization of manners results in an often angry, chaotic society, where even trivial act is interpreted as a revelation of the moral philosophy of the individual actor, who is left standing naked in his mores.Today, each person claims the right not only to design his own etiquette but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. Language Points

38 6 Indeed, it has never been easier to insult people unknowingly. A gentleman opens door for a lady because his mother taught him that ladies appreciate such courtesy, but this one turns around and split in his eye because he has insulted her womanhood. A young lady offers her seat in a crowded bus to an elderly, frail gentleman, and he gives her a dirty look because she has insulted his manhood. Mind you, those are just people trying to be nice; the only problem is that they are operating on different systems of etiquette. but this one turns around and split in his eye Mind youoperating on different systems of etiquettebut this one turns around and split in his eye Mind youoperating on different systems of etiquette Language Points

39 7 Curiously, it has never been harder to insult people intentionally. If you say, “You are horrid and I hate you,” the person is apt to reply, “Oh, you’re feeling hostile; I’ll wait until you feel better.” The idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insults, where the all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed,” absolves one of any obligation or responsibility. it has never been harder toThe idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insultsthe all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed,” absolves one of any obligation or responsibilityit has never been harder toThe idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insultsthe all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed,” absolves one of any obligation or responsibility Language Points

40 8 The idea that people can behave “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without commonly accepted grammatical rules. Like language, a code of manners can be used with more or less skill, for good or evil purposes, to express a great variety of ideas and emotions. Like language, manners continually undergo slow changes and adaptations, but these changes have to be global, not atomic. For if everyone improvises his own manners, no one will understand the meaning of anyone else’s behavior, and results will be social chaos and end of civilization. The idea that people can behave “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without commonly accepted grammatical rules.these changes have to be global, not atomicif everyone improvises his own manners, no one will understand the meaning of anyone else’s behavior, and results will be social chaos and end of civilization The idea that people can behave “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without commonly accepted grammatical rules.these changes have to be global, not atomicif everyone improvises his own manners, no one will understand the meaning of anyone else’s behavior, and results will be social chaos and end of civilization ( 688 words) ( 688 words) Language Points

41 Paraphrase? Why manners matters We miss something, but we do not know what we are missing. manners – n. (pl.) social behavior Examples: It’s bad manners to stare at people. It’s bad manners to stare at people. It’s about time child learnt about manners. It’s about time child learnt about manners.

42 Paraphrase? acceptable social behaviors follow effortlessly and naturally from personal virtue people who are morally good easily and certainly have good manners follow — vi. take place as a necessary or logical result Examples: The conclusion clearly follows from the evidence.The conclusion clearly follows from the evidence. Disease often follows from starvation because the body is weakened.Disease often follows from starvation because the body is weakened. More to learn More to learn

43 acceptable social behaviors follow effortlessly and naturally from personal virtue Note: “It is a commonplace in English writing to use different phraseology to refer to one and the same idea or concept”, the two main concepts manners and morals are referred to in the text using a number of variants. An awareness of this helps in comprehension of the text:  manners, social behavior, forms of etiquette  morals, personal virtue, a good heart.

44 Paraphrase? All you need is a good heart … and the rest will take care of itself. All you need is moral goodness…and good manners will follow naturally. the rest — (here) things other than a good heart; social behavior or good manners.

45 Paraphrase? the “natural” approach to human relations the idea about human relations that good manners naturally follow from morals

46 Paraphrase? Many forms of etiquette are employed precisely to disguise those antipathies that arise from irreconcilable differences. Many formal rules of behavior are adopted simply to cover up those strong dislikes among people caused by their wide differences in philosophy, politics, or religion. Translation? 许多形式的礼节恰恰是用来掩盖那些由不可调和的分歧 所造成的厌恶之情的。

47 Paraphrase? Whenever the expectation exists that manners ought to be in full accord with morals, ethical problems arise with the polite fictions or conventions that smooth ordinary life. If people ever expect that manners and morals ought to be in full harmony, the polite but untrue words and customary practices that make ordinary life easier become morally problematic.

48 Paraphrase? Madam can’t face you any more than you can her, but takes due note of the fact that you have done your duty. Madam doesn't’t want to meet you just as you don’t want to meet her, but she has duly noticed the fact that you have paid the required visit.

