2Exercise 1, p . 100. Write the plural forms of the given nouns. 1. one child, two_______________2. one branch, two _______________3. one mouse, two _______________4. one enemy, two _______________5. one valley, two _______________6. one shelf, two _______________7. one belief, two _______________1. children 2. branches 3. mice 4. enemies 5. valleys 6. shelves 7. beliefs
3Exercise 1, p . 100. 8. one woman, two _______________ 9. one echo, two _______________10. one photo, two _______________11. one zero, two _______________12. one crisis, two _______________13. one curriculum, two ______________14. one offspring, two _______________8. women9. echoes10. photos11. zeros/zeroes12. crises13. curricula14. offspring
4Exercise 2, pComplete the sentences with the plural forms of the given nounsLast night I ate a lot of _____ Did yon see any __at the zoo?1. tomato _________ 7. kangaroo ______________2. potato __________ 8. goose ______________3. fish ___________ donkey ______________4. sandwich _______ 10. deer ______________5. carrot _________ 11. wolf ______________6. vegetable _______12. sheep ______________1. Tomatoes 2. potatoes fish sandwiches carrots vegetables7. kangaroos geese donkeys deer wolves sheep
5A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing. Sallahudeen was a wise king. The noun Sallahudeen refers to a particular king, but the noun king can be applied to any other king as well as to Sallahudeen.
6Kinds of Nouns Mona is a Proper Noun, while girl is a Common Noun. We call Sallahudeen a Proper Noun, and a king a Common Noun.Mona is a Proper Noun, while girl is a Common Noun.Ali is a Proper Noun, while boy is a Common Noun.
7Cairo is a Proper Noun, while town is a Common Noun Cairo is a Proper Noun, while town is a Common Noun. Egypt is a Proper Noun, while country is a Common Noun.
8The word girl is a Common Noun because it is a name common to all girls, while Mona is a Proper Noun because it is the name of a particular girl
9Def._ A common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. (Common here means shared by all).
10Def. _ A Proper Noun is the name of some Particular person or place Def._ A Proper Noun is the name of some Particular person or place. (Proper means one’s own. Hence a Proper Name is a person’s own name)
11Note 1_ Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Note 2_ Proper Nouns are sometimes used as Common Nouns; as in: He is the Shakespeare (= the greatest dramatist) of his time.
12Common Nouns include what are called Collective Nouns and Abstract Nouns. A collective Noun is the name of a number (or collection) of persons or things taken together and spoken as one whole; as, Crowd, mob, team, flock, herd, army, fleet, jury, family, nation, parliament, committee.
13A fleet = a collection of ships or vessels A fleet = a collection of ships or vessels. An army = a collection of soldiers. A crowd = a collection of people. The police dispersed the crowd. The French army was defeated in Waterloo. The herd of cattle is passing.
14An Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered a part from the object which belongs to; as,
15Quality_ Goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness, hardness, brightness, honesty, wisdom, bravery. Action_ Laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred. State_ Childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, death, poverty. The names of Arts and Science (e.g., grammar, music, chemistry etc.) are also Abstract Nouns.
16Abstract Nouns are formed_ From adjectives; as, kindness from kind; honesty from honest.From Verbs; as, Obedience from obey; growth from grow.From Common Nouns; as, Childhood from child; slavery from slave.
17ExercisePoint out the nouns in the following sentences, and say whether they are Common, Proper, Collective or Abstract:The crowd was very big.Always say the truth.We all love honesty.1. crowd: Collective truth: Abstract honesty: Abstract
184. Our class consists of twenty pupils. 5. The elephant has great strength.6. Solomon was famous for his wisdom.7. Cleanliness is wonderful.4. class: Collective/ pupils: Common 5. elephant: Common/ strength: Abstract6. Solomon: Proper/ wisdom: Abstract 7. Cleanliness: Abstract.
