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IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

2 Unit Three: Chapter 17 congenial prone flippant rapport impasse rationale perception relentless promptreprisal

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 congenial Congenial means A. persistent. B. intelligent. C. friendly. I was nervous being at a party where I didn’t know anyone, but the other guests were so congenial that I soon felt at ease. Beware of friendships that begin in Internet chat rooms. People who seem congenial online may be anything but pleasant in real life. A congenial expression – adjective

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Congenial means A. persistent. B. intelligent. C. friendly. I was nervous being at a party where I didn’t know anyone, but the other guests were so congenial that I soon felt at ease. Beware of friendships that begin in Internet chat rooms. People who seem congenial online may be anything but pleasant in real life. If the guests put him or her at ease, they must have been friendly. In the second item, the word pleasant suggests that congenial means “friendly.” 1 congenial – adjective A congenial expression

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 flippant – adjective Flippant means A. rude. B. serious. C. incorrect. “Don’t give me a flippant answer,” George’s father told him. “Your financial situation is a serious matter.” When a teenage boy is asked to clean his room, he’s likely to give a flippant response such as “Why should I? I just cleaned it last month.”

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Flippant means A. rude. B. serious. C. incorrect. “Don’t give me a flippant answer,” George’s father told him. “Your financial situation is a serious matter.” When a teenage boy is asked to clean his room, he’s likely to give a flippant response such as “Why should I? I just cleaned it last month.” If George’s financial situation is serious, his father would not tolerate a rude answer. The second item includes an example of a rude response. 2 flippant – adjective

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 impasse – noun Impasse means A. a deadlock. B. a relationship. C. an opportunity. The jurors had reached an impasse. They couldn’t agree on a verdict—some thought the defendant was the murderer, but others were sure he was innocent. If you think you’ve reached an impasse when trying to solve a problem, take a break. The solution may occur to you while you’re doing something else.

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Impasse means A. a deadlock. B. a relationship. C. an opportunity. The jurors had reached an impasse. They couldn’t agree on a verdict—some thought the defendant was the murderer, but others were sure he was innocent. If you think you’ve reached an impasse when trying to solve a problem, take a break. The solution may occur to you while you’re doing something else. If some jurors think the defendant is guilty and some think he is innocent, they have reached a deadlock. If the solution will not come to you while you are working on the problem, you have reached a deadlock. 3 impasse – noun

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Brenda’s perceptions of others are usually accurate. She is a good judge of character. “Our perceptions of our problem differ,” Tonya explained. “Sam thinks money is the main issue, but I believe it’s a question of who controls the purse strings. 4 perception Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Perception means A. a memory. B. a view. C. a desire. – noun

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Brenda’s perceptions of others are usually accurate. She is a good judge of character. “Our perceptions of our problem differ,” Tonya explained. “Sam thinks money is the main issue, but I believe it’s a question of who controls the purse strings. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Perception means A. a memory. B. a view. C. a desire. If Brenda is a good judge of character, her view of others must be accurate. Tonya states two different views of what the issue is. 4 perception – noun

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Prompt means A. to allow. B. to agree with. C. to encourage. 5 prompt – verb To prompt her son Byron to get a job, Mrs. Davis pinned the want ads to his pillow. Fast-food clerks prompt customers to spend more money by asking such questions as “Would you like cookies or apple pie with that?”

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Prompt means A. to allow. B. to agree with. C. to encourage. To prompt her son Byron to get a job, Mrs. Davis pinned the want ads to his pillow. Fast-food clerks prompt customers to spend more money by asking such questions as “Would you like cookies or apple pie with that?” If Mrs. Davis pinned the want ads to Byron’s pillow, she is encouraging her son to get a job. In the second item, the question gives an example of how the clerks encourage customers to spend more money. 5 prompt – verb

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Prone means A. tending. B. immune. C. attracted. Mr. Walker is prone to sleep problems, so he limits his intake of caffeine. Prone to fits of laughter during class, Chris controls himself by chewing on his pen. 6 prone – adjective

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Prone means A. tending. B. immune. C. attracted. Mr. Walker is prone to sleep problems, so he limits his intake of caffeine. Prone to fits of laughter during class, Chris controls himself by chewing on his pen. If Mr. Walker has a tendency to sleep problems, he would limit his intake of caffeine. And if Chris has a tendency to fits of laughter, chewing a pen would be a way to control himself. 6 prone – adjective

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rapport means A. a report. B. a personal connection. C. a financial situation. In high school, I had such good rapport with my gym teacher that our close relationship continues to this day. If no rapport develops between you and your therapist after a month or two, start looking for a counselor who makes you feel comfortable. 7 rapport – noun

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rapport means A. a report. B. a personal connection. C. a financial situation. In high school, I had such good rapport with my gym teacher that our close relationship continues to this day. If no rapport develops between you and your therapist after a month or two, start looking for a counselor who makes you feel comfortable. In the first item, the words close relationship suggest that rapport means “a personal connection.” Having a personal connection with one’s therapist would make one feel comfortable with that counselor. 7 rapport – noun

