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CEOCE 8 th Grade. What was the result of the Columbian Exchange? Page 45 The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and products to Europe and the Americas.

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Presentation on theme: "CEOCE 8 th Grade. What was the result of the Columbian Exchange? Page 45 The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and products to Europe and the Americas."— Presentation transcript:

1 CEOCE 8 th Grade

2 What was the result of the Columbian Exchange? Page 45 The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and products to Europe and the Americas.

3 What was the purpose of Fort Mose? Page 33 Fort Mose was the first free African American Settlement. It was in the Spanish Territory of Florida. The Fort provided a first line of defense from attack by the British.

4 Unit 1: Colonizing America 1. How did colonial settlement affect existing Native American populations? pages  Native Americans died as a result of new diseases brought by the Europeans, to which the native peoples had no natural immunity.

5 Fort Mose Fort Mose was located north of the Castillo de San Marcos in St. Augustine It was the first free African American settlement It provided the Spanish a first line of defense from British attack

6 Compare/Contrast Early Colonies Jamestown  Founded by a joint-stock company called the London Company. Massachusetts Bay  Founded by people who were escaping religious persecution in England

7 Unit 1: Colonizing America 2. How did slavery develop and expand in the Americas? Pages  Native Americans were dying of European diseases, so colonist turned to enslaved Africans for labor on their plantations. Africans had already developed immunity to European diseases. They were a cheap labor supply.

8 Unit 1: Colonizing America 3. What difficulties were encountered in establishing early colonial settlements? Pages 73  Early colonial settlements encountered a lack of preparation, disease- carrying mosquitoes, famine, and conflict with Native Americans.

9 Unit 1: Colonizing America 4. What were the main economic activities of the following colonial regions? Pages SouthernMiddleNew England 1.Agriculture – tobacco, rice, and indigo 2.Slavery 1.Staple Crops included wheat, barley, and oats 2.Merchant trade to Britain and West Indies (triangular trade) 3.Indentured Servants 1.Seacoast Fishing 2. Forest Shipbuilding

10 Unit 1: Colonizing America 5. List examples of colonial self-government. Pages Mayflower Compact 1620 House of Burgesses 1619 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639 Compact represents on the first attempts at self-government (Democratic ) in the English Colonies. Members were elected by colonist in a Democratic process. Set of principles that made colonial government more Democratic.

11 Unit 1: Colonizing America 6. What role did religion play in shaping colonial life? Pages  Many American colonist experienced “a great awakening” in their religious lives. This Great Awakening was a religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730’s and 1740’s which changed colonial religion. They believed that governments should protect the rights of the people.  The Great Awakening (Jonathan Edwards) sermons about spiritual equality of all people inspired colonist to begin demanding more political equality.  In the 1700’s, many colonist were influenced by the Enlightenment movement (John Locke) which spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Enlightenment thinkers formed ideas on how government should work.  Many American colonist experienced “a great awakening” in their religious lives. This Great Awakening was a religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730’s and 1740’s which changed colonial religion. They believed that governments should protect the rights of the people.  The Great Awakening (Jonathan Edwards) sermons about spiritual equality of all people inspired colonist to begin demanding more political equality.  In the 1700’s, many colonist were influenced by the Enlightenment movement (John Locke) which spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society. Enlightenment thinkers formed ideas on how government should work.

12 Unit 1: Colonizing America 7. How did the British and French relationships with Native Americans differ? Page 95 British 1. The British had rapid growing settlements in the English Colonies French 1.The French settlements were smaller and less threatening

13 Unit 1: Colonizing America 8. How did British policies change towards its American colonies following the French and Indian War? Pages  Following the French and Indian War, Britain continued to keep a standing army in North America to protect the colonist from Indian attacks. To pay for the army Parliament passed Acts or Taxes.  The British tightened the Navigation Acts and taxed the colonist heavily.  Following the French and Indian War, Britain continued to keep a standing army in North America to protect the colonist from Indian attacks. To pay for the army Parliament passed Acts or Taxes.  The British tightened the Navigation Acts and taxed the colonist heavily.

14 Unit 2: Revolutionary America 1. Explain the Patriot slogan, “no taxation without representation”. Page 99  The slogan explains colonist complaints that only the colonists’ elected representatives should have the power to levy/declare taxes.

15 Unit 2: Revolutionary America 2. Describe how the five events below moved colonist towards war with Britain: Quick Facts pages Stamp Act 2.Boston Massacre – 3.Boston Tea Party – 4.Intolerable Acts – 5.Lexington and Concord - 1.Stamp Act 2.Boston Massacre – 3.Boston Tea Party – 4.Intolerable Acts – 5.Lexington and Concord -

16 1764 The Sugar Act pages British Actions  Tax on molasses and sugar  Tax to pay for the French and Indian war and British standing army to protect colonist Colonists’ Reaction  Samuel Adams founds the Committees of Correspondence to improve communication among the colonies

17 1765 Stamp Act pages British Actions  Taxes on official stamp, or seal when colonist bought paper items  Tax on newspapers, licenses, and colonial paper products Colonists’ Reaction  A series of resolutions published stating that the Stamp Act violated the rights of colonist

18 1710 The Boston Massacre pages British Actions  British soldiers fire into a crowd of colonist, killing five men Colonists’ Reaction  Colonist protest and bring the soldiers to trial

19 1775 The Boston Tea Party pages British Actions  The Tea Tax passed making British tea cheaper than colonial tea Colonists’ Reaction  Colonist protested by dumping shipments of British tea into Boston Harbor

20 1774 The Intolerable Acts pages British Actions  Boston Harbor is closed, and British troops are required to be quartered by colonist Colonists’ Reaction  Colonists’ resentment towards British builds

21 1775 Lexington and Concord pages British Actions  British force march on Concord to confiscate colonial militia weapons Colonists’ Reaction  When British troops arrived in Lexington they met armed colonial minutemen  Patriot captain John Parker yelled “don’t fire unless you are fired upon”  Suddenly a shot rang out  No one knows who fired this “shot heard round the world”

22 Unit 2: 3. How did the words of political thinkers such as Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine maintain the morale and resolve of American Patriots? pages 112, 113, 118, and 119  Patrick Henry words “give me liberty, or give me death” encouraged colonist to support the Patriot cause.