198. We saw a fleet of ships in the harbor. 9. The class is studying grammar.10.The Nile overflows its banks every year.8. fleet: collective/ harbor: Common 9. class: collective/ grammar: Abstract10.Nile: Proper/ bank, year: Common
21song—songs The plural of most nouns is formed by adding final –s box—boxes Final -es is added to nouns that end in -sh, -ch, -s, -z, and - x
22baby—babies The plural of words that end in a consonant + -y is spelled -ies
23The above nouns have irregular plural forms that don’t end in –s. tooth – teethmouse – micelouse – liceox - oxenfoot – feetgoose - geeseman - menwoman - womenchild- childrenThe above nouns have irregular plural forms that don’t end in –s.
24potato – potatoestomato - tomatoesecho – echoeshero - heroesSome nouns that end in -o add -es to form the plural.
26video— videoszoo—zoosstudio—studiostatoo— tatoosSOME nouns that end in -o add only -s to form the plural.NOTE : When in doubt, use your dictionary or spellcheck.
27memento— mementoes/mementos mosquito— mosquitoes /mosquitos tornado— tornadoes/tornados volcano— volcanoes/volcanos zero—zeroes/zeros Some nouns that end in -o add either -es OR -s to form the plural (with -es being the more usual plural form).
29scarf— scarves /scarfs thief— thieveswolf—wolvesscarf— scarves /scarfsSome nouns that end in -f or –fe are changed to -ves to form the plural
30Some nouns that end in - f simply add -s to form the plural. cliff—cliffsroof—roofsbelief— beliefschief— chiefsSome nouns that end in - f simply add -s to form the plural.
31one deer — two deer one fish — two fish one means — two means one offspring — two offspring one series — two series one sheep — two sheep one shrimp — two shrimp one species— two species
32Some nouns have the same singular and plural form: e. g Some nouns have the same singular and plural form: e.g., One deer is ___ Two deer are ___
33phenomenon—phenomena criterion—criteriaanalysis—analysesbasis—basescrisis—criseshypothesis—hypothesesparenthesis—parenthesesthesis— thesesbacterium—bacteriacurriculum—curriculadatum— datamedium—mediamemorandum—memorandaSome nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.
34Exercise 4.p.102Write the plural form of each word in the correct column. Some forms have two possible spellings. Belief deer leaf photo tomato box fish life potato video chief hero loaf scarf wolf class kilo match sheep zoo cloud knife memo shelf
35Answers no change -ves -es _s deer knives heroes beliefs fish leaves boxeschiefssheeplivesclassescloudsloavesmatcheskilosscarvespotatoesshelvestomatoeswolvesfishes (rare)
36Exercise 5, p. 103. man attorney Write the correct forms of the given nouns. Use each noun only one time.man attorney3. Studies are showing that ____process information differently from women.4. Maria needed some legal advice for her businesses, so she contacted two______.3. men attorneys
37Exercise 5, p. 103. discovery laboratory box ox 5. New scientific ____ are made every day in ____ throughout the world.6. The farmer loaded his cart with _____ of fresh vegetables to take to market. His cart was pulled by two ____.5. discoveries laboratories boxes oxen
38Exercise 5, p. 103. beach cliff piano 7. The north side of the island has no _____ for people to walk on. There are only steep _____No one can climb these steep walls of rock.8. The music building at the university has 27 _____ for students to play on. Students need to sign up for practice times.7. beaches cliffs pianos
39Exercise 5, p. 103. phenomenon media 9. Thunder and lightning are _____of nature.10. People get most of their news about the world through the mass ____ ,that is, through radio, television, the internet, newspapers, and magazines.9. phenomena media
40Exercise 6, p.104Change the nouns to plural as necessary. Do not change any other words.(1) Bacterium are the smallest living thing. They are simple organism that consist of one cell.
41Answer (1)(1) Bacteria are the smallest living things. They are simple organisms that consist of one cell.
42Exercise 6, p.104(2) Bacterium exist almost everywhere. They are in the air, water, and soil as well as in the body of all living creature.
43Answer (2)(2) Bacteria exist almost everywhere. They are in the air, water, and soil, as well as in the bodies of all living creatures.