49 Paraphrase? With telephones and beepers, people make themselves instantly accessible to everyone at all times, it is the person who refuses to be on call, rather than the intruding caller, who is considered rude. With telephones and beepers, people make themselves ready at any time to be reached by anyone. The person who is considered rude is not the one who makes unsuitable calls to others, but the one who refuses to answer such calls. Translation? 有了电话和 BP 机,人们使得自己能随时被任何人接通, 而被认为无礼的并不是打电话打扰别人的人,而是不肯 听电话的人。

50 consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonesty follow — if you say someone or something is anything but a particular quality, you mean that the person or thing is the opposite of that particular quality. Examples: She considers anything but Indian food to be inedible. She considers anything but Indian food to be inedible. The project was anything but a success. The project was anything but a success. More to learn More to learn blunt literalness — saying something exactly in what the words or expressions literally mean.

51 Paraphrase? consider anything but blunt literalness to be dishonesty people who are morally good easily and certainly have good manners

52 malfunction of their bowels — bowel disorder or bowel complaint This is another example of using something specific to refer to a series of things in general situation or a general situation – a common form of rhetoric in English writing.

53 Paraphrase? they demand on alternative to signing letters “Yours truly” when writing to those whose trulies they don’t want to be they demand that when writing to someone who is acceptable, they should use other words to end letters instead of “Yours truly”. alternative —n. something that one can choose to have or do instead of something else; one of the two or more possibilities Examples: The management will have no alternative but toThe management will have no alternative but to raise our pay. One of the alternatives open to you is to resign.One of the alternatives open to you is to resign.

54 Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “ Do I look all right ?” Do I look all right is more a remark implying “I think I look all right” than a question expecting a “yes” or “no” answer? Such questions are not to be answered literally unless the person making the literal answer deliberately wishes to be rude. More to learn More to learn

55 Those who believe in blunt, literal truth also claim special license to be rude by giving honest answers to such careless questions as “ Do I look all right ?” Paraphrase? Those who believe in blunt literalness also demand that they be given special permission to make rude and frank literal answers to such casual questions as “Do I look all right?”

56 Paraphrase? The lack of standardization of manners result in an often angry, chaotic society, where every trivial act is interpreted as a revelation of the moral philosophy of the individual actor, who is left standing naked in his mores. Without the generally accepted rules of good social behavior a society will become often uncontrollable and chaotic, in which each person is seen to be acting upon his own moral standard undisguisedly. mores — n. [pl.] traditional ways of behaving that are typical of a particular (part) of society. Examples: middle-class moresmiddle-class mores the mores and culture of the Japanese.the mores and culture of the Japanese.

57 Translation? Today, each person claims the right not only to design his own etiquette, but also to take offense if others do not observe it, even if he has not troubled to acquaint them with his preference. 今天, 每个人都声称不仅有权设计自己的礼节,而且有 权在别人不遵守这些礼节时发火,即使他并未费神让别 人了解他的喜好。

58 Paraphrase? but this one turns around and spits in his eye but this lady turns around and showed herself to be very annoyed with him

59 Examples: He is very untidy about the house — mind you, I’m not much better.He is very untidy about the house — mind you, I’m not much better. She’s fairly rude to his father — mind you, he deserves it most of the time.She’s fairly rude to his father — mind you, he deserves it most of the time. mind you — please note. You use mind you when you are adding a piece of information to something you have said, especially when the new information explains what you have said, or introduces a contrast.

60 Paraphrase? operate on different systems of etiquette act upon different standards of good manners.

61 Paraphrase? It has never been easier (harder) to do sth. It is very easy (hard) to do sth.

62 Paraphrase? the idea that explaining one’s motivation justifies any violation, is perhaps essential in a world of flying insults In a world where people tend to behave rudely, it is perhaps very important to realize that they have good reason to be rude as long as they can offer an explanation to why they are rude. violation — violation of rules of good manners.

63 Paraphrase? the all-purpose excuse, “I’m depressed”, absolves one of any obligation or responsibility A person is free from all obligations or responsibilities if only he says “I’m depressed” – an excuse for all occasions.

64 Paraphrase? The idea that people can behave very “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without commonly accepted grammatical rules. people can automatically have good social behavior without observing the man-made unwritten rules generally accepted by their society. The idea that people can behave very “naturally” without resorting to an artificial code tacitly agreed upon by their society is as silly as the idea that they can communicate by using a language without commonly accepted grammatical rules. Translation? 认为人们无需借助全社会达成默契的人为规范就 可以自然地 为人处事,这种想法就像认为人们可以用一种没有被普遍认 可的语法规则的语言来进行交际的想法一样愚蠢。

65 Paraphrase? these changes have to be global, not atomic These changes have to involve the whole people, not just individuals.