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rationale means A. a situation. B. an explanation. C. a question. Danielle’s rationale for majoring in business was simple. She said, “I want to make a lot of money.” The rationale for not lowering the drinking age to 18 is that self- control and good judgment are still being developed at that age. 8 rationale – noun

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Rationale means A. a situation. B. an explanation. C. a question. Danielle’s rationale for majoring in business was simple. She said, “I want to make a lot of money.” The rationale for not lowering the drinking age to 18 is that self- control and good judgment are still being developed at that age. Danielle’s simple explanation for majoring in business is that she wants to make a lot of money. In the second item, the explanation for not lowering the drinking age is stated. 8 rationale – noun

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Relentless means A. occasional. B. exciting. C. nonstop. The dog’s relentless barking got on my nerves. He barked the entire two hours his owners were out. In a large city, the noise of crowds and heavy traffic is so relentless that it can be difficult to find peace and quiet. 9 relentless – adjective Relentless waves erode the beach.

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Relentless means A. occasional. B. exciting. C. nonstop. The dog’s relentless barking got on my nerves. He barked the entire two hours his owners were out. In a large city, the noise of crowds and heavy traffic is so relentless that it can be difficult to find peace and quiet. If the dog barked for the entire two hours, he barked nonstop. In the second item, if it is difficult to find peace and quiet, the noise must be nonstop. 9 relentless – adjective Relentless waves erode the beach.

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Reprisal means A. disrespect. B. revenge. C. delay. 10 reprisal In reprisal for being fired, a troubled man shot several people at the factory where he used to work. Fear of reprisal may keep children from telling parents or teachers about a bully who has threatened them. – noun

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Reprisal means A. disrespect. B. revenge. C. delay. In reprisal for being fired, a troubled man shot several people at the factory where he used to work. Fear of reprisal may keep children from telling parents or teachers about a bully who has threatened them. The troubled man shot people in revenge for being fired. In the second item, children may be afraid a bully will seek revenge if they tell on him. 10 reprisal – noun

23 SENTENCE CHECK 1 2.You will get along better in life if you are __________ to other people, rather than unpleasant. 1.Raquel is _________ to accidents, so her car insurance rates are quite high. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal

24 SENTENCE CHECK 1 2.You will get along better in life if you are __________ to other people, rather than unpleasant. 1.Raquel is _________ to accidents, so her car insurance rates are quite high. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal prone congenial If her car insurance rates are high, she must have a tendency to have accidents. The word unpleasant suggests that congenial means the opposite— “pleasant.”

25 4.It took his best friend’s heart attack to __________ my dad to start exercising and eating right. SENTENCE CHECK 1 3.My brother hides his lack of confidence by being __________. He rarely treats anything seriously. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal 5.There was instant __________ between Duke and Otis. They talked as if they’d known each other for years.

26 4.It took his best friend’s heart attack to __________ my dad to start exercising and eating right. SENTENCE CHECK 1 5.There was instant __________ between Duke and Otis. They talked as if they’d known each other for years. 3.My brother hides his lack of confidence by being __________. He rarely treats anything seriously. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal The words rarely treats anything seriously suggest that he hides his lack of confidence by being disrespectful and not serious enough. The friend’s heart attack would motivate the dad to improve his lifestyle. If Duke and Otis talked as if they’d known each other for years, there must have been an instant relationship between them. flippant prompt rapport

27 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.At the movie’s turning point, the bad guys reached a(n) _______. On one side of them was the police; on the other was a steep cliff. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal 7.When Lacey and John divorced, she tried to get over half his income. In __________, he tried not to give her any of his income at all.

28 SENTENCE CHECK 1 6.At the movie’s turning point, the bad guys reached an __________. On one side of them was the police; on the other was a steep cliff. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal The criminals are in a situation with no way out. impasse 7.When Lacey and John divorced, she tried to get over half his income. In __________, he tried not to give her any of his income at all. reprisal As payback for Lacey’s trying to get too much money, John would try to avoid giving her any money.

29 10.The __________ behind encouraging pregnant women to gain about twenty-five pounds is that low weight gain can lead to dangerously low birth weights. SENTENCE CHECK 1 8.Floyd’s __________ of human nature is strongly colored by some bad experiences. He thinks everyone is basically selfish. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal 9.During April and May, the rain was so __________ that we thought we might have to start building an ark.

30 10.The __________ behind encouraging pregnant women to gain about twenty-five pounds is that low weight gain can lead to dangerously low birth weights. SENTENCE CHECK 1 8.Floyd’s __________ of human nature is strongly colored by some bad experiences. He thinks everyone is basically selfish. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. congenialB. flippantC. impasseD. perceptionE.prompt F. proneG. rapportH. rationaleI. relentlessJ.reprisal perception rationale Bad experiences would color one’s impression of human nature. The danger of a pregnant woman’s low weight is the logical basis for encouraging her to gain weight. 9.During April and May, the rain was so __________ that we thought we might have to start building an ark. If they thought they might need an ark, the rains must have been persistent. relentless


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