Presentation on theme: "Dyspraxia and ADHD in Further and Higher Education Mary Colley"— Presentation transcript:
1Dyspraxia and ADHD in Further and Higher Education Mary Colley
2An Overview Definition of Dyspraxia and ADHD Signs & symptoms of Dyspraxia and overlapping conditionsAssessmentParticipants to give information on their own experiences of the conditionPointers on how to help adults with dyspraxia and AD(H)DConclusionQuestions
3Definition of Dyspraxia ‘Dyspraxia is an impairment or immaturity of the organisation of movement. Associated with this there may be problems of language, perception and thought.’ Dyspraxia FoundationAnother simpler definition could be ‘Getting our bodies to do what we want when we want to do it in the absence of any clear neurological condition’Other names include:Developmental co-ordination Disorder (DCD), Perceptuo-Motor Dysfunction and Minimal Brain Damage.It overlaps with many other conditions particularly dyslexia, AD(H)D and Asperger’s Syndrome
6General Overlap General Overlap There is a great deal of overlap between AD(H)D and dyspraxia in particular as well the other conditions including dyslexia and Autistic Spectrum Disorder.All the conditions are generally present at birth and continue into adulthood in some form or another; and run in families
7Dyspraxia Overlap Dyspraxia Overlap Around 70% of people with Asperger’s have dyspraxia or dyspraxic traits Stern, Fernell & GillbergAround 53% of dyslexics have Dyspraxia Kaplan 1998Up to 50% of dyspraxics have have AD(H)D see Brown, Barkley
8ADHD 1 AD(H)D Definition etc. Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder is a specific developmental disorder – that comprises deficits in behavioural inhibition, sustained attention and resistance to distraction, and the regulation of one’s activity to the demands of the situation - Barkley & Murphy 1997AD(H)D used to be known as Hyperkinetic Disorder and minimal brain damage
9AD(H)D (contd) AD(H)D 2 Types of AD(H)D: Inattentive only Hyperactive/impulsive onlyCombination of the two“The most basic trait is a lack of focused attention. It is not that students with AD(H)D do not attend: they attend to everything....They also sometimes over-focus on certain tasks that they’re interested in - become totally engrossed and don’t register anything else” (Chris Derrington, Northampton University)
10AD(H)D Overlap ADHD Overlap AD(H)D has a 50% overlap with dyspraxia/ DCD Barkley; Gillberg)40% Kirby 2008A 40% overlap with dyslexia Wilcutt et al 200759% of people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder had AD(H)D as well.21% of ADDers had Asperger’s Syndrome – 36% showed traits of autism - Kirby 2009
11AD(H)D signs & Symptoms May have difficulty paying attention in lectures/seminarsMay be distracted by their own thoughtsMay act impulsively, e.g. Buy something they can’t afford; very impatientMay show fidgeting and restless behaviourMay have problems with interpersonal relationshipsMay have short term memory and organisational problems
12Signs and Symptoms of Dyspraxia Before talking about ways to tackle dyspraxic difficulties in students, I will give a brief overview of the types of difficulty typically faced by dyspraxic adults. As we go through these, I will give examples relevant to students.
13Adults may have difficulty with the following: Manual & practical work /fine motor skillsPersonal presentation and Spatial skills/gross motor skillsWork and personal organisationMemory & attention spanWritten ExpressionVisual & oral skillsNumeracy skillsSocial, communication and emotional behaviour
14Manual & Practical work/Fine Motor co-ordination Problems using computer keyboards and miceDifficulty measuring accuratelySlow, poor and/ or illegible handwritingMessy presentation/workDifficulty with staplers, photocopying etc.Difficulty doing manual work, craftwork laboratory workDifficulty folding clothes, sheets etc., changing duvet covers
15Personal Presentation & Spatial Skills/ Gross motor skills Untidy and rumpledClumsy gaitPoor postureFrequently drop things and trip overPoor at sport, especially team & ball gamesPoor balance/ difficulty going up anddownstairs and hillsDifficulty with driving and using turnstiles
17Memory and Attention Span (Dyspraxia & ADHD) Short attention spanPoor short term memoryEasily distracted I when studying, especially by noise and bright lights. Open plan libraries can be a real problemDifficulty following instructions and discussions, e.g. in seminarsSlow retrieval of information, especially when under stressBecoming disorientated, for example, getting lost in large buildings and difficulty finding their way to new places on time.
18Written Expression mainly dyspraxia Erratic spelling and punctuationAwkward and confused sentence structure and sequencingPoor proof-readingInclusion of irrelevant material in assignments/essaysSlow to complete work
19Visual and Oral SkillsTrouble keeping place while reading and writing, tracking problemsPoor relocating - cannot easily look from blackboard to note padDifficulty with word findingWrong pronunciation of newly-introduced wordsSpeaking indistinctly, loudly, quietly, fast or slowlyPronunciation problems generallyInterrupting inappropriatelyDifficulty learning foreign languages
20Numeracy and Mathematical Skills Tendency to reverse and mis-copy numbers, signs, decimal pointsFrequent and apparently ‘careless’ mistakesParticular difficulty with geometry- both drawing and using equipment such as compass or protractorDifficulties with spatial awareness e.g. when drawing shapes, graphs, tables etc.