23 Unit 2: 3. How did the words of political thinkers such as Patrick Henry and Thomas Paine maintain the morale and resolve of American Patriots? pages 112, 113, 118, and 119  Thomas Paine’s Common Sense argued that because the king had abused his power that citizens should have the right to self rule.  Common Sense persuaded individuals who were undecided to support the Patriot cause and independence and to oppose mercantilism (a system of creating and maintaining wealth through carefully controlled trade.  Thomas Paine’s Common Sense argued that because the king had abused his power that citizens should have the right to self rule.  Common Sense persuaded individuals who were undecided to support the Patriot cause and independence and to oppose mercantilism (a system of creating and maintaining wealth through carefully controlled trade.

24 Unit 2: 4. What reasons did the authors of the Declaration of Independence give for declaring the colonies free from British control? Page 128 The Declaration of Independence formally stated that the colonies were breaking away from Britain because: 1.The king had violated colonists’ rights by passing unfair laws and all men possess the unalienable rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” 2.The king had broken the social contract with the colonist and the colonist wanted to create a new plan of government The Declaration of Independence formally stated that the colonies were breaking away from Britain because: 1.The king had violated colonists’ rights by passing unfair laws and all men possess the unalienable rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” 2.The king had broken the social contract with the colonist and the colonist wanted to create a new plan of government

25 Unit 2: 4. What reasons did the authors of the Declaration of Independence give for declaring the colonies free from British control? Page 128 The Declaration of Independence reflects the idea that the people are the source of government:  “governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The Declaration of Independence reflects the idea that the people are the source of government:  “governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed”

26 Unit 2: 5. Explain the significance of the following events associated with the American Revolution: pages  Battle of Bunker Hill – while the Patriots lost, they proved they could take on the Redcoats. The British suffered heavy losses.  Battle of Saratoga – was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. It encourage foreign help from France and Spain.  Battle of Yorktown – last major battle of the American Revolution.  Treaty of Paris 1783 – Great Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. ; set U.S. borders and granted Americans rights to settle and trade west of the original thirteen colonies.  Battle of Bunker Hill – while the Patriots lost, they proved they could take on the Redcoats. The British suffered heavy losses.  Battle of Saratoga – was a turning point in the Revolutionary War. It encourage foreign help from France and Spain.  Battle of Yorktown – last major battle of the American Revolution.  Treaty of Paris 1783 – Great Britain recognized the independence of the U.S. ; set U.S. borders and granted Americans rights to settle and trade west of the original thirteen colonies.

27 Preparations For War BritainColonies Population Approximately 12,000,000Approximately 2,800,000 Manufacturing Highly developed and flourishing Practically none Money Richest country in the worldNo money to support the war effort Army Large well-trained army Hessian Mercenaries All volunteer forces willing to fight but poorly equipped Navy Large Naval Fleet Small Naval Fleet Geography Strange land with long distance to base supplies Familiar land with easy access to limited amounts of supplies

28 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 1. Explain the effects of the following discussions during the Constitutional Convention: Page 165 and 166 Virginia Plan  Gave more power to the national/central government  Number of both houses based on population New Jersey Plan  Gave move power to the state governments  Number of representatives equal from each state

29 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 3. How did states’ rights compare under the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution? Articles of Confederation  The power of the states was greater than the power of the National Government Constitution  The power held by National Government was greater than that of the states

30 Unit 3 4. Identify contributions of European Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu on the development of the U.S. Constitution: Pages 95, 153 John Locke  Locke believed that a social contract existed between political rulers and the people they ruled.  Locke thought people had natural rights such as equality and liberty.  Governments should protect the rights of the citizens Baron de Montesquieu  Montesquieu argued that the only way to achieve liberty was through the separation of government powers.

31 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 5. Which rights are guaranteed citizens within the Bill of Rights? The right: 1.to have freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition 2.to bear arms 3.to have no soldier quartered in your house 4.To have a warrant issued to search you house 5.not be tried for the same crime twice 6. to a speedy and public trial 7.to know the charges against you 8.to trial by jury, to post bail, no cruel or unusual punishment 9.for courts and congress to decide citizen rights 10.for congress to delegate powers to keep a balance of powers between state and federal governments The right: 1.to have freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and petition 2.to bear arms 3.to have no soldier quartered in your house 4.To have a warrant issued to search you house 5.not be tried for the same crime twice 6. to a speedy and public trial 7.to know the charges against you 8.to trial by jury, to post bail, no cruel or unusual punishment 9.for courts and congress to decide citizen rights 10.for congress to delegate powers to keep a balance of powers between state and federal governments

32 The Bill of Rights  The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution because some states had a fear of an all-powerful federal government.

33 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 6. Describe 3 precedents established by President Washington: pages Established executive departments and cabinet 2.Established the federal court system 3.Held cabinet meetings of department heads 1.Established executive departments and cabinet 2.Established the federal court system 3.Held cabinet meetings of department heads

34 Washington’s Farwell Address Warning Against Future Dangers:  Public Debt – government should not borrow money which would put future generations in debt  Political Conflicts -Disagreements between political groups weakened government  Foreign Policy - U.S. should maintain a foreign policy based on neutrality  Public Debt – government should not borrow money which would put future generations in debt  Political Conflicts -Disagreements between political groups weakened government  Foreign Policy - U.S. should maintain a foreign policy based on neutrality

35 Unit 3: Creating a Nation 7. Describe 2 controversies during President Adam’s administration: pages The XYZ Affair – Adams sent diplomats to France to negotiate a treaty to protect U.S. shipping. The French diplomats asked for a bribe. Adams and American public was outraged. 2.The Alien and Sedition Acts – laws that forbid anyone from publishing or voicing an opinion against the Federal Government. They were said to protect the U.S., but the Federalist intended them to crush opposition to War. 1.The XYZ Affair – Adams sent diplomats to France to negotiate a treaty to protect U.S. shipping. The French diplomats asked for a bribe. Adams and American public was outraged. 2.The Alien and Sedition Acts – laws that forbid anyone from publishing or voicing an opinion against the Federal Government. They were said to protect the U.S., but the Federalist intended them to crush opposition to War.

36 Unit 4: A New Nation 1. Identify 3 key differences between the Federalist and the Democratic-Republicans: Quick Facts Page 267 Federalist Leader: Alexander Hamilton Federalist Leader: Alexander Hamilton  Rule by wealthy class (businessmen)  Strong federal government  Emphasis on manufacturing  Loose interpretation of the Constitution  British Alliance  National Bank  Protective Tariffs  Urban Democratic-Republican Leader: Thomas Jefferson  Rule by the people (farmers)  Strong state governments  Emphasis on agriculture  Strict interpretation of the Constitution  French Alliance  State banks  Free Trade  Rural

37 Alexander Hamilton’s (Federalist )views on the common people:  Hamilton believed that the common people cannot be trusted to run a stable government.

