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Chapter 4 Chapter 4 - Colonial Society Comes of Age, 1660 - 1750.

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1 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 - Colonial Society Comes of Age, 1660 - 1750

2 I.Restoration and Rebellion A.The Glorious Revolution (and events leading up to…) 1.Stuart political attitudes a.Divine right b.Tighter Royal control c.Parliament a nuisance, vice necessity 2.Centralization a.Governors i.Stuarts disliked rep. Govt ii.army officers as Governors iii.militias used to quell civil malcontents b.Dominion of new England, Edmund Andros i.1684 - Mass royal colony ii.1686 – James II declares Dominion of New England iii.Sir Edmund Andros royal governor A)strict Navigation act enforcer B)forced sharing of meetinghouse between Puritans and Anglicans

3 B.The Glorious Revolution/effects 1.William and Mary a.Mary Protestant daughter of James II b.Married to William of Orange, Dutch Prince c.Called the Glorious Revolution (bloodless) 2.Effects in New England a.Seen as vindication of representative government b.Andros arrested, dominion broken up (William and Mary probably would have preferred not to, but the mood in New England kind of demanded it) c.Not complete victory for colonists! i.Mass still royal colony, royal governor ii.property ownership, not Church membership, now voting qualification

4 3. Leisler’s Rebellion a.Militia seized fort to thwart Andros deputy governor b.Leisler (militia captain) took command of colony c.Denied royal troops entry in 1691 (William and Mary’s troops!!) d.Arrested, jailed, hanged 4.Maryland Catholic/Protestant friction a.1691 - MD declared royal colony, 1692 - Anglican official religion b.Catholics lost the vote, had to worship in private c.Calvert (the 4 th Lord Baltimore) converted 1715, regained colony after 23 years of royal rule

5 C. French/British hostilities 1.War of the League of Augsburg (King William’s War) a.France vs Brits i.New Yorkers (& others) attack Montreal & Quebec ii.Montreal attack never makes it iii.Quebec besieged, then abandoned by New Englanders b.Effects on Iroquois i.caught in middle between British (allies) and French and Indian allies (essentially all other tribes between Maine and the Great Lakes!) ii.Mohawk and Oneida hurt badly, all war Chiefs killed iii.After war Algonquian invasions against Iroquois continue, 25% killed iv.Three factions among Iroquois: pro French, Pro- English, neutralist v.Negotiated the Grand settlement, 1701 - peace with French and Indian allies, non military cooperation with British

6 D. War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) - Philip IV dies childless, leaves Spain to Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV’s Grandson, fear among other European powers that Louis will control Spain 1. Need for Naval protection made apparent a.Spanish almost captured Charleston b.French and Indians raided new England settlements c.Ships seized along coast, coastal towns looted by French 2. Colonial dependence on Britain/British Naval protection a.Sense of dependency b.Need for loyalty to Crown c.Strengthened sense of “Englishness”

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8 II.Maturing Economy and Society A.British Economic policy 1.Mercantilism a.Most European powers adopted mercantilism in seventeenth century b.Believed that power of state depended more on its underlying economy than on armies c.Power came from wealth, which came from trade and colonies d.State must completely control commerce of its colonies e.Disagreements over best way to promote economic growth i.Dutch favored virtual free trade ii.English favored state regulation of domestic and imperial economy

9 9 An economic theory and policy which presumed that wealth and trade were limited; there’s only so much to go around An economic theory and policy which presumed that wealth and trade were limited; there’s only so much to go around A nation gained wealth and power only by amassing more gold and silver than other nations A nation gained wealth and power only by amassing more gold and silver than other nations Mercantilism depended on maintaining a “Favorable Balance of Trade”, meaning exporting more than importing Mercantilism depended on maintaining a “Favorable Balance of Trade”, meaning exporting more than importing Mercantilism encouraged nations who accepted the theory to become self-sufficient, and colonies helped secure that Mercantilism encouraged nations who accepted the theory to become self-sufficient, and colonies helped secure that Mercantilism Exports Imports Favorable balance of trade

