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Gender & the Evaluation of Teaching Joey Sprague Department of Sociology University of Kansas.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender & the Evaluation of Teaching Joey Sprague Department of Sociology University of Kansas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender & the Evaluation of Teaching Joey Sprague Department of Sociology University of Kansas

2 Reasons to Evaluate Teaching Skill development Personnel decisions

3 Administrators rely on Student Ratings % of Deans “always use” 197854.8 198880.3 199788.1 in 1997always use Classroom visits 40.3 Syllabi, exams38.6

4 Quantitative Measures Assume a constant metric Assume a constant referent But standards are gendered

5 Research on Social Cognition: Interaction requires shared frames We frame instantly Primary: sex, race & age Frames evoke stereotypes Stereotypes influence us without our knowing

6 In any social institution Frames for people Frames for roles Institutional frames are often gendered Gender is “in the background”

7 Gender & Race Expectations Evidence Needed to Demonstrate an Attribute

8 Things That Encourage Stereotyping Salience Time pressure Weak accountability

9 Gender Shapes Evaluation Who has influence Who is smart Who is likable How work is counted

10 Do Students See through Gender? SOME RESEARCH

11 Professor = Masculine ( Burns-Glover & Veith 1995)  Scenario: Important in a job candidate?  Sam, Sarah, Dr. Lawson  More masculine characteristics  Sam: expert, own opinion, challenging  Sarah: available, flexible, caring  Dr. Lawson = Sam

12 Open-ended Q’s Reveal More Bias (Bachen, McLoughlin, & Garcia 1999  Ratings on attributes ◦ M: no gender difference ◦ W: Women higher on caring, interactive  Open ended question ◦ 50% of M & 62% of W: yes ◦ Women compared to a male standard ◦ W: hold all teachers accountable for caring ◦ M: only women teachers accountable for caring

13 Grades Matter (Sinclair and Kunda 2000) Survey: last semester’s teachers, courses, grades grades evaluations women punished most Experiment: evaluate the evaluator feedback evaluations women punished most

14 How students recall teachers Sprague & Massoni 2005 Describe best and worst-ever teachers Data: Categories of Perception – Words – …. Synonym clusters – ……………..Dimensions

15 BEST-EVER TEACHERS MenWomen% Women N of Teachers13515353 N of Words50056253

16 Men Women Clusterf f FUNNY/FUN funny22funny5 humorous6 1 witty3fun loving1 entertaining3 1 sarcastic2 great sense of humor1 fun luvin1 hilarious1 fun9 19 enjoyable1 made learning fun1

17 Men Women NURTURING loving1 3giving2 Sharing1personal1student oriented1 personal1sharing1always there for you1 selfless1 encouraging8 7 patient5 9compassionate4 supportive1nurturing2sympathetic3 assuring1supportive3empathetic1 complimentary1empathic1 believing in me1 look out for my best1

18 BEST TEACHER: Dimensions of Evaluation GENDER-COMPARABLE GENDER- LOADEDIntelligent Funny/Fun Clear Nurturing Hard Worker Nonauthoritarian Challenging Interactive Committed Energetic Strict Understanding Fair Engaging Open-Minded Attractive Respectful Easy Approachable Caring Personable Good Person Positive Interested Honest Available Aggressive Gender ComparableGender-Loaded IntelligentFunny/Fun ClearNurturing Hard WorkerNonauthoritarian ChallengingInteractive CommittedEnergetic StrictUnderstanding FairEngaging Open-MindedAttractive RespectfulEasy Approachable Caring Personable Good Person Positive Interested Honest Available Aggressive Dimensions for Evaluating Best Ever Teacher

19 MenWomen% Women N of Teachers14114751 N of Words51452951 WORST-EVER TEACHER

20 Men Women angry4 6 grouchy1temper2 bad temper1 temperamental1 ill-tempered1 irritable1 cranky1 snappy1 loud2 4 obnoxious2smart ass1 smart alec1 sarcastic1 loud mouth1 juvenile1 RUDE - I

21 Men Women rude28rude17 disrespectful3inconsiderate3 4disrespectful2 not respecting of students1 thoughtless1 insolent1 insulting1 lack of respect1 hypocritical2 2 insincere2manipulative2 dishonest1phony1 manipulative1fake1 insincere1 deceiving1 RUDE - II