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39 Unit 4: A New Nation 2. List three key achievements of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Pages Established contact with many Native American groups (tribes) 2.Collected valuable information about western plants and animals 3.Learned about western lands and paths across the Rocky Mountains which began the westward expansion. 1.Established contact with many Native American groups (tribes) 2.Collected valuable information about western plants and animals 3.Learned about western lands and paths across the Rocky Mountains which began the westward expansion.

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41 Unit 4: A New Nation 3. What were three long term effects of purchasing Louisiana from France? Pages Addition of new states to the U.S. 2.Conflict with Native Americans 3.The U.S. focused on Westward Expansion 1.Addition of new states to the U.S. 2.Conflict with Native Americans 3.The U.S. focused on Westward Expansion

42 The Louisiana Purchase was important because:  The Louisiana Purchase focused the United States on westward expansion.

43 Result of the Monroe Doctrine  The United States expanded its influence in the Western Hemisphere.

44 Unit 4: A New Nation 4. How did the Indian Removal Act impact the Cherokee and Seminole Nations? Pages  The Indian Removal Act forced the Cherokee people to give up their land and begin the 800 mile march known as The Trail of Tears. The Seminoles under the leader Osceola resisted the Indian Removal Act with force and the Second Seminole War began. Some 4,000 Seminole were removed and hundreds others were killed.

45 Cherokee Nation Trail of Tears Cherokees adopted white culture, had own government and a writing system developed by Sequoya. Georgia took their land, and Cherokees sued the state. Supreme Court ruled in the Cherokees’ favor in Worcester v. Georgia, but President Jackson sided with Georgia and took no action to enforce the ruling. This violated his presidential oath to uphold the laws of the land. In 1838, U.S. troops forced Cherokees on 800-mile march to Indian Territory. One-fourth of 18,000 Cherokees died. Unit 4: A New Nation 4. How did the Indian Removal Act impact the Cherokee and Seminole Nations? Pages

46 Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South? Pages  Tensions increased between the North and South because their economies differed and the higher tariffs helped the industrial north, but hurt the agricultural south.

47 Unit 4: A New Nation 5. How did the Tariff of Abominations increase tensions between the North and the South? Pages North  Economy based on manufacturing  Support for tariffs – American goods could be sold at lower prices than could British goods South  Economy based on agriculture  Opposition to tariffs, which increased the cost of imported goods

48 Tariff of Abominations  In 1827, northern manufacturers demanded a tariff on imported wool goods.  Would provide protection against foreign competition  Southerners opposed a tariff because it would hurt their economy.  Congress passed a high tariff on imports before Jackson became president.  The South called it the Tariff of Abominations.  In 1827, northern manufacturers demanded a tariff on imported wool goods.  Would provide protection against foreign competition  Southerners opposed a tariff because it would hurt their economy.  Congress passed a high tariff on imports before Jackson became president.  The South called it the Tariff of Abominations.

49 Unit 4: A New Nation 6. McCulloch v. Maryland ruled on the National Bank, but what was the broader interpretation? Page 269  Federal v. State authority  The National Government had sovereignty over state governments.  Federal v. State authority  The National Government had sovereignty over state governments.

50 Unit 4: A New Nation 6. McCulloch v. Maryland ruled on the National Bank, but what was the broader interpretation? Page 269  Jackson did not always support federal power.  Opposed Second Bank of the United States.  Believed it unconstitutional: only states should have banking power.  Southern states opposed the Bank because they believed it only helped the wealthy.  In McCulloch v. Maryland, Supreme Court ruled the national bank was constitutional.  McCulloch was a cashier at the Bank’s branch in Maryland who refused to pay the tax that was designed to limit the Bank’s operations.  Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Bank’s charter in  Jackson did not always support federal power.  Opposed Second Bank of the United States.  Believed it unconstitutional: only states should have banking power.  Southern states opposed the Bank because they believed it only helped the wealthy.  In McCulloch v. Maryland, Supreme Court ruled the national bank was constitutional.  McCulloch was a cashier at the Bank’s branch in Maryland who refused to pay the tax that was designed to limit the Bank’s operations.  Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Bank’s charter in 1832.

51 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. Pages 356, 357,  All groups faced discrimination, poor treatment and poverty.  Mexican Americans and Native Americans faced legal, economic and social discrimination. They found it difficult to protect their rights. Settlers tended to ignore the rights of minority groups.  All groups faced discrimination, poor treatment and poverty.  Mexican Americans and Native Americans faced legal, economic and social discrimination. They found it difficult to protect their rights. Settlers tended to ignore the rights of minority groups.

52 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. Pages 356, 357, Native Americans  Missions under Spanish rule carried out huge farming operations using the labor of Native Americans. Some willingly and some by force.  Under U.S. rule the elements of life changed little. They continued to herd animals and do much of the hard physical labor on ranches.  Loss of land and water rights Hispanics  Loss of land and water rights.  Mexican land owners had to go to court to prove they owned the land and water rights. They had to pay for court cost, witnesses, and interpreters, attorneys, and any additional legal expenses.

53 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 1. Describe the consequences of westward expansion on the following minority groups. Pages Chinese  Chinese workers were not welcomed and the targets of violent attacks. African Americans  Some African Americans like Biddy Mason were able to purchase land and prosper.  Discrimination was still a major issue.

54 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 2. List three results of the California Gold Rush. Page Immigrants move to California - from China, Europe, and Mexico; they were drawn by the lure of wealth 2.Population Explosion – the increase in population made California eligible for statehood 3.Economic Growth – businesses and industries transformed the economy 1.Immigrants move to California - from China, Europe, and Mexico; they were drawn by the lure of wealth 2.Population Explosion – the increase in population made California eligible for statehood 3.Economic Growth – businesses and industries transformed the economy

55 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 3. What impact did technology have on westward movement? Page 400  Steamboats and railroads led the Transportation Revolution. They made travel and the transporting goods to market easier and less costly. Cities and towns sprang up around railroad junctions.  Movement from east to west increased.  Steamboats and railroads led the Transportation Revolution. They made travel and the transporting goods to market easier and less costly. Cities and towns sprang up around railroad junctions.  Movement from east to west increased.