10 10 Colonies provided the following: A powerful merchant fleet, necessary because goods, materials, and people needed to be transported from the colonies to the mother country. A powerful merchant fleet, necessary because goods, materials, and people needed to be transported from the colonies to the mother country. A source of raw materials for the manufacturers in the mother country. A source of raw materials for the manufacturers in the mother country. A market for the manufactured goods to be sold. A market for the manufactured goods to be sold. Role of colonies in a mercantile system

11 11 All goods traded to and from the colonies had to be shipped in either colonial or British ships All crews of these ships had to be at least 75% British or colonial Certain products (tobacco, sugar, rice, molasses, and furs) could only be sold from the colonies to Britain Goods traded from colonies and Europe had to be unloaded at a British port Britain responded to illegal colonial trade by passing a series of laws known as the “Acts of Trade and Navigation”, or more commonly known, the Navigation Acts. Beginning in 1651, these acts restricted colonial trade in various ways, including: The Navigation Acts

12 2.Navigation Act(s)/scope (4 consequences) a.Limited trade to British ships i.classified all colonial ships as British also ii.foundations of American merchant marine iii.hastened urbanization to support shore facilities b.Barred export of “Enumerated goods” (unless passed through UK first) i.tobacco, rice, indigo, naval stores ii.gave colonies a monopoly on tobacco to UK iii.gave economic advantage to American rice and tobacco

13 c.Encouraged colonial economic diversification i.tariff protection on competing importers (to UK from other places) ii.encouraged production of other needed items (silk, iron, dyes, etc) d. Forbade competition with British manufacturers i.in practice only affected large scale production ii.allowed non-competing production such as iron (by 1770, colonies out-producing UK in Iron) iii.didn’t really have major impact on Colonial economies

14 3.Effects on civilian merchant marine and New England economy a.“enumerated goods” b.Diversification c.Iron 3.Effects on civilian merchant marine and New England economy a.“enumerated goods” b.Diversification c.Iron Overall the Navigation Acts and the commerce that flowed both ways [manufactures from England, raw materials to England] gave the English colonies the strongest economies of the three mercantile powers [Britain, France, and Spain] in North America. Overall the Navigation Acts and the commerce that flowed both ways [manufactures from England, raw materials to England] gave the English colonies the strongest economies of the three mercantile powers [Britain, France, and Spain] in North America. France and Spain - both mercantilist, but bulk of wealth controlled by the monarchy, nobility, and the Catholic Church France and Spain - both mercantilist, but bulk of wealth controlled by the monarchy, nobility, and the Catholic Church British colonies - bulk of wealth was controlled by merchants and commercial profitability was actually enhanced by Government revenues and policies British colonies - bulk of wealth was controlled by merchants and commercial profitability was actually enhanced by Government revenues and policies

15 B.Diversifying population 1.Growth rate/birth rate a.Franklin estimating doubling every 25 years (he was right at the time) b.Exceeded UK i.large families in colonies ii.immigration continued strong iii.40% slaves by mid 1700s! 2.Slaves a.Middle passage b.Gambia – SC &GA c.West African origins (mostly)

16 Slavery was common in Africa for a thousand years or better prior to first European contact, but not raced based, with the assumption of the inferiority of the enslaved. Slaves were generally captives, orphans, or of other tribes Slavery was common in Africa for a thousand years or better prior to first European contact, but not raced based, with the assumption of the inferiority of the enslaved. Slaves were generally captives, orphans, or of other tribes Slavery in Africa was not hereditary nor a lifetime condition in most cases. Slaves were at times adopted into the new family circle or kinship network

17 There were also slaves in the Eastern parts of Africa – the African rulers of Zanzibar relied on slave labour just as white plantation owners of the American South did, and conditions were often worse here than in West Africa – they were quite similar to the conditions in America. And it was not small-scale slavery – during the 19th century, African slaves composed up to 90 percent of the population of Zanzibar. In some parts of Africa, notably east Africa, slaves were treated as property and for life In some parts of Africa, notably east Africa, slaves were treated as property and for life.