21Social, Communication and Emotional Difficulties (dyspraxia & ADHD) Problems with oral interaction & communication with staff and other studentsCan appear rude or impatient unintentionallyDon’t understand the unwritten rules of the collegeLow self-esteem & lack of confidenceFrustration, defensiveness, aggression – Difficulty modulating emotionsOver-talkative & excitable behaviourWithdrawn & reservedAnxiety, stress, depression and mood swings
22On the Positive Side Creative and original thinkers Good strategic thinkers & problem-solversDetermined, hard-workingHighly motivatedMany have developed their own strategies to overcome some of their difficultiesEmpatheticSome may be really good at writing
23Executive Functions in AD(H)D and Dyspraxia Executive Functions are central processes that are most intimately involved in providing organisation and order to our actions and behaviour .DrewThey include:Non verbal working memory including foresight and planning, hindsight, sense of time and concentrationVerbal working memory or internalisation of speechSelf regulation of emotions and behaviourReconstitution – learning from experienceBarkley 1997
24General Help for Students Relaxation& Exercise e.g. yoga & meditationSocial Skills Training/ AssertivenessSelf esteem BuildingHerbal remedies, fatty acid food supplements such as eye qDietMentoring/coaching ( particularly for AD(H)DCounselling, NLP, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CBT)Occupational/Perceptual TherapyStudy skills courses and time management skillsMedication
25Disability/Dyslexia Support Grants - help students access grants if necessaryInform tutors of the student’s disability and advocate for them if necessarySet up support Groups if possibleMentoring/coaching - particularly when & if students are doing work placements and in some cases with everyday livingProvide advice on suitable courses and help when settling inPolicy – have a university/policy on helping students with dyspraxia etc.
26Give clear handouts on a subject in large fonts In LecturesGive clear handouts on a subject in large fontsWrite new terms on blackboardLet them use mini disc players or helpers for note-taking ( the former can be difficult for dyspraxics to work)Repeat & summarise main points of the lectureUnderstand that students are easily distractedVideo lectures if possibleUse Multi-sensory materialsBreak things down into segments
27In Seminars & Tutorials Give students more time in general to frame and answer questionsHelp students to prioritise books on the reading listGive extra time for course workBe aware that students are easily distracted by noise and movementAllow students to take regular breaksUnderstand if students talk too loudly for or appear rude or interrupt - remember they find following oral discussions stressful)
28In Seminars and Tutorials 2 Use existing examples of essays and reports to help students know what is expected of themGive clear instructions and repeat themDemonstrate procedures several timesLeave nothing to the imagination- spell everything outEncourage them as much as possible/emphasise strengthsLet other students help them- buddy system
29Writing Essays & Reports One to one tuition at least once a week is essentialHelp with planning & organisation of written work e.g spider charts/mind mapsHelp with writing & paragraphingExisting essays & reports to be offered as examplesHelp with proof-readingHelp with time management & organisationPartitioned areas in libraries to work in (carrels)Sometimes different formats such as presentation will be more suitable for the student than writing essays or reports
30Help with Practical Work Wherever possible, excuse them from – or give them help with practical work (e.g. Training for nursery or dyslexia teaching)Give lots of extra help and training on essential practical work
31Exams: before & duringExtra help with revision, including memory strategiesExtra timeComputers - being able to use one in an examScribes when necessaryAllowances for dyspraxiaOwn room. Many need to study and take exams in quiet rooms to avoid distractions
32Technological Hardware Word processors with good spell and grammar checksLap topsMonitors - large monitors are easier to work withComputer mice - one that is easy to control e.g anir mouseScannersKeyboards - large ergonomic onesMini disc players with large buttons if possiblePersonal organisersSatellite navigation for walkingProvide with footstools and wrist-rests
33Technological Software Voice-activated software such as dragon dictateText-to-speech software such as texthelpPlanning software such as Mind-Manager or Mind GeniusPredictive software such as penpal and wordbarPublisher can be great for producing leaflets, newsletters etc if you use the templatesScreen ruler to help trackingTraining time
34Equipment/GadgetsUse Dycem, for example, to secure objects in the laboratory or when cookingTalking calculators with large keysSpecial compassesSpecial scissors e.g giro grips, mini cutters, potato peelersCorrective pens / ink eraser fluidSpecial pens e.g fat pens - not ball points/ sloping boardsSpecial rulers e.g. with a ridgeWet wipes for cleaning
35Concluding commentsSome courses may be especially hard for dyspraxic people - especially those that involve practical skills and/or manual dexterity (e.g. craft work, physics, chemistry). They may also have problems with everyday tasks such as using washing machines.Dyspraxic people are not all the same; some will have most of the symptoms; some only a few. Some will be severe, others mild. In most cases their dyspraxia will overlap with other neuro-diverse conditions especially AD(H)D. Therefore, you need to focus on more than one condition when supporting students with dyspraxia.