56 Manifest Destiny  The phrase “by military conquest, treaty, and purchase” describes:  Methods used to expand the territory of the U.S.  The phrase “by military conquest, treaty, and purchase” describes:  Methods used to expand the territory of the U.S.

57 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 3. What impact did technology have on westward movement? The development of road and railroads increased movement from east to west.

58 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 4. Identify three groups of American settlers who moved west of the Mississippi river and describe their reasons for doing so. Pages Mountain Men/Trappers – In the early 1800’s, American’s rushed to the west to trap beaver because the “high hat” made of soft beaver pelts became a popular fashion in the east and Europe. 2.Pioneer Families – In the 1840’s, settlers were lured to Oregon because of its rich resources and mild climate 3.Mormons - Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom 1.Mountain Men/Trappers – In the early 1800’s, American’s rushed to the west to trap beaver because the “high hat” made of soft beaver pelts became a popular fashion in the east and Europe. 2.Pioneer Families – In the 1840’s, settlers were lured to Oregon because of its rich resources and mild climate 3.Mormons - Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom

59 CEOCE Unit 5 Question 4: Identify 3 Groups of American Settlers who moved west of the Mississippi River and describe their reasons for doing so. Mountain Men/Trappers Pioneer FamiliesMormons 1.In the early 1800’s, American’s rushed to the west to trap beaver because the “high hat” made of soft beaver pelts became a popular fashion in the east and Europe. 2.In 1811, John Jacob Astor founded a fur trading company call Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River 3.By the 1840’s fashions had changes and beaver numbers had been greatly reduced so the American fur trade was drawing to a close 1.In the 1840’s, settlers were lured to Oregon because of its rich resources and mild climate 2.The pioneers were mainly farmers 3.Some settlers brought small herds of cattle with them 1. Mormons mainly traveled west in search of religious freedom 2.Mormon practices and beliefs caused them to be persecuted in the east 3.Mormons practice polygamy – one man is married to several women 4.Following Joseph Smith’s death in 1844, Brigham Young became the head of the Mormon Church in Utah

60 President James K. Polk

61 Results of Gold Mining in California: The outcome for many successful gold miners was poverty.

62 Andrew Jackson  Political cartoon showing how Jackson’s opponents resent his government policies.

63 Unit 5: A Growing Nation 5. How did westward expansion increase tension between the North and the South? Page  President John Tyler, a pro-slavery Whig, wanted to increase the power of the southern slave states by annexing Texas. Southerners feared the loss of Texas, a possible new slave state.  Northern abolitionist feared the spread of slavery to southwestern lands.  President John Tyler, a pro-slavery Whig, wanted to increase the power of the southern slave states by annexing Texas. Southerners feared the loss of Texas, a possible new slave state.  Northern abolitionist feared the spread of slavery to southwestern lands.

64 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 1. How did the Industrial Revolution increase differences between the North and the South?  Northern politicians passed higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American companies from less expensive foreign imports.

65 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 2. Name three inventions of the industrial Revolution and explain the importance of each. Pages Arkwright’s water frame – lowered cost, increased speed, led to textile mills 2.Slater’s export of British textile machine designs – led to American textile mills 3.Whitney’s interchangeable parts - led to mass production 1.Arkwright’s water frame – lowered cost, increased speed, led to textile mills 2.Slater’s export of British textile machine designs – led to American textile mills 3.Whitney’s interchangeable parts - led to mass production

66 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 2. Name three inventions of the industrial Revolution and explain the importance of each. Arkwright’s Water Frame Slater’s export of British Textile Machine Designs Whitney’s Interchange able Parts 1.lowered cost, increased speed, led to textile mills 1. led to American textile mills 1. led to mass production

67 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 3. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of urban living as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Pages Advantages  New Jobs  Entertainment  Enriched cultural life  Better Transportation Disadvantages  Overcrowding  Unsafe housing  Lack of public services  Unhealthy conditions led to disease and epidemics  Crime  Fire danger  No permanent police force

68 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 4. Explain how the law of supply and demand impacted cotton prices after the invention of the cotton gin. Pages  The cotton gin made processing cotton easier and quicker  increased production of cotton as a cash crop led to an economic boom.  The cotton gin made processing cotton easier and quicker  increased production of cotton as a cash crop led to an economic boom.

69 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 5. How did immigration influence the industrial revolution and westward expansion? Page 440  Many immigrants went to the Midwest to farm; others filled the need for cheap labor in towns and cities, especially in the northwest.

70 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Educational Reform :  Education reform created opportunities for women.  Catharine Beecher started an all-female academy.  Women’s colleges opened, the first in  Education reform also helped people with special needs.  Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in Educational Reform :  Education reform created opportunities for women.  Catharine Beecher started an all-female academy.  Women’s colleges opened, the first in  Education reform also helped people with special needs.  Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in 1831.

71 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Second Great Awakening : Pages  Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.  Renewed religious faith of people throughout America  Led to involvement in social reform movements Second Great Awakening : Pages  Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.  Renewed religious faith of people throughout America  Led to involvement in social reform movements

72 The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion.  Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.  Swept upstate New York and frontier regions and later spread to New England and the South.  Charles Grandison Finney was an important leader.  Believed each person was responsible for own salvation.  Should prove faith by doing good works.  These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like Boston’s Lyman Beecher.  Church membership increased significantly during this period.  Renewed religious faith of people throughout America.  Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.  Swept upstate New York and frontier regions and later spread to New England and the South.  Charles Grandison Finney was an important leader.  Believed each person was responsible for own salvation.  Should prove faith by doing good works.  These ideas angered some traditional ministers, like Boston’s Lyman Beecher.  Church membership increased significantly during this period.  Renewed religious faith of people throughout America.

73 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Transcendentalism: pages  The belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life. Transcendentalists also believed that people should depend on themselves and their on insights, rather than on outside authorities. Transcendentalism: pages  The belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life. Transcendentalists also believed that people should depend on themselves and their on insights, rather than on outside authorities.

74 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 6. Describe the main ideas and effects associated with the movements listed below: Women’s Rights: pages Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition. Some men also began to fight for women’s rights. Some women believed they did not need new rights. Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection. Women’s Rights: pages Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition. Some men also began to fight for women’s rights. Some women believed they did not need new rights. Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection.