66 Paraphrase? If everyone improvises his own manners, no one will understand the meaning of anyone else’s behavior, and the result will be social chaos and end of civilization. if everyone makes up his own forms of etiquette Translation? 因为如果人人都即兴创造自己的礼仪,那誰也不会理解 另一个人行为的含义,结果就会造成社会的混乱和文明 的终结。 If everyone improvises his own manners, no one will understand the meaning of anyone else’s behavior, and the result will be social chaos and end of civilization

67 Text B: Comprehension Ex. XIV, p. 62 《读写教程 IV 》 : Ex. XIV, p. 62

68 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 1.The author of this article is primarily concerned with _____. A)the distinctions between morals and manners B)the influence of etiquette over human relations C)the necessity of having a commonly accepted code of social behavior D)drawing an analogy between etiquette and language 1.The author of this article is primarily concerned with _____. A)the distinctions between morals and manners B)the influence of etiquette over human relations C)the necessity of having a commonly accepted code of social behavior D)drawing an analogy between etiquette and language

69 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 2.In the first paragraph the author intends to points out that _____. A)a clear-cut distinction should drawn between morals and manners B)personal virtue is one thing, and commonly accepted social behavior is quite another C)a person of morals is not necessarily a person with good manners D)it is necessary for us all to make efforts to cultivate good manners 2.In the first paragraph the author intends to points out that _____. A)a clear-cut distinction should drawn between morals and manners B)personal virtue is one thing, and commonly accepted social behavior is quite another C)a person of morals is not necessarily a person with good manners D)it is necessary for us all to make efforts to cultivate good manners

70 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 3.“All you need is a good heart… and the rest will take care of itself” (Para. 1) can best be interpreted as “If you have a good heart, _____.” A)you will automatically behave well at all times B)all other problems will be readily solved C)there will be no flaws in your personality D)it doesn ’ t matter what your manners are like 3.“All you need is a good heart… and the rest will take care of itself” (Para. 1) can best be interpreted as “If you have a good heart, _____.” A)you will automatically behave well at all times B)all other problems will be readily solved C)there will be no flaws in your personality D)it doesn ’ t matter what your manners are like

71 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 4.According to the author, those who presume that the only human problem is a communication problem ignore a basic fact of life, that is, _____. A)different people may have different philosophical, political and religious beliefs B)fundamental differences in philosophical, political and religious beliefs can lead to strong dislikes C)feelings of strong dislike can not be dissolved with the warmth of love and mutual understanding but can be concealed by forms of etiquette D)all of the above 4.According to the author, those who presume that the only human problem is a communication problem ignore a basic fact of life, that is, _____. A)different people may have different philosophical, political and religious beliefs B)fundamental differences in philosophical, political and religious beliefs can lead to strong dislikes C)feelings of strong dislike can not be dissolved with the warmth of love and mutual understanding but can be concealed by forms of etiquette D)all of the above

72 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 5.From what is said in Paragraph 3&4, we may infer that _____. A)problems will inevitably occur if one insists that manners should be in entire agreement with morals B)white lies or meaningless conventional greetings are indispensable to our daily life even though they appear untruthful or sound insincere C)some people believe so much in blunt, literal truth that they declare themselves to have the right to be rude as long as they are honest D)all of the above 5.From what is said in Paragraph 3&4, we may infer that _____. A)problems will inevitably occur if one insists that manners should be in entire agreement with morals B)white lies or meaningless conventional greetings are indispensable to our daily life even though they appear untruthful or sound insincere C)some people believe so much in blunt, literal truth that they declare themselves to have the right to be rude as long as they are honest D)all of the above

73 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 6.“The person who refuses to be on call” (Para. 5-8) is intended to _____. A)does not have a phone B)refuses to receive visitors C)refuses to be available when he or she is called D)seldom pays a visit to others 6.“The person who refuses to be on call” (Para. 5-8) is intended to _____. A)does not have a phone B)refuses to receive visitors C)refuses to be available when he or she is called D)seldom pays a visit to others

74 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 7.The last part of this article (Para. 5-8) is intended to _____. A)describe the often-angry, chaotic society we are living in B)explain why well-intentioned courtesies are sometimes not duly appreciated C)explain why today ’ s society has become a world of flying insults D)emphasize the importance of having social behavior standardized by a code of manners 7.The last part of this article (Para. 5-8) is intended to _____. A)describe the often-angry, chaotic society we are living in B)explain why well-intentioned courtesies are sometimes not duly appreciated C)explain why today ’ s society has become a world of flying insults D)emphasize the importance of having social behavior standardized by a code of manners

