Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Writing Paragraphs. Contents Contents 4 I. Structure of Paragraph 4 II. Characteristics of Paragraph 4 III. Patterns of Paragraph Development."— Presentation transcript:
Contents Contents 4 I. Structure of Paragraph 4 II. Characteristics of Paragraph 4 III. Patterns of Paragraph Development 4 IV. Class work: Practice
A paragraph is a component part of a passage. Each paragraph has only one focus, so what is written should be closely related to the focus.
I. Structure of Paragraph Detail 1 Topic Sentence Detail 2 Concluding Sentence Detail 3
Example: My Cousin Kay 4 My cousin Kay is very rude when she is around me. （ 1 ） When she comes to town to visit our relatives, she doesn’t speak a word to me. （ 2 ） When I am around her, Kay ignores me completely, although when I am not around her, her big loud mouth is always taking about me behind my back. （ 3 ） She probably acts like this because she dislikes me, and she does not want to have anything to do with me. Kay is not an easy person to get along with because she is rude and immature. 主题句 扩展句 1 扩展句 2 扩展句 3 结尾句
Topic Sentence Topic + controlling idea ( 主题 + 段意） 4 Topic My cousin Kay People take part in sports Traffic is 4 Controlling idea is very rude when she is around me. for various reasons. one of the essential activities in our society.
Concluding Sentence 4 1. Summary of the main idea 4 2. Restatement of the topic Sentence
II. Characteristics of Paragraph 4 1. Unity 4 2. Coherence Deal with a single topic State a single thought Focus on the topic sentence 1) The part of the paragraph should be logically connected. 2) Each sentence naturally leads to the next sentence in explaining and developing the central idea. 3) The paragraph is an integrated whole, rather than a collection of separate sentences.
Patterns of Paragraph Development 4 1. by Listing ( 列举法） –for one thing, for another; –to begin with, first, second, also, besides, moreover, finally; –one, another, still another, etc.
Patterns of Paragraph Development 4 2. by Exemplification ( 举例法） –for example, for instance, for another example; –one example is…, another example is… –also, furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition, etc.
Class work: 4 Develop the following topic sentence into a paragraph, by using listing or exemplification. There are a number of ways for us to keep fit. ____________
Sample There are a number of ways for us to keep fit. First, no matter how busy we are, we should have exercise every day to strengthen our muscles. Second, it is important to keep good hours. For example, if we are in the habit of going to bed early and getting up early, we can avoid overworking ourselves and get enough sleep. Finally, entertainment is also necessary so that we may have some moments of relaxation. If we follow those instructions, we will certainly be in good health.
Patterns of Paragraph Development 4 3. by Cause and Effect ( 因果法） –because, since, as, owing to, because of, accordingly, as a result, as a result of, therefore, so, thus, consequently, for this reason –( 动词） to cause, to produce, to bring about, to result in, to result from, to be responsible for, to be the result of, to be the cause of, to be due to, to be caused by, to have an effect on
Example: 4 Colonists came to America for many different reasons. Some came for adventure. A few were religious refugees. Many came for economic reasons and for political freedom. Not all of the colonists achieved their goals.
Patterns of Paragraph Development 4. by Comparison and Contrast （对比法） 1 ）先描述甲方，在描述乙方，即： A1,A2,A3,…. B1,B2,B3…. 2) 两方同时描述，逐点比较, 即： A1,B1;A2,B2;A3,B3,….
Transitional words used 4 Comparison 4 Like, similarly, in the same way, in the same manner 4 Compared with 4 Be the same as 4 Be similar to 4 Contrast 4 Unlike ， In contrast to 4 On the one hand, on the other hand 4 on the contrary ， however, nevertheless, whereas, while 4 But, yet, although, even though, 4 Be different from, differ from
Class work: 4 Develop the following topic sentence into a coherent paragraph. Compared with cars, bicycles have many advantages. First, ____________________. Secondly,________. Thirdly, __________.
Sample 4 Compared with cars, bicycles have many advantages. First, they are not so expensive as cars and almost every family can afford them. Secondly, though they run more slowly than cars, bicycles are very handy and convenient. Unlike cars, bicycles can carry you wherever you like it to and does not need a large parking space in the crowded downtown or a garage at home. Thirdly, bicycles do not cause pollution but cars do. They do good to your hearth, too.
Homework: 4 Write two paragraphs based on the topic sentences given. 4 1. Smoking is a bad habit. 4 2. Traveling is a kind of education.