75 The Movement Grows Opposition to Women’s Rights Women’s concerns became a national issue when women took a more active and leading role in reform and abolition. Some men also began to fight for women’s rights. Some women believed they did not need new rights. Some people thought that women lacked the physical or mental strength to survive without men’s protection. Calls for women’s rights met opposition from men and women.

76 Lucy Stone Well-known spokesperson for Anti- Slavery Society Was a gifted speaker who stirred the nation on women’s rights Susan B. Anthony Turned fight for women’s rights into a political movement Argued for equal pay for equal work—no woman could be free without a “purse of her own” Women’s Rights Leaders Elizabeth Cady Stanton Wrote many documents and speeches of the movement Founder and leader of National Woman Suffrage Association

77 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 7. List two examples of slave codes and explain why Southerners believed they would prevent rebellion. Page Some Slave codes laws prohibited slaves from traveling far from their homes. 2.Literacy laws in most southern states prohibited the education of slaves. 3.These laws were probably passed to keep slaves isolated, illiterate and powerless; this would help to prevent slaves from escaping 1.Some Slave codes laws prohibited slaves from traveling far from their homes. 2.Literacy laws in most southern states prohibited the education of slaves. 3.These laws were probably passed to keep slaves isolated, illiterate and powerless; this would help to prevent slaves from escaping

78 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Frederick Douglas: page  Wrote his autobiography  Started a newspaper called the North Star  Was an advisor to President Lincoln  Was a Public Speaker  Persuaded black soldiers to fight for the North Frederick Douglas: page  Wrote his autobiography  Started a newspaper called the North Star  Was an advisor to President Lincoln  Was a Public Speaker  Persuaded black soldiers to fight for the North

79 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: William Lloyd Garrison: page 455  published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society. William Lloyd Garrison: page 455  published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator, and helped found the American Anti-Slavery Society.

80 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Grimke Sisters: pages Sarah Grimké wrote pamphlet in 1838 arguing for equal rights for women. Angelina Grimké refused to promise to obey her husband during their marriage ceremony. Two white southern women, were activists who wrote antislavery works, including American Slavery As It Is. Grimke Sisters: pages Sarah Grimké wrote pamphlet in 1838 arguing for equal rights for women. Angelina Grimké refused to promise to obey her husband during their marriage ceremony. Two white southern women, were activists who wrote antislavery works, including American Slavery As It Is.

81 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 8. Describe the key contributions of abolitionists listed below: Harriet Tubman: pages 456  an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman: pages 456  an escaped slave, led her family and more than 300 slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad

82 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 9. What impact did Nat Turner’s Rebellion have on southern and Northern attitudes and beliefs about slavery? Pages , 459  After the Nat Turner Rebellion open talk about slavery disappeared in the South. It became dangerous to voice antislavery sentiments in southern states. Abolitionist like the Grimke sister left rather than air unpopular views to their neighbors. Racism, fear, and economic dependence on slavery made emancipation all but impossible in the south.

83 Unit 6: A Changing Nation 9. What impact did Nat Turner’s Rebellion have on southern and Northern attitudes and beliefs about slavery? Pages  In the south people were frightened and angered by the rebellion. The south began to have stricter slave codes.  In the north most people like abolitionist supported the rebellion.  In the south people were frightened and angered by the rebellion. The south began to have stricter slave codes.  In the north most people like abolitionist supported the rebellion.

84 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Uncle Tom’s Cabin: pages  A fiction novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, informed people about the evils of slavery. It educated people about the hardships of enslaved African Americans, and increased sympathy and support for the abolitionist movement. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: pages  A fiction novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe, informed people about the evils of slavery. It educated people about the hardships of enslaved African Americans, and increased sympathy and support for the abolitionist movement.

85 Abolitionists used antislavery literature to promote opposition.  Northern abolitionists used stories of fugitive slaves to gain sympathy for their cause.  Fiction also informed people about the evils of slavery.  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was an influential antislavery novel published in  More than 2 million copies sold within a decade.  Still widely read as source about harsh realities of slavery.  Northern abolitionists used stories of fugitive slaves to gain sympathy for their cause.  Fiction also informed people about the evils of slavery.  Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was an influential antislavery novel published in  More than 2 million copies sold within a decade.  Still widely read as source about harsh realities of slavery.

86 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  The Fugitive Slave Act enraged abolitionist and upset Northerners who were uncomfortable with the commissioners’ power. Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a jury. Most were horrified that some free African Americans had been captured and sent to the South.  Many fugitive slaves were returned to the South.  Violent opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act in the North Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  The Fugitive Slave Act enraged abolitionist and upset Northerners who were uncomfortable with the commissioners’ power. Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a jury. Most were horrified that some free African Americans had been captured and sent to the South.  Many fugitive slaves were returned to the South.  Violent opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act in the North

87 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  The Fugitive Slave Act made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas.  Northerners were uncomfortable with the commissioners’ powers.  Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a Jury.  Northerners disapproved of commissioners’ higher fees for returning slaves. Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  The Fugitive Slave Act made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas.  Northerners were uncomfortable with the commissioners’ powers.  Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a Jury.  Northerners disapproved of commissioners’ higher fees for returning slaves.

88 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  Most northerners were horrified that some free African Americans had been capture and sent to the South.  Many Northern states enacted laws that nullified its effect, making it worthless.  The refusal of northern states to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act was alleged by South Carolina as one reason for its secession from the Union.  When Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave was arrested, some abolitionist tried to use force to rescue him. The event persuaded many to join the abolitionist cause. Fugitive Slave Act: Pages  Most northerners were horrified that some free African Americans had been capture and sent to the South.  Many Northern states enacted laws that nullified its effect, making it worthless.  The refusal of northern states to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act was alleged by South Carolina as one reason for its secession from the Union.  When Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave was arrested, some abolitionist tried to use force to rescue him. The event persuaded many to join the abolitionist cause.

