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Chapter 4 Eighteenth-Century Slave Societies From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 Shipment of African slaves to South Carolina, 1769
Eighteenth-Century Slave Societies No single black slavery experience African American experience influenced by: Local conditions Nationality of colonizer Geographical location of outpost Colony’s demographics Modes of economic production Atlantic world market in slaves Sex ratio Geographical source of blacks themselves © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
Eighteenth-Century Slave Societies Two major eighteenth-century demographic trends First: Majority of slaves direct from Africa Men outnumbered women Africans came from diverse ethnic groups Second: American-born slave population increased (Creoles) Multi-racial population; familiar with different religions © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
Eighteenth-Century Slave Societies Cultural “syncretism” – blending of African and European cultures to create a new form Varied from region to region African people drew upon experience and cultural patterns to escape bondage Transformation of Africans into African Americans differed by time, place, and freedom strategies © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
New England Slave Populations Fewer blacks than any other region, but blacks important to region’s eighteenth-century commercial life Slave Occupations Put to work in skilled trades Used increasingly in eighteenth century as “body servants” © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
New England Negro Election Day Festival tradition, public election of black “kings” and “governors” Evidence of cultural syncretism Forged sense of community, secured obedience and loyalty to masters Concentration of blacks in few towns allowed for such communal experiences © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
New England Cotton Mather and Inoculation Idea of inoculation came to Cotton Mather from his slave, Onesimus Known as the “African solution” Heated arguments over the African folk medical practice Mather and African informants proven correct Acceptance or rejection of inoculation was difference between life and death © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
The Mid-Atlantic Colonies New York Colony Largest number of slaves in North throughout eighteenth century Pinkster – traditional Dutch Pentecostal celebration mixed with African and Creole dancing, drums, banjos © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
The Mid-Atlantic Colonies Expansion of Slavery Mid eighteenth century, non-elite whites began to buy slaves, and options for manumission disappear Increase in grain production increases need for slave labor © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
The Mid-Atlantic Colonies Pennsylvania Slavery Pennsylvania Quakers debated morality of slavery Led to early manumission movement Operated schools to educate black children © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
The Chesapeake Region African Outsiders Difficult adjustment for non-English speaking “saltwater” Africans One quarter died within first year Ran away in groups; caught by white troops Population Growth In 1720s Virginians began importing more women to naturally increase slave population During 18 th century, Chesapeake blacks first black population to grow by natural increase © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Black Population Growth in Virginia, Insert Table: Black Population Growth in Virginia,
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 African Immigration to Virginia and South Carolina,
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard The Slave Population Increase in African slaves paralleled significance of rice as an export African slaves taught masters about growing rice As black majority grew, so did size of plantations Due to malarial environment, import necessary The Chesapeake and the Low Country Distinctly different trends in slave work and culture in the South’s two major slave systems © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard Chesapeake Slaves had varied work routine, worked in small units Lots of interracial contact Reciprocal cultural influences South Carolina Lowcountry Lived on large plantations with few whites present Greater cultural autonomy Task system Lived on plantation units – “village communities” African religion, music, language, kinship patterns, and naming practices influential in life and culture © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 A view of Kamalia in Africa and a view of Mulberry Plantation in South Carolina
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard Rural and Urban Slave Life Two types of black society in South Carolina slave system: rural and urban Urban slaves far more Anglo-assimilated People of Mixed Race South Carolina did not prohibit interracial sexual conduct Mulattoes overrepresented among skilled laborers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard African Traditions Belief in minkisi – “sacred medicine” Amulets control health and destiny Root “doctors” Caesar – slave noted for antidotes to poison The Stono Rebellion Freedom and Catholic identity inspired revolt Spanish offer of freedom to fugitive slaves professing Catholicism Fort Mose © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard Menendez and Mose Mose leader granted freedom for military service In Mose, established families and adopted Spanish practices such as godparenthood The War of Jenkins’ Ear Anglo-Spanish conflict over legitimacy of British Georgia Menendez defended Spanish, recaptured Mose from British © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
The Lower South, Eastern Seaboard The End of Mose Free blacks did not return to war-ravaged fort Ordered to leave St. Augustine and build frontier village near original site After Britain’s victory in French and Indian War, Menendez and other Mose residents resettled in Cuba © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
The Lower Mississippi Valley French Louisiana Exercised significant cultural autonomy Slaves directly from Africa, held by small number of white masters Africanized slave culture African religious beliefs Knowledge of poisons and antidotes Black-Indian alliance formed at tobacco settlement Natchez © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
The Lower Mississippi Valley Maroon Societies Entire Creole families escaped Built huts, stored weaponry Farmed, hunted, fished Engaged in trade Juan Maló noted leader Between 1782 and 1784, Spanish governor set out to capture and destroy maroon villages © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24 St. Malo Maroon communities, 1780s Insert Map: St. Malo Maroon communities, 1780s
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