75 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 8.In the author’s opinion, any changes in manners should be brought about _____. A)on a large scale, not bit by bit B)by social members collectively, not by individuals at their own will C)with a general master plan, not in minute details D)none of the above 8.In the author’s opinion, any changes in manners should be brought about _____. A)on a large scale, not bit by bit B)by social members collectively, not by individuals at their own will C)with a general master plan, not in minute details D)none of the above

76 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 9.The author adopts the device of _____ while mentioning language in the last paragraph. A)comparisonB) contrast C)analogyD) inference 9.The author adopts the device of _____ while mentioning language in the last paragraph. A)comparisonB) contrast C)analogyD) inference

77 Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Text B: Comprehension 10.The tone of this essay can be described as _____. A)persuasiveB) critical C)humorousD) friendly 10.The tone of this essay can be described as _____. A)persuasiveB) critical C)humorousD) friendly

78 Listening Practice Listening & Speaking IV Passage 2Passage 2Passage 2Passage 2 Passage 3Passage 3Passage 3Passage 3

79 Listening Practice: Passages Questions 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, p.23 Passage 2

80 5. A)Accustom them to varied life. B)Help them choose a proper system of education. C)Help them find an ideal job. D)Make them intelligent. Listening Practice: Passages

81 6. A)Because it creates more problems than ever before. B)Because the more education people receives, the fewer job there are. C)Because people with degrees refuse to do physical work. D)Because not all people want to be educated. Listening Practice: Passages

82 7. A)With college education all of us would live a meaningful life. B)Without farmers we would have to grow crops ourselves. C)Without farmers we should die of food shortage. D)Without farmers we would have to do farming work ourselves. Listening Practice: Passages Check-up

83 5.What is our purpose of educating children? A)Accustom them to varied life. B)Help them choose a proper system of education. C)Help them find an ideal job. D)Make them intelligent. Listening Practice: Passages 5.What is our purpose of educating children? A)Accustom them to varied life. B)Help them choose a proper system of education. C)Help them find an ideal job. D)Make them intelligent.

84 6.Why is free education for all not enough? A)Because it creates more problems than ever before. B)Because the more education people receives, the fewer job there are. C)Because people with degrees refuse to do physical work. D) Because not all people want to be educated. Listening Practice: Passages 6.Why is free education for all not enough? A)Because it creates more problems than ever before. B)Because the more education people receives, the fewer job there are. C)Because people with degrees refuse to do physical work. D) Because not all people want to be educated.

85 7.Why is a work of a completely uneducated farmer as important as that of a professor? A)With college education all of us would live a meaningful life. B)Without farmers we would have to grow crops ourselves. C)Without farmers we should die of food shortage. D)Without farmers we would have to do farming work ourselves. Listening Practice: Passages 7.Why is a work of a completely uneducated farmer as important as that of a professor? A)With college education all of us would live a meaningful life. B)Without farmers we would have to grow crops ourselves. C)Without farmers we should die of food shortage. D)Without farmers we would have to do farming work ourselves. Script

86 Education is not an end, but a means to an end. In other words, we do not educate children only for the aim of educating them. Our purpose is to fit them for life. Life is so varied; so is education. As soon as we realize the fact, we will understand that it is very important to choose a proper system of education. In some countries with advanced industries, they have free education for all. Under this system, people, no matter whether they are rich or poor, clever or foolish, have a chance to be educated at universities or colleges. They have for sometime thought, by free education for all, they can solve all the problems of a society and build a perfect nation. But we can already see that free education for all is not enough. We find in such countries a far larger number of people with university degrees than there are jobs for them to fill. As a result of their degrees, they refuse to do what they think is “low” work. In fact, to work with one’s hands is thought to be dirty and shameful in such countries. Listening Practice: Passages But we have only to think a moment to understand that the work of a completely uneducated farmer is as important as that of a professor. We can live without education, but we should die if none of us grew crops. If no one cleaned our streets and took the rubbish away from our houses, we should get terrible diseases in our towns. If there were no service people, because everyone was shamed to do such work, the professors would have to waste much of their time doing housework. On the other hand, if all the farmers were completely uneducated, their production will remain low. As the population grows larger and large in the modern world, we would die if we did not have enough food.