89 Fugitive Slave Act Made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest runaway slaves in free areas Slaveholders could take suspected fugitives to U.S. commissioners, who decided their fate. Commissioners received more money for returning them to slaveholders. Accused fugitives could not testify on their own behalf. Main Idea 3: The Fugitive Slave Act caused more controversy. Reaction to Act Enforcement of act immediate Thousands of northern African Americans fled to Canada in fear. Act upset northerners Anthony Burns was fugitive returned to slavery with federal help in Persuaded many to join abolitionist cause

90 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Bleeding Kansas: Pages  Antislavery and pro-slavery groups rushed supporters to Kansas since popular vote would decide the slavery issue.  Pro-slavery voters crossed the border to vote, allowing their side to win the vote. The new government created strict laws, including that those who helped fugitive slaves could be put to death.  Antislavery group created a new government in protest.  President Pierce recognized only pro-slavery legislature.  Controversy over slavery affected everyone in Kansas. Bleeding Kansas: Pages  Antislavery and pro-slavery groups rushed supporters to Kansas since popular vote would decide the slavery issue.  Pro-slavery voters crossed the border to vote, allowing their side to win the vote. The new government created strict laws, including that those who helped fugitive slaves could be put to death.  Antislavery group created a new government in protest.  President Pierce recognized only pro-slavery legislature.  Controversy over slavery affected everyone in Kansas.

91 Pro-slavery and antislavery groups clashed violently in what became known as “Bleeding Kansas.”  Antislavery and pro-slavery groups rushed supporters to Kansas since popular vote would decide the slavery issue.  Pro-slavery voters crossed the border to vote, allowing their side to win the vote. The new government created strict laws, including that those who helped fugitive slaves could be put to death.  Antislavery group created a new government in protest.  President Pierce recognized only pro-slavery legislature.  Controversy over slavery affected everyone in Kansas.  Antislavery and pro-slavery groups rushed supporters to Kansas since popular vote would decide the slavery issue.  Pro-slavery voters crossed the border to vote, allowing their side to win the vote. The new government created strict laws, including that those who helped fugitive slaves could be put to death.  Antislavery group created a new government in protest.  President Pierce recognized only pro-slavery legislature.  Controversy over slavery affected everyone in Kansas.

92 Sack of Lawrence Proslavery grand jury charged antislavery government with treason. Proslavery forces attacked city of Lawrence, the location of antislavery leaders. John Brown’s Response Abolitionist John Brown and sons killed five pro- slavery men in what was called Pottawatomie Massacre. Kansas collapsed into civil war. Bleeding Kansas Congress Senator Charles Sumner criticized pro- slavery people and insulted Senator Pickens Butler. Representative Preston Brooks beat Sumner unconscious.

93 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Dred Scott v. Sanford: pages  Dred Scott was slave of Missouri physician.  Had been taken to free territory by owner  Sued for freedom in 1846 after owner died, arguing he had become free when he lived in free territory  Case reached Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford: pages  Dred Scott was slave of Missouri physician.  Had been taken to free territory by owner  Sued for freedom in 1846 after owner died, arguing he had become free when he lived in free territory  Case reached Supreme Court in 1857.

94 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Dred Scott v. Sanford: pages  The decision strengthened the determination of abolitionist to achieve their goals. Dred Scott v. Sanford: pages  The decision strengthened the determination of abolitionist to achieve their goals.

95 The Dred Scott decision created further division over the issue of slavery.  Dred Scott was slave of Missouri physician.  Had been taken to free territory by owner  Sued for freedom in 1846 after owner died, arguing he had become free when he lived in free territory  Case reached Supreme Court in  Dred Scott was slave of Missouri physician.  Had been taken to free territory by owner  Sued for freedom in 1846 after owner died, arguing he had become free when he lived in free territory  Case reached Supreme Court in 1857.

96 Dred Scott v. Sandford  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote majority opinion.  Ruled that African Americans, whether free or slave, were not citizens and had no right to sue in federal court; also ruled Missouri Compromise restriction on slavery was unconstitutional.  Most white southerners were cheered by the decision.  Ruling stunned many northerners, including Illinois lawyer Abraham Lincoln, who warned about its consequences.  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney wrote majority opinion.  Ruled that African Americans, whether free or slave, were not citizens and had no right to sue in federal court; also ruled Missouri Compromise restriction on slavery was unconstitutional.  Most white southerners were cheered by the decision.  Ruling stunned many northerners, including Illinois lawyer Abraham Lincoln, who warned about its consequences.

97 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages , John Brown: Abolitionist John Brown and sons killed five pro-slavery men in what was called Pottawatomie Massacre. Kansas collapsed into civil war. John Brown: Abolitionist John Brown and sons killed five pro-slavery men in what was called Pottawatomie Massacre. Kansas collapsed into civil war.

98 John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry intensified the disagreement between free states and slave states.  John Brown tried to start uprising in  Planned to arm local slaves by attacking federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.  John Brown’s raid began on night of October 16, 1859, when he and his men took over arsenal.  Could not get slaves to join uprising.  Federal troops captured Brown and men in attack on arsenal.  Brown was convicted of treason, murder, and conspiracy, and was hanged.  Many northerners mourned his death, but criticized methods.  Most southern whites felt threatened, and newspapers started to call for leaving the Union in order to remain safe.  John Brown tried to start uprising in  Planned to arm local slaves by attacking federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.  John Brown’s raid began on night of October 16, 1859, when he and his men took over arsenal.  Could not get slaves to join uprising.  Federal troops captured Brown and men in attack on arsenal.  Brown was convicted of treason, murder, and conspiracy, and was hanged.  Many northerners mourned his death, but criticized methods.  Most southern whites felt threatened, and newspapers started to call for leaving the Union in order to remain safe.

99 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages , John Brown:  On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown and 21 men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia in hopes of starting a slave rebellion. Colonel Robert E. Lee ordered a squad of marines to storm Harpers Ferry killing two men and capturing the rest. Brown was convicted of treason and hanged.  Most northerners mourned John Brown’s death, but some abolitionist criticized his extreme actions.  Many Southerners felt threatened and began talking about leaving the Union. John Brown:  On October 16, 1859, abolitionist John Brown and 21 men took over the arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia in hopes of starting a slave rebellion. Colonel Robert E. Lee ordered a squad of marines to storm Harpers Ferry killing two men and capturing the rest. Brown was convicted of treason and hanged.  Most northerners mourned John Brown’s death, but some abolitionist criticized his extreme actions.  Many Southerners felt threatened and began talking about leaving the Union.

100 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages Election of 1860:  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election. Election of 1860:  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.

101 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 1. Describe how the events and individuals brought the nation closer to war: pages The outcome of the Election of 1860 divided the United States.  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.

102 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 2. Describe the opposing viewpoints expressed in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates and how the debates impacted the presidential election of pages Lincoln  Opposed slavery  Believed African Americans entitled to rights listed in the Declaration of Independence Douglas  Opposed Lincoln’s views  Said making states free states would lead to war  Believed citizens should decide slavery question

103 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act represent an attempt at compromise on expansion of slavery in the West? Pages  Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the remainder of Louisiana Purchase into two territories— Kansas and Nebraska.  Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery  Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line  Antislavery northerners were outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory.  Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854 with southern support.  Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the remainder of Louisiana Purchase into two territories— Kansas and Nebraska.  Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery  Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line  Antislavery northerners were outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory.  Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854 with southern support.

104 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 3. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act represent an attempt at compromise on expansion of slavery in the West? Pages The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed voters to allow or prohibit slavery.  Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the remainder of Louisiana Purchase into two territories—Kansas and Nebraska.  Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery  Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line  Antislavery northerners were outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory.  Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854 with southern support.  Stephen Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the remainder of Louisiana Purchase into two territories—Kansas and Nebraska.  Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery  Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line  Antislavery northerners were outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory.  Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed in 1854 with southern support.

105 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 4. How did the admission of new states to the Union threaten the balance of power between the sectional interest of Congress? Pages 495  The nation had an equal number of free and slave states and thus, senators. If new states life California (an anti-slavery state) were added it would upset the balance of power between the Northern and Southern states.

106 Sectional Differences

107 Unit 7: A Dividing Nation 5. In you own words, explain why the South seceded following the Election of pages  Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand.  People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed.  South Carolina legislature met to consider secession, formally withdrawing from the Union.  South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union.  Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand.  People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed.  South Carolina legislature met to consider secession, formally withdrawing from the Union.  South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union.

108 The outcome of the election of 1860 divided the United States.  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.  Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas; Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge.  The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee.  Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states.  Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.  The result angered southerners.  Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.

109 The dispute over slavery led the South to secede.  Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand.  People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed.  South Carolina legislature met to consider secession, formally withdrawing from the Union.  South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union.  Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand.  People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed.  South Carolina legislature met to consider secession, formally withdrawing from the Union.  South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union.

110 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 1. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War. pages North Strengths  Greater population  Better transportation network  More Railroads  More Industrial Establishments  More Exports  Stronger Economy South Strengths  Greater Production of Cotton  Military Tradition  Fighting on home soil  Southern farms provided food for armies

111 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 1. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the North and the South at the start of the Civil War. pages North Weaknesses  fighting in enemy territory South Weaknesses  Greater Production of Cotton  Military Tradition  Fighting on home soil  Southern farms provided food for armies

112 The North Population of 22 million Some 22,000 miles of railroad track More developed economy, banking system, and currency Strategy—General Winfield Scott planned to blockade southern ports and to capture Mississippi River to divide the South. Northern and Southern Resources The South Strong military tradition that put many smart officers into battle Advantages of fighting on home soil – only had to defend itself until the North grew tired of fighting Strategy—tried to win foreign allies through cotton diplomacy: idea that Britain would support Confederacy because it needed the South’s cotton

113 The Union and the Confederacy prepared for war.  Volunteer armies would fight the battles. Thousands of men joined the armies.  Civilians helped those in uniform.  Raised money, ran hospitals, served as nurses  Sent supplies to troops  Both armies faced shortages of clothing, food, and weapons.  Volunteers had to learn the military basics of marching, shooting, and using bayonets.  Volunteer armies would fight the battles. Thousands of men joined the armies.  Civilians helped those in uniform.  Raised money, ran hospitals, served as nurses  Sent supplies to troops  Both armies faced shortages of clothing, food, and weapons.  Volunteers had to learn the military basics of marching, shooting, and using bayonets.

114 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 2. Compare and Contrast the military strategies of the U.S.A. and the C.S.A. during the Civil War. Pages U.S.A.  General Winfield Scott planned to blockade southern ports and gain control of the Mississippi River, thereby cut off the eastern part of the South from western food production  To capture Richmond, Virginia the Confederate capital C.S.A.  Robert E. Lee tried to win foreign allies thought cotton diplomacy; idea that Britain would support Confederacy because it needed the South’s cotton  To wear down the North and to capture Washington, D.C. the Union capital

115 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 3. Describe Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and its effects on the war. pages  The Emancipation Proclamation encouraged many enslaved Africans to escape  The loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war  The Emancipation Proclamation encouraged many enslaved Africans to escape  The loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war

116 The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate states.  Millions of enslaved African Americans were at the heart of the nation’s bloody struggle.  Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free the slaves.  Lincoln found emancipation, or freeing of slaves, a difficult issue.  Did not believe he had constitutional power  Worried about the effects  Millions of enslaved African Americans were at the heart of the nation’s bloody struggle.  Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free the slaves.  Lincoln found emancipation, or freeing of slaves, a difficult issue.  Did not believe he had constitutional power  Worried about the effects

117 Emancipation Proclamation Democratic Party opposed Abolitionists said war was pointless without freedom for African Americans. Some predicted it would anger voters. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves only in areas controlled by Confederacy, effective January 1, Proclamation and Reaction Reaction African Americans gave thanks. Abolitionists rejoiced. Some noted that system of slavery still existed. Encouraged many enslaved African Americans to escape when Union troops came near. Loss of slaves crippled the South’s ability to wage war.

118 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): page 517  First major battle of the Civil War  Shattered the North’s hopes of winning the war quickly First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): page 517  First major battle of the Civil War  Shattered the North’s hopes of winning the war quickly

119 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: Battle of Vicksburg: pages  gave the Union control of the Mississippi River  Cut off Confederate supply line to the south  Cut the Confederacy in two Battle of Vicksburg: pages  gave the Union control of the Mississippi River  Cut off Confederate supply line to the south  Cut the Confederacy in two

120 Siege of Vicksburg  Farragut ordered surrender of strategic Vicksburg, Mississippi, in May  Location on 200-foot-high cliffs above the Mississippi made invasion nearly impossible.  Grant decided to starve the city into surrender; began Siege of Vicksburg in mid-May.  Facing starvation, city surrendered on July 4,  Farragut ordered surrender of strategic Vicksburg, Mississippi, in May  Location on 200-foot-high cliffs above the Mississippi made invasion nearly impossible.  Grant decided to starve the city into surrender; began Siege of Vicksburg in mid-May.  Facing starvation, city surrendered on July 4, 1863.