18 The “Middle passage”- from Africa to whatever western destination, was a horrible mixture of disease, abuse and inhumane social degradation. The diagram shows a typical “close pack” arrangement. losses of as much as 40% of a cargo [human lives] were not uncommon.

19 triangular trade This simplified drawing shows why the Atlantic slave trade was sometimes called the “triangular trade”. In fact any three ports can be involved in such a trading pattern, but this one’s second stage cargo was human beings! Although only about 5% of Atlantic slave trade came to North America, populations of Africans increased, in contrast to many of the sugar islands, of the Caribbean, where through the 1600s and 1700s, slaves were frequently worked to death.

20 3.Shifts in origins/where they settled a.English emigration drop after 1713 i.more jobs, higher pay ii.less attractive to leave (only about 500/yr) b.Scots-Irish i.Protestants living in Northern Ireland ii.fleeing high rents, few jobs iii.came as families iv.many to Appalachian foothill regions c.Germans i.economic hard times in Rhine valley ii.many came as indentured servants iii.most Lutherans or Calvinists, but some of more separatist sects iv.Anabaptists, Mennonites, Amish

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22 d.Circumstances i.most poor, not welcome in New England ii.indentured servants abused, exploited iii.many to Pennsylvania via Philadelphia iv.“Pennsylvania Dutch” really German e.Beginnings of Nativism i.Resentment of Immigrants ii.Language different, many poor (sound familiar?) iii.Some were deported criminals

23 C.Rural Life 1.Nature of work/ domestic economy a.Young men married late, stayed on farm, hoping to inherit b.Other work part time (crafts, such as carpentry, masonry) c.Trapping, or working for wealthier landowners 2.“Women’s” work a.Manage household economy i.make clothes, soap, garden, preserve food, manage dairy, orchards, make cloth ii.largely disenfranchised after marriage, if inherited as a widow, lost control after remarriage (which is why some widows didn’t remarry, to maintain control of property)

24 3.Effects of Deforestation in the North and South a.Game and fish decreased b.Wood scarcer c.More space needed for productive farming d.Few attempts at “scientific agriculture” Note the continued effects of clearing land for agriculture over the 300 years from 1620 to 1920

25 D.Urban economies 1.Typical business cycle - booms and bust with periods of financial panic 2.Urban poverty a.Increased as urban poor out of work during economic downturns b.Diseases rampant due to poor sanitation c.By late 1700s, significant welfare rolls in northeastern cities d.Wealthy remained wealthy - resentment by poor, some violence 3.Middle class life a.Many had servants b.Same as poorer families, but more comforts 4.Southern cities a.Really more like towns [Charleston, SC - only Southern city in the top 5 in America - mid 1700s] b.Fewer white poor c.Permanent Black underclass - slavery now defined as permanent - inherited condition (through mother)

26 E.Slavery 1.Economic costs a.Southern colonies 20% Slave by 1750 b.15% of American slaves in North in 1750 c.Only 5% of slaves to British Colonies i.higher life expectancy in colonies than Islands ii.families encouraged - survival rate almost same as whites by 1750. 2.Human costs a.About 40% of what whites paid to support indentured servants b.25% of the meat allowance c.Expected to grow some of own food d.Longer working life e.In fields at 7, some sort of work as long as able

27 3.Slave life and reactions a.In SC slaves had “task” system i.assigned to rice or indigo field half day could farm or raise hogs rest of day ii.some actually produced own income b.White resentment i.slaves with money might dress “too well” ii.Charleston invoked curfew by 1721 iii.SC limited value of clothing, forbade wearing white castoffs (sumptuary laws?) c.Stono Rebellion - 1739 i.slaves seize guns, begin march to Florida (probably heading to Fort Mose) ii.burned plantations, killed whites along the way South iii.killed by militia, S. Carolinians, fearful of repetitions institute what is essentially the Barbados Slave code, repressive and cruel iv.also violence by and against slaves in north