44Exercise 6, p.104(3) There are thousand of kind of bacterium. Most of them are harmless to human being, but some cause diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia.
45Answer (3)(3) There are thousands of kinds of bacteria. Most of them are harmless to human beings, but some cause diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia.
46Exercise 6, p.104(4) Virus are also microscopic organism, but virus live in the cell of other living thing. By themselves, they are lifeless particle that cannot reproduce, but inside a living cell they become active and can multiply hundred of time.
47Answer (4)(4) Viruses are also microscopic organisms, but viruses live in the cells of other living things. By themselves, they are lifeless particles that cannot reproduce, but inside a living cell they become active and can multiply hundreds of times.
48Exercise 6, p.104(5) Virus cause many disease. They infect human being with such illness as influenza, the common cold, measles, and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
49Answer (5)(5) Viruses cause many diseases. They infect human beings with such illnesses as influenza, the common cold, measles, and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
50Exercise 6, p.104(6) Virus are tiny. The virus that causes AIDS is 230 million times smaller than the period at the end of this sentence. Some viral infection are difficult or impossible to treat.
51Answer (6)(6) Viruses are tiny. The virus that causes AIDS is 230 million times smaller than the period at the end of this sentence. Some viral infections are difficult or impossible to treat.
52Possessive Nouns Possessive Form Singular Nouns the girl’s the girl Tom’sTommy wife’smy wifea lady’sa ladyThomas’s /Thomas’Thomas
53To show possession, add an apostrophe (’) and -s to a singular noun: The girl’s book is on the table. If a singular noun ends in -s, there are two possible forms: 1. Add an apostrophe and -s: Thomas’s book. 2. Add only an apostrophe: Thomas’ book.
55Add only an apostrophe to a plural noun that ends in -s: The girls’ books are on the table. Add an apostrophe and –s to plural nouns that do not end in -s: The men’s books are on the table.
56Alan and Lisa's apartment is on the third floor Alan and Lisa's apartment is on the third floor. When two (or more) names are connected by and, only the final name shows possession.
57Exercise 8, p.105 3. The (boys) ____ hats are red. Complete the sentences. Use the possessive form of the nouns in parentheses.2. The (boy)____ hat is red.3. The (boys) ____ hats are red.4. The (children) ____ toys are all over the floor.5. I fixed the (child) ____ bicycle.2. boy’s boys’ children’s child’s
58Exercise 8, p.105 6. (Sally)_____ last name is White. 7. (Bess) _____last name is Young.8. There are many problems in (today) _____world.9. It would cost me a (month) _____salary to buy that refrigerator.10. We went to (Jack and Larry) __________ house for dinner.6. Sally’s 7. Bess’s/Bess’ today’s month’s 10. Jack and Larry’s
59Exercise 9, p.105 3. My uncle is my father brother. Correct the errors. Use the possessive nouns by adding apostrophes and final -s/-es as necessary.3. My uncle is my father brother.4. I have four aunts. All of my aunt homes are within walking distance of my mother apartment.3. My uncle is my father’s brother.4. I have four aunts. All of my aunts’ homes are within walking distance of my mother’s apartment.
60Exercise 9, p.105 5. Esteban’s aunt oldest son is a violinist. 6. Bill wife is a factory worker.7. I walked into my boss office.5. Esteban’s aunt’s oldest son is a violinist.6. Bill’s wife is a factory worker.7. I walked into my boss’s/boss’ office.
61Exercise 9, p.1058. I borrowed the secretary pen to fill out the application form.9. Five astronauts were aboard the space shuttle. The astronaut safe return to earth was a welcome sight to millions of television viewers.8. I borrowed the secretary’s pen to fill out the application form.9. Five astronauts were aboard the space shuttle. The astronauts’ safe return to earth was a welcome sight to millions of television viewers.
62Exercise 9, p.10510. It is the people right to know what the city is going to do about the housing problem.11. Quite a few diplomats are assigned to our city. Almost all of the diplomat children attend a special school.12. A diplomat work invariably involves numerous meetings.10. It is the people’s right to know what the city is going to do about the housing problem.11. Quite a few diplomats are assigned to our city. Almost all of the diplomats’ children attend a special school.12. A diplomat’s work invariably involves numerous meetings.