121 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: The Battle of Antietam: page 519  The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history  It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance The Battle of Antietam: page 519  The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history  It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance

122 The Battle of Antietam gave the North a slight advantage.  Confederate leaders wanted to follow Lee’s victories in Virginia with victory on northern soil.  Lee’s Confederate troops and McClellan’s Union army met along Antietam Creek in Maryland on September 17,  The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history, with more than 12,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate casualties.  Also called the Battle of Sharpsburg  It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance.  Confederate leaders wanted to follow Lee’s victories in Virginia with victory on northern soil.  Lee’s Confederate troops and McClellan’s Union army met along Antietam Creek in Maryland on September 17,  The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in U.S. history, with more than 12,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate casualties.  Also called the Battle of Sharpsburg  It was an important victory for the Union, stopping Lee’s northward advance.

123 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 4. Describe the importance of the following Civil War Battles: Battle of Gettysburg: pages  Gettysburg was turning point of war—Lee would never again attack in the North  It was an important victory for the Union because it stopped Lee’s plan of invading the North. Battle of Gettysburg: pages  Gettysburg was turning point of war—Lee would never again attack in the North  It was an important victory for the Union because it stopped Lee’s plan of invading the North.

124 The Battle of Gettysburg in 1863 was a major turning point in the war.  Largest and bloodiest battle of Civil War  More than 51,000 soldiers were killed, wounded, captured, or went missing in three days.  It was an important victory for the Union because it stopped Lee’s plan of invading the North.  Largest and bloodiest battle of Civil War  More than 51,000 soldiers were killed, wounded, captured, or went missing in three days.  It was an important victory for the Union because it stopped Lee’s plan of invading the North.

125 First Day Lee’s forces were gathered at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on July 1, Ran into Union forces under General George G. Meade, beginning the Battle of Gettysburg Union took up defensive positions Second Day Lee ordered attack on Union troops on Little Round Top. Both sides fought viciously for control. Union forces held off Confederates. Battle of Gettysburg Third Day Lee planned attack on center of Union line. General George Pickett led 15,000 men in Pickett’s Charge, a failed attack on Cemetery Ridge. Lee began planning retreat to Virginia.

126 Turning Point Gettysburg Address Gettysburg was turning point of war—Lee would never again attack in the North. Some 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederate casualties Victory came the day before the Union capture of Vicksburg. Britain and France refused to aid South after Gettysburg. Lincoln gave speech called Gettysburg Address at dedication of the Gettysburg battlefield cemetery. He praised bravery of Union soldiers and renewed commitment to winning the war. Aftermath of Gettysburg

127 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 5. How did Lincoln’s goals change during the course of the Civil War? Pages  At the beginning of the Civil War Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union.  After the war progressed, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and the Civil War changed to a war on slavery.  At the beginning of the Civil War Lincoln wanted to preserve the Union.  After the war progressed, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and the Civil War changed to a war on slavery.

128 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 6. Describe three ways African-Americans contributed to Union war efforts? Page They served as soldiers and fought bravely 2.The volunteered as laborers 3.They formed their own military units 4.They worked for the abolitionist cause 1.They served as soldiers and fought bravely 2.The volunteered as laborers 3.They formed their own military units 4.They worked for the abolitionist cause

129 African Americans participated in the war in a variety of ways.  African Americans volunteered to fight.  The War Department gave contrabands, or escaped slaves, the right to join the army in South Carolina.  The mainly African American 54th Massachusetts Infantry was celebrated for its bravery.  About 180,000 African Americans served with the Union army.  African Americans volunteered to fight.  The War Department gave contrabands, or escaped slaves, the right to join the army in South Carolina.  The mainly African American 54th Massachusetts Infantry was celebrated for its bravery.  About 180,000 African Americans served with the Union army.

130 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 7. What challenges faced the south during Reconstruction? Pages 553  Cities, towns, and farms were destroyed  High food prices  Crops destroyed  Confederate money was worthless  Failed banks  Merchants bankrupt  Cities, towns, and farms were destroyed  High food prices  Crops destroyed  Confederate money was worthless  Failed banks  Merchants bankrupt

131 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 7. What challenges faced the south during Reconstruction?  The South face the challenge of building a new society not based on slavery  Radical Republicans thought Reconstruction should be used to force political and social reform in Southern states  The South face the challenge of building a new society not based on slavery  Radical Republicans thought Reconstruction should be used to force political and social reform in Southern states

132 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 8. How did Lincoln’s assassination after Reconstruction plans fro the South? Pages 557  President Johnson decided that wealthy Southerners and former Confederate Officials would need a presidential pardon to receive amnesty  President Johnson had Southern States set up new governments and declare secession to the Union unconstitutional  States had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (made slavery illegal)  President Johnson decided that wealthy Southerners and former Confederate Officials would need a presidential pardon to receive amnesty  President Johnson had Southern States set up new governments and declare secession to the Union unconstitutional  States had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment (made slavery illegal)

133 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways southern states denied freedmen their civil rights? Black Codes pages required African Americans to sign work contracts and to have a job or be subject to arrest 2.forbid African Americans the ownership of guns 3.forbid African Americans to rent property in cities 1. required African Americans to sign work contracts and to have a job or be subject to arrest 2.forbid African Americans the ownership of guns 3.forbid African Americans to rent property in cities

134 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways southern states denied freedmen their civil rights? Black Codes pages to vote 2. to hold public office 3. to receive a public education 1. to vote 2. to hold public office 3. to receive a public education

135 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways southern states denied freedmen their civil rights? Jim Crow Laws Pages Legally segregated from white Americans 2.Forced to pay poll taxes 3.Discriminated against 1.Legally segregated from white Americans 2.Forced to pay poll taxes 3.Discriminated against

136 Unit 8: A Nation Breaks Apart 9. Describe three ways southern states denied freedmen their civil rights? Jim Crow Laws Page 569 Quick Facts Chart 1.Sharecropping system put in place 2.Ability to vote and hold office restricted 3.White leadership regained control of southern state governments 1.Sharecropping system put in place 2.Ability to vote and hold office restricted 3.White leadership regained control of southern state governments

137 Redeemer Governments Set up poll tax to deny African Americans the vote Introduced legal segregation, the forced separation of whites and African Americans in public places, through Jim Crow laws Supreme Court Ruled that Civil Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional Plessy v. Ferguson ruled that segregation was allowed if “separate-but- equal” facilities were provided. Rights of African Americans were restricted. Sharecropping Few African Americans could afford to buy or rent farms. Became part of sharecropping system, providing labor to land-owners and sharing their crops with them Sharecroppers faced debt.


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