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A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 3 Slides may be found at

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1 A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 3 Slides may be found at

2 Palestine has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including the Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Hyksos, Hittites,Tjekker, Ancient Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, early Muslims (Umayads, Abbasids, Seljuqs, Fatimids), Crusaders, later Muslims (Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans), the British, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1948–1967, on the "West Bank") and Egyptian Republic (in Gaza), and modern Israelis and Palestinians.

3 The Situation Palestine located in Fertile Crescent, between Egypt and a continual line of alien forces, each hostile to Egypt, each of which wants to control the trade routes through the area.

4 Last Time: Abraham – patriarch of 3 faiths, Called to moves to Canaan. ~1800 B.C. Isaac, son of Abraham, father of Jacob and Ishmael Jacob- ancestor of the Hebrews, Ishmael – ancestor of the Arabs Hyksos - Semitic Canaanites invade and seize Lowe Egypt – become Egyptianized, establish a Dynasty of Pharaohs 1630 B.C. Joseph, son of Jacob, sold into slavery in Egypt rises to rank of Viceroy Ahmose I, Pharaoh of Upper Egypt, expels Hyksos and unifies the Egypt 1532 B.C. Akhenaten, monotheist Pharaoh, causes domestic crisis Tutankhamun restores polytheism, ends crisis 1336 B.C. Egyptian Rule extended from Nubia through Canaan to the Euphrates River Rameses II, Pharaoh of the Exodus, suppresses Egyptian monotheism 1279 B.C. Clashes with Hittites

5 Last Time:- Exodus Moses born under Rameses II rule Probably after 1271 B.C. Placed the Nile in a reed boat, drawn out by a daughter of Rameses and adopted (Ex 2:1) Mose means “son of” and should have included a god’s name, as in Thutmose, Ahmose Moses kills Egyptian, flees to Midian. (Ex 2:11-15) Marries Zipporah, daughter of Jethro. Sees burning bush (Ex. 3:1) returns to Egypt (Ex. 4: 18), through Aaron, demands release of Hebrews (Ex. 7) 10 Plagues (Ex. 7-11) Mt. Sinai Moses receives 10 Commandments (Ex. 20:1) God bars Moses from entering Canaan.(Dut. 3:21)

6 David and Solomon Saul (1082 B.C. – 1010 B.C.) appointed the 1 st King of Israel Battles Philistines, David kills Goliath (1 Samuel 17) Saul later rejected by God for not following instructions Saul falls on sword to avoid capture by Philistines David anointed king of Judah (1010 B.C. – 970 B.C.); War ensued between Judah and Israel, Saul’s son murdered, David made King of Judah and Israel. Captured Jerusalem. Had affair with Bathsheba, wife of his friend Uriah the Hittite. Arranged for Uriah to be killed in battle. Solomon son of David and Bathsheba succeeded him (970 B.C. -931 B.C.). Built 1 st Temple. 1 of 48 Prophets (Talmud), a major prophet (Qur’an) 931 B.C. After David, the kingdom is split into Israel and Judah

7 Rise of Assyria 1220 BC - Babylon is under Assyrian control. 1115 BC - Assyria conquers Phoenicia. 841 BC - Israel pays tribute to Assyria. 745 BC - 727 BC - Tiglath Pileser III expands empire. Adopts Aramaic as the Official Language 729 BC - Babylon is occupied by Assyrians. 729 BC - Tiglath Pileser III King of Babylon and Assyria. 727 BC - 722 BCE - Reign of Shalmaneser V. 722 BC - 705 BCE - Reign of Sargon II of Assyria. 721 BC - Israel is conquered by Assyria. 1 st Exile 705 BC - 681 BC - King Sennacherib attacks Judah but fails to take the capital Jerusalem. 671 BC - Egypt is conquered by Assyria. 668 BC - 627 BC Reign of Ashurbanipal, the last great king of Assyria. 653 BC Egypt expels Assyrians. 627 BC - Revolts break out following the death of Ashurbanipal, empire begins to fail. 612 BC - Downfall of the Assyrian empire. 605 BC - 549 BC Babylon rules over the Assyrian regions.

8 The Exiles 734 B.C. Assyria invades Israel and begins deporting populace. 724 B.C. - Judah becomes Vassal of Assyria in return for Military Aid (2 Kings 16:7-9) Assyria conquers Samaria, deports Israelites Assyrian cuneiform states 27,290 deported Sargon II repopulates with Gentiles No edit was ever issued for the return of the people of the Kingdom of Israel – Lost 10 Tribes King Hezekiah revolts against Assyria; Sennacherib attacks Judah (2 King 18:17), but fails to take Jerusalem. Assyria is attacked by Babylon. 605 B.C. Babylon defeats Assyria. 604 B.C. Exiles Jews to Babylonia. 597 B.C. 2 nd wave of deportation by Nebuchadnezzar 586 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem – destroys Temple of Solomon 539 B.C. Exiles ends – Cyrus the Persian

9 What Effects did the Babylonian Exile have on the Jews? Destruction of Temple – No ability to sacrifice animals Rise of Synagogue system – focus on study and teaching of Torah Creation of new class - Rabbi’s Exposure to Zoroastrian Religion (monotheistic) Before Exile, Jews likely followed monolatry (monolaterism) After Exile, Jews likely followed monotheism Books of Daniel and Esther written during exile

10 Palestine Under the Persians 539 B.C. Cyrus II (the Great) of Persia defeats The Babylonians. Releases Jews from Captivity (Ezra 1:7) he is referred to as “Messiah” (Isaiah 45:1) and is the only non-Jew to be called so. Jews prospered under Persian Rule which lasted until 332 B.C. 334 B.C.- 324 B.C. Alexander the great defeats Darius II and takes the entire Persian Empire

11 Hellenization of Palestine Hellenization: The spread of Greek language and culture (Hellenism) across the Mediterranean, starting with the conquests of Alexander the Great. 323 B.C. Ptolemy Took control over Egypt Control of Palestine changed between Ptolemies and the Seleucids 5 times. By 301 B.C. Ptolemy had control Greek institutions were open to all Greek Language adopted as Lingua Franca Greek Culture was highly valued among the aristocracy 201 B.C. (Syrian Greeks) gain control Antiochus IV Epiphanes implements aggressive Hellenization (de-Judaization)

12 Maccabean s “Line in the sand” – at war with Egypt. Stopped by 1 old Roman Senator Hellenized Jews wanted to abolish Jewish practices and adopt Greek ways; opposed by Traditional Jews. Attempted coup for office of High Priest. Antiochus IV outlawed Jewish Religious Rites, ordered worship of Zeus 168 B.C. – 160 B.C. Maccabean Revolt - Mattathias the Hasmonean 164 B.C. Judah Maccabee drives out Seleucids, restores worship in Temple – celebrated as Chanukah Ushers in 100 year period of Self- Rule until Roman occupation in 63 B.C Merger of Priesthood and Political Rule – Rise of the Sadducees, Pharisees, etc.

13 Next Time: Rome

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