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Dementia : Why Do They Do That? How Can I Help? When Do I Need Help?

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Presentation on theme: "Dementia : Why Do They Do That? How Can I Help? When Do I Need Help?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dementia : Why Do They Do That? How Can I Help? When Do I Need Help?

2 What Are the Most Common Issues That Come Up??? Not going to the MD No F-PoA or HC-PoA ‘Losing’ Important Things Getting Lost Unsafe task performance Repeated calls & contacts Refusing ‘Bad mouthing’ you to others Making up stories Resisting care Swearing & cursing Making 911 calls Mixing day & night Shadowing Eloping or Wandering No solid sleep time Getting ‘into’ things Feeling ‘paranoid’ Undressing Being rude Feeling ‘sick’ Striking out at others Falls & injuries Infections & pneumonias Seeing things & people Not eating or drinking Contractures & immobility

3 REALIZE … It Takes TWO to Tango … or two to tangle…

4 Being ‘right’ doesn’t necessarily translate into a good outcome for both of you

5 It’s the relationship that is MOST critical NOT the outcome of any one encounter

6 As part of the disease people with dementia ‘tend to’ develop typical patterns of speech, behavior, and routines. These people will also have skills and abilities that are lost while others are retained or preserved.

7 Cognitive Changes with Aging Normal changes = more forgetful & slower to learn MCI – Mild Cognitive Impairment = – Immediate recall, word finding, or complex problem solving problems (½ of these folks will develop dementia in 5 yrs) Dementia = Chronic thinking problems in > 2 areas Delirium = Rapid changes in thinking & alertness (seek medical help immediately ) Depression = chronic unless treated, poor quality, I “don’t know”, “I just can’t” responses, no pleasure can look like agitation & confusion

8 Ten Early Warning Signs memory loss for recent or new information – repeats self frequently difficulty doing familiar, but difficult tasks – managing money, medications, driving problems with word finding, mis-naming, or mis-understanding getting confused about time or place - getting lost while driving, missing several appointments worsening judgment – not thinking thing through like before difficulty problem solving or reasoning misplacing things – putting them in ‘odd places’ changes in mood or behavior changes in typical personality loss of initiation – withdraws form normal patterns of activities and interests

9 Alzheimer’s Disease Early - Young Onset Normal Onset Vascular Dementias (Multi-infarct) Lewy Body Dementia DEMENTIA Other Dementias Genetic syndromes Metabolic pxs ETOH related Drugs/toxin exposure White matter diseases Mass effects Depression(?) or Other Mental conditions Infections – BBB cross Parkinson’s Fronto- Temporal Lobe Dementias

10 Alzheimer’s New info lost Recent memory worse Problems finding words Mis-speaks More impulsive or indecisive Gets lost Notice changes over 6 months – 1 year

11 Vascular Dementia Sudden changes Picture varies by person Can have bounce back & bad days Judgment and behavior ‘not the same’ Spotty losses Emotional & energy shifts

12 Lewy Body Dementia Movement problems - Falls Visual Hallucinations Fine motor problems – hands & swallowing Episodes of rigidity & syncopy Nightmares Fluctuations in abilities Drug responses can be extreme & strange

13 Fronto-Temporal Dementias Many types Frontal – impulse and behavior control loss – Says unexpected, rude, mean, odd things to others – Dis-inhibited – food, drink, sex, emotions, actions Temporal – language loss – Can’t speak or get words out – Can’t understand what is said, sound fluent – nonsense words

14 What is Dementia?... It is BOTH a chemical change in the brain AND a structural change in the brain So… Sometimes they can & sometimes they can’t

15 PET Scan of 20-Year-Old Brain PET Scan of 80-Year-Old Brain PET and Aging ADEAR, 2003

16 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Alzheimer’s Disease Progression vs. Normal Brains G. Small, UCLA School of Medicine. Normal Early Alzheimer’s Late Alzheimer’s Child

17 Normal BrainAlzheimers Brain

18 Brain atrophy the brain actually shrinks cells wither then die abilities are lost with Alzheimer’s area of loss are fairly predictable … as is the progression BUT the experience is individual…

19 Learning & Memory Center Hippocampus BIG CHANGE

20 Memory Loss Losses – Immediate recall – Attention to selected info – Recent events – Relationships Preserved abilities – Long ago memories – Confabulation! – Emotional memories – Motor memories

21 Understanding Language – BIG CHANGE

22 Hearing Sound – Not Changed

23 Understanding Losses – Can’t interpret words – Misses some words – Gets off target Preserved abilities – Can get facial expression – Hears tone of voice – Can get some non- verbals – Learns how to cover

24 Sensory Strip Motor Strip White Matter Connections BIG CHANGES Formal Speech & Language Center HUGE CHANGES Automatic Speech Rhythm – Music Expletives PRESERVED

25 Sensory Changes Losses – Awareness of body and position – Ability to locate and express pain – Awareness of feeling in most of body Preserved Abilities – 4 areas can be sensitive – Any of these areas can be hypersensitive – Need for sensation can become extreme

26 Self-Care Changes Losses – initiation & termination – tool manipulation – sequencing Preserved Abilities – motions and actions – the doing part – cued activity

27 Language Losses – Can’t find the right words – Word Salad – Vague language – Single phrases – Sounds & vocalizing – Can’t make needs known Preserved abilities – singing – automatic speech – Swearing/sex words/forbidden words

28 Executive Control Center Emotions Behavior Judgment Reasoning

29 Impulse & Emotional Control Losses – becomes labile & extreme – think it - say it – want it - do it – see it - use it Preserved – desire to be respected – desire to be in control – regret after action

30 Vision Center – BIG CHANGES

31 Vision Losses – Edges of vision – peripheral field – Depth perception – Object recognition linked to purpose – SLOWER to process – scanning & shifting focus Preserved – ‘see’ things in middle field – Looking at… curious

32 So… What is Dementia? It changes everything over time It is NOT something the person can control It is NOT always the same for every person It is NOT a mental illness It is real It is hard at times

33 Dementia can be treated With knowledge With skill building With commitment With flexibility With practice With support With compassion

34 DVD 2 dvds for $38.75


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