22 Men Women mean14mean23 malevolent1harsh1 wants to give bad grades1sarcastically mean1 nasty attitude1ridiculed students1 harsh1ill-willed1 only interest punish students1 nasty1 out to fail1 vindictive1 threatening1 inimical1 MEAN - I

23 Men Women bitch3 bitchy1 bitch towards male students1 witch1 feminazi1 cruel2 1 abusive1 hateful1 aggressive2 1 overly aggressive1 argumentative1 overbearing1 provocative1 MEAN - II

24 GENDER-COMPARABLEGENDER-LOADED IgnorantRude ConfusingMean DemandingPsychotic EasyCold BoringNegative LazyToo Intelligent RigidUnfair WeakDisengaged UncaringArrogant Unhelpful Intimidating Unconfident Ugly Refs to Age Uncool Dimensions Of Evaluation: Worst-Ever Teacher

25 What dimensions are students using most often?

26 ManWoman DIMENSIONf% f% caring7715 caring11220 intelligent5711intelligent559.8 funny/fun5010energetic519 energetic459nurturing437.6 understanding336.6understanding346 personable295.8engaging295.1 engaging285.6: :funny/fun274.8 nurturing183.6: :fair254.4 fair153personable244.3 :: easy*20.4 attractive*30.5 BEST TEACHER

27 ManWoman DIMENSIONf% f% boring8115.8 uncaring7213.6 uncaring7013.6boring6311.9 rude5410.5rigid5410.2 self-centered509.7rude5310 confusing418mean499.3 rigid407.8unfair448.3 unfair295.6confusing387.2 disengaged275.3 self- centered254.7 :cold173.2 mean224.3: :disengaged142.6 cold51: psychotic*61.1 WORST TEACHER

28 Could men and women just be different kinds of teachers?

29 BestWorst DIMENSIONf% f% caring7715.3boring8115.8 intelligent5711.4uncaring7013.6 funny5010rude5410.5 energetic459self-centered509.7 understanding336.6confusing418 personable295.8rigid407.8 engaging285.6unfair295.6 :disengaged275.3 nurturing183.6: :mean224.3 fair153: :cold51 easy*20.4 TEACHER IS A MAN

30 BestWorst DIMENSIONf% f% caring11219.9 uncaring7213.6 intelligent559.8boring6311.9 energetic519rigid5410.2 nurturing437.6rude5310 understanding346mean499.3 engaging295.1unfair448.3 :confusing387.2 fun274.8self-centered254.7 :cold173.2 fair254.4: personable244.3disengaged142.6 :: attractive*30.5psychotic*61.1 TEACHER IS A WOMAN

31 Bottom line Students use gendered frames Standards for women more labor-intensive A 3 is not always a 3

32 “Doing Gender” We know we will be held accountable Perform accordingly Face consequences

33 “Women comprise 58 percent of the nation’s 13 million college undergraduates and, in 2002, earned more doctorates than men. They’re a dominant force on campuses—until they receive a degree.” Giegerich 2004

34 Do we want to be evaluating teaching Or the performance of gender?

35 What Can Teachers Do? Communicate Competence Communicate Commitment to the Group Give enough time for evaluation Teach students how to evaluate us

36 What can Evaluators Do? Increase Reliability Be more sophisticated statistically Increase Validity

37 Increase the reliability Ask what students are competent to answer Be concrete Make Standards explicit Minimize Salience of Gender Minimize Time Pressure Use multiple measures of teaching effectiveness

38 Please rate Your satisfaction with the instruction in this class The instructor as a teacher The ability of the instructor to communicate effectively The quality of this course The fairness of procedures for grading this course Your understanding of the course content

39 Improve the analysis Use medians not means Analyze variance Do multivariate analyses – gender – Race – expected grade – required

40 Increase the Validity GOALS Content is current Using best practices Students are learning Teacher is developing skills INDICATORS Syllabus readings, topics Exercises, assignments, labs, interaction with students Student work Reflective essays, training

41 We’re all after the same things: students learn faculty are treated fairly no wasted effort

42 Thanks for listening!

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