28 F.Politics and the advantages of wealth 1.Legislative makeups a.Most reps wealthy b.Most excluded from running by property requirements c.Voting i.more liberal than England ii.Most free white males in Colonies were able to vote by age of forty iii.as opposed to 33 % in England and 10% in Ireland!! 2.Political apathy/election practices a.No set election schedule b.Voting at county seat, far from some towns c.No secret ballot “Viva Voce” voting d.No parties

29 3.Rise of assemblies a.By 1700, most colonial law passed in assemblies b.Colonial assemblies felt same power over Colonial government as Parliament had over Crown c.Most lower houses controlled taxes and gets ( including governor’s salaries!) d.Board of Trade practiced “salutary neglect” during this period (largely ignored Navigation Acts, since life was good and profits were high. Led to wide spread smuggling) ***Salutary Neglect – from 1607 to 1763 this was an unofficial policy instituted by England. It avoided strictly enforcing the parliamentary laws (mainly commerce laws) on the colonies. England wanted to keep their focus on Europe and as a result of this policy the colonies were able to flourish and will want to keep their independence***

30 30 What it was The period after the Glorious Revolution in which Parliament strengthened the Navigation Acts and toughened regulation of colonial trade. How it worked Smuggling trials were held in stricter Royal Courts and a Board of Trade was established to monitor trade. The reality British control actually decreased. As long as raw materials went to England and colonists bought British goods, the British did not enforce the Navigation Acts. In fact the policy benefited both parties which is why it was given the name “salutary neglect”. Salutary neglect

31 31  Loyalty to the British Crown  People considered themselves “British Subjects”  Lack of communication especially over great distances  Societal and cultural differences Major reasons salutary neglect policy worked

32 G.More conflict 1.Louisiana 2.French Midwest expansion/Indian relations a.Better than Brits b.Some difficulties (Chickasaws, supported by Carolinians) 3.Colonial expansion/Indian relations a.Few actual settlements b.French claim huge area, mostly empty of Frenchmen (coureur du bois, mountain men, intermarriage, etc,) c.Some settlements along the Mississippi and Missouri from Iowa (Des Moines) to New Orleans, but sparse

33 H.Georgia 1.Origins a.To be refuge for debtors, minor criminals b.Social experiment and poor house roll reduction c.Hoped for wine and silk production 2.Oglethorpe - successes and failures a.Founded Savannah, 1733, colony chartered 1739 b.Many non - English (German, Swiss, Scots) c.Tried to take St Augustine, 1740, failed, staved off counter attack, 1742 d.Scared by Stono rebellion, actually got parliament to ban slavery in Georgia i.economic hard times for 10 years ii.slavery legalized in 1750 iii.by 1770, Georgia 45% Slave

34 J.Spain’s problems 1.Land grants (Hacienda system), missions 2.Texas - Indians preferred French, only 1200 Spanish by 1760 3.Florida - equally precarious - Indian problems, new threat in Georgia - Like French, spread thin 1760, Carte de la Nouvelle France... In this 1760 map, French claims are in red, British in green, and Spanish in yellow. It should be noted that the Caucasian population of all of New France [70,000] was less than 1/20 th that of British North America’s estimated 1.6 million, and close to that of New Spain

35 K.Effects of Enlightenment on Colonial America 1.Ben Franklin - Printer, Scientist, Politician a.Founded American Philosophical Society b.First volunteer fire company in Philly c.Helped found University of Penn. 2.John Locke a.English Philosopher (really political scientist) b.Deist (like Franklin, Jefferson) c.The value of religion lay in morality and virtue, not in theological hair splitting 3.Religious skepticism a.Rose out of the enlightenment b.Rejected predestination c.Belief in a supreme being, not in religion or dogma Dogma: Belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed, doubted, or, in most cases, analyzed by the laity Dogma: Belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed, doubted, or, in most cases, analyzed by the laity.