63Exercise 10.p. 106Correct the errors in the use of possessive nouns by adding apostrophes as necessary.2. Psychologists have developed many different kinds of tests. A “personality test” is used to evaluate an individuals personal characteristics, such as friendliness or trustworthiness.2. Psychologists have developed many different kinds of tests. A “personality test” is used to evaluate an individual’s personal characteristics, such as friendliness or trustworthiness.
643. Many mythological stories tell of heroes encounters with giants or dangerous animals. In one story, the heros encounter with a dragon saves a village from destruction.3. Many mythological stories tell of heroes’ encounters with giants or dangerous animals. In one story, the hero’s encounter with a dragon saves a village from destruction.
65toys are usually much more expensive than childrens toys. 4. Childrens play is an important part of their lives. It teaches them about their environmentwhile they are having fun. For instance, they can learn that boats float and can practiceways to make boats move across water. Toys are not limited to children. Adults have theirown toys, such as pleasure boats, and children have theirs, such as miniature boats. Adultstoys are usually much more expensive than childrens toys.Children’s adults’ children’s
66Nouns as AdjectivesThe soup has vegetables in it. (a) It is vegetable soup. The building has offices in it. (b) It is an office building. When a noun is used as an adjective, it is in its singular form. incorrect : vegetables soup
67The test lasted two hours. (c) It was a two-hour test The test lasted two hours. (c) It was a two-hour test. Her son is five years old. (d) She has a five-year-old son. When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used. incorrect : She has a five years old son.
68Exercise 12, p.107Complete the sentences with the words in italics. Use the singular or plural form as appropriate. Include hyphens (-) as necessary.My garden has ___in it. It is a ___ garden2. flowerThis soup is made from black___. It is black ____soup.3. beanPeople can buy special food in small jars for ____ .It is called ___ food.4. babyDr. Adams is trained as a psychologist for ___. She is a ___psychologist.5. childAt a formal dinner, there are usually two forks on the table. The smaller fork is for __ . It is a ___ fork.6. saladIn tropical climates, sometimes it is necessary to hang a net over a bed to protect the sleeper from ___. It is called a __ net.7. mosquito
69Exercise 12, p.107The plane was late. We a ___wait. We had to wait for ___.8. two + hourMy brother is ___. I have a ___brother.9. Ten + year + oldArm and dog are ___words. Each word has __.10. Three + letter
70Answers2. flowers flower 3. beans bean 4. babies baby 5. children child 6. salads salad 7. mosquitoes/mosquitos mosquito 8. two-hour two hours 9. ten years old ten-year-old 10. three-letter three letters
71Count and Noncount Nouns I bought a chair . Sam bought three chairs .(b) We bought some furniture .incorrect : We bought some furnitures.incorrect : We bought a furniture.
72PluralSingulartwo chairssome chairsa lot of chairsmany chairschairsa chairone chairCount Nouncount noun:(1) may be preceded by a/an or one in the singular.(2) takes a final -s/-es in the plural
73PluralSingularsome furniturea lot of furnituremuch furniturefurnitureNoncount NounsA noncount noun:(1) is not immediately preceded by a/an or one.(2) has no plural form, so does not add a final -s/-es.
74Exercise 16, p.109Look at the italicized nouns. Write “C” above the count nouns and “NC” above the noncount nouns.2. Michiko likes to wear jewelry. Today she is wearing four rings, six bracelets, and a necklace.3. We saw beautiful mountains, fields, and lakes on our trip. We saw beautiful scenery.4. Gold and iron are metals.2. jewelry (NC) rings (C)bracelets (C)necklace (C)3.mountains (C)fields (C)lakes (C)scenery (NC)4. Gold (NC)iron(NC) metals(C)
75Exercise 16, p.109 5. I used an iron to press my wrinkled shirt. 6. They have a rusty car without an engine, broken furniture, and an old refrigerator in their front yard. Their yard is full of junk.6 car (C) engine (C) furniture (NC) refrigerator (C) 5. iron (C) junk (NC)
76Noncount NounsI bought some chairs, tables, and desks. In other words, I bought some furniture.Many noncount nouns refer to a “whole” that is made up of different parts.Furniture represents a whole group of things that is made up of similar but separate items.
77I put some sugar in my coffee I put some sugar in my coffee. Sugar and coffee represent whole masses made up of individual particles or elements.
78To express a particular quantity, some noncount nouns may be preceded by unit expressions: a spoonful of sugar, a glass of water, a cup of coffee, a quart of milk, a loaf of bread, a grain of rice, a bowl of soup, a bag of flour, a pound of meat, a piece of furniture, a piece of paper, a piece of jewelry.
79I wish you luck. Many noncount nouns are abstractions I wish you luck. Many noncount nouns are abstractions. Luck is an abstract concept, an abstract “whole.” It has no physical form; you can’t touch it; you can't count it.
80Sunshine is warm and cheerful Sunshine is warm and cheerful. A phenomenon of nature, such as sunshine, is frequently used as a noncount noun.
81noncount: Ann has brown hair. count: Tom has a hair on his jacket noncount: Ann has brown hair. count: Tom has a hair on his jacket. noncount: I opened the curtains to let in some light. count: Don’t forget to turn off the light before you go to bed.
82Many nouns can be used as either noncount or count nouns, but the meaning is different. (Dictionaries written especially for learners of English as a second language are a good source of information on count /noncount usage of nouns.)
83Some Common Noncount Nouns This list is a sample of nouns that are commonly used as noncount nouns. Many other nouns can also be used as noncount nouns.(a ) whole groups made up of similar items: baggage , clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage , hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail, makeup, money / cash/change, postage, scenery, stuff, traffic, etc .
88Exercise 17, p.111Add final -s l-e s to the nouns in italics if necessary. Do not add or change any other words.3. Outside my window, I can see a lot of tree, bush, grass, dirt, and flower.4. Abdullah gave me some good advice. Nadia also gave me some good suggestion.5. Yoko learned several new word today. She increased her vocabulary today.3. Outside my window, I can see a lot of trees, bushes, grass, dirt, and flowers.4. Abdullah gave me some good advice. Nadia also gave me some good suggestions.5. Yoko learned several new words. She increased her vocabulary today.
89Exercise 17, p.111 6. I drank two glass of water. 7. Window are made of glass.8. Mr. Chu wears glass because he has poor eyesight.9. It took me a lot of time to finish my homework. I had a lot of assignment.6. I drank two glasses of water.7. Windows are made of glass.8. Mr. Chu wears glasses because he has poor eyesight.9. It took me a lot of time to finish my homework. I had a lot of assignments.
90Exercise 17, p.11110. I have been in Mexico three time. I’ve spent a lot of time there.11. The air is full of smoke, dust, carbon monoxide, and many other harmful substance. We musttry to reduce air pollution.10. I have been in Mexico three times. I’ve spent a lot of time there.11. The air is full of smoke, dust, carbon monoxide, and many other harmful substances. We must try to reduce air pollution.
91Exercise 17, p.11112. I like to read good literature. I especially like to read novel, poetry, and essay. My favorite poet are Longfellow and Wordsworth. I have always liked their poem.13. I like to experience different season. I like both hot and cold weather.12. literature, novels, poetry, essays, poets, poems13. seasons, weather
92Exercise 17, p.11114. Being a parent has brought me a lot of happiness. Parenting requires a lot of patience, but it provides many reward.15. There are more star in the universe than there are grain of sand on all the beaches on earth.16. The true sign of intelligence is not knoivledge but imagination.*14. happiness, patience, rewards 15. stars, grains, sand 16. (no change)
93Exercise 19, p. 112.Answers 2. rivers 3. symphonies, music 4. trucks, traffic 5. computers, equipment 6. problems, homework 7. vocabulary, definitions 8. this information 9. advice 10. progress