87 Listening Practice: Passages Questions 《听说教程 IV 》 Part 4.3, pp Passage 3

88 8. A)They believe that resources would decline. B)They knew the resources would soon be depleted. C)They argue that the resources were limited. D)They assume that resources were unlimited. Listening Practice: Passages

89 9. A)They are important for food resources. B)The great fisheries are to be exhausted. C)Noted biologists insist on their maintenance. D)Fishes are fewer than American eagles. Listening Practice: Passages

90 10. A)They are endangered in the land and in the air. B)They are important species for conservation. C)They are symbols of different countries. D)They are examples of zoo animals. Listening Practice: Passages Check-up

91 8.According to the speakers, what attitude did many in the nineteenth century have towards sea resources? A)They believe that resources would decline. B)They knew the resources would soon be depleted. C)They argue that the resources were limited. D)They assume that resources were unlimited. Listening Practice: Passages 8.According to the speakers, what attitude did many in the nineteenth century have towards sea resources? A)They believe that resources would decline. B)They knew the resources would soon be depleted. C)They argue that the resources were limited. D)They assume that resources were unlimited.

92 9.What did the speaker believe is the main reason for maintaining sea resources? A)They are important for food resources. B)The great fisheries are to be exhausted. C)Noted biologists insist on their maintenance. D) Fishes are fewer than American eagles. Listening Practice: Passages 9.What did the speaker believe is the main reason for maintaining sea resources? A)They are important for food resources. B)The great fisheries are to be exhausted. C)Noted biologists insist on their maintenance. D) Fishes are fewer than American eagles.

93 10.Why does the speaker mention the African elephant, Indian tiger, and American eagle? A)They are endangered in the land and in the air. B)They are important species for conservation. C)They are symbols of different countries. D)They are examples of zoo animals. Listening Practice: Passages 10.Why does the speaker mention the African elephant, Indian tiger, and American eagle? A)They are endangered in the land and in the air. B)They are important species for conservation. C)They are symbols of different countries. D)They are examples of zoo animals. Script

94 During the nineteenth century, when little was known about environmentalism and conservation, it was common to hear people in Europe and America say that resources of the sea were unlimited. They believed the world and nature would continuously reproduce all the resources they would need. For example, a noted biologist writing in the mid-nineteenth century commented that none of the great sea fisheries were to be exhausted. Today, though, there is evidence that the resources of the sea are seriously endangered. Previously, environmentalists have focused on their attention on the land and air. Recently, however, they are beginning to discover that the resources of the sea are in as much danger. The listed endangered species now included herring and crap as well as the African elephant, Indian tiger, and the American eagle. Listening Practice: Passages Further more, the threats to fish are more alarming in some ways than the threats to animals and birds. This is because fish are a much needed food resource, and the people throughout the world depend on fish as an important part of their diet. Hence, a decline in the fish supply would have extensive effects on hunger and population. Fishermen in the North Atlantic alone annually harvest 20 billion pounds of fish to satisfy food demand, but the world needs to recognize that these practices cannot continue without depleting fish service within the next few years. Rapidly declining sea resources in many parts of the world are problems that cannot be ignored any longer. Unlike the scholars in the nineteenth century, we now know that food supplies in the sea cannot last forever.

95 We make an apology to other people for having done something wrong or for upsetting them. The following are some expressions from the above conversation used to make an apology. Oral Practice Making an Apology

96 I’m sorry… I’m extremely/ most awfully sorry… Please forgive me for… I really am awfully sorry. It was terribly careless of me. I must apologize for… Oral Practice

97 Pair Work: Oral Practice Work in pairs, choose one or two of the following and talk about it briefly, using some of the expressions listed above. You are late for an appointment. You are late for an appointment. You return a record to a friend and apologize for the scratch on it. You offer to replace the record and your friend accepts your offer. You return a record to a friend and apologize for the scratch on it. You offer to replace the record and your friend accepts your offer. You are having a meal with a friend at his house. You drop or knock over a cup of coffee. You apologize and offer to clean up the mess but your friend insist on doing it alone. You are having a meal with a friend at his house. You drop or knock over a cup of coffee. You apologize and offer to clean up the mess but your friend insist on doing it alone. Your friend has lent you a pen, which you have lost. You apologize and give him another pen, which is a little better than the one you lost. Your friend has lent you a pen, which you have lost. You apologize and give him another pen, which is a little better than the one you lost.

98 1.Read Text C, Unit 2 2.Do exercises: Ex. XVI (p. 69)Ex. XVI (p. 69) Ex. XVII(p. 71)Ex. XVII(p. 71) Ex. XVIII(p. 72)Ex. XVIII(p. 72) 3.Preview Text A, Unit 3 AssignmentAssignment


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