36 The Great Awakening mid-1730s to early 1740s: immense religious revival: Great Awakening Swept across Protestant lands throughout Europe and the colonies Methodists and Baptists surged ahead

37 L.The First Great Awakening (ca 1730s-1740s) 1.Origins in angst a.Reaction to rationalists (Franklin and Jefferson were later examples of this) b.Seeking certainty in an uncertain world c.Surge in Church membership, stressing “born again” experience 2.Key Players (Edwards, Whitefield, etc) “The New Lights” Jonathan Edwards. 1703-1758 1703-1758 Edwards insisted on a public profession of saving faith based on the candidate's religious experiences as a qualification not only for Holy Communion but also for church membership. “The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked: his wrath towards you burns like fire; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire…..”

38 George Whitefield: Lightning Rod of the Great Awakening The English preacher George Whitefield, b. Dec. 16, 1714, d. Sept. 30, 1770, was a leader of the Evangelical Revival on both sides of the Atlantic, participating in the GREAT AWAKENING in the colonies and the Wesleyan movement in Great Britain. More conservative ministers “The Old Lights” did not welcome the turmoil occasioned by the Great Awakening. Many resented traveling preachers who invaded their parishes and held competitive religious services. In spite of these opponents, thousands of individuals experienced a new sense of dependence on God's will. Many churches were revitalized, and new converts were added to the lists of faithful members.

39 Whitefield Launches the Transatlantic Revival George Whitefield Traveled and preached throughout Atlantic colonies Anglicans – reserved towards him Presbyterian, Congregationalists, Baptists – embraced him Concept that all English Protestants were members of the same church

40 3.Effects on Colonial Protestantism a.Decline of conservative “Old Light” sects (Anglican, Congregational, conservative Presbyterians) b.Ascendency of Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians, increased women’s roles i.women got rights to speak in meetings (in some sects) ii.led prayer, study groups iii.New Light congregations generally more inclusive c.Long term effects i.decline in impact of Quakers, Anglicans, Congregationalists ii.Methodist - reform minded offshoot of Anglicans, Baptists, and Presbyterians became dominant American Protestant sects

41 4.New Colleges a.Spun off new interest in education by sect i.King’s College (now Columbia) – Anglican (1754) ii.Brown – Baptists (1764) iii.Rutgers - Dutch Reformed (1766) iv.College of new Jersey [Princeton]- New Light Presbyterians (1746) v.Dartmouth – Congregationalists (1769)

42 The Great Awakening weakened the influence of established churches by undermining Congregationalists and Anglicans. It also marks the beginnings of Black Protestantism in America, as some New Lights reached out to slaves. A few Indians, such as Samson Occum, a Mohegan, became well known preachers

43 L.The World of Print 1.English Enlightenment works spread through printing 2.17 th century printing limited to Boston 3.John Peter Zenger and freedom of the press - New York Weekly Journal 4.Benjamin Franklin a.Pennsylvania Gazette b.Junto (American Philosophical Society) c.Public citizen work: fire company, library, hospital, and College of Philadelphia d.Inventor and scientist

44 Important “new” idea: “It ain’t libel if it’s true!” and the press has the right to print the truth! Our American concept of freedom of the press stems from the Zenger case.

45 John Peter Zenger was a German-born American printer, publisher, and journalist in New York City. His indictment, trial and acquittal on sedition and libel charges against the Governor William Cosby of the New York Colony in 1735 were important contributing factors to the development of freedom of the press in America.

46 Benjamin Franklin – Printer and statesman. Proof of the social mobility opportunity in America

47 The Completion of Empire Transition to royal government in colonies Navigation Act of 1696 –Plugs loopholes in earlier Navigation Acts –Advisory only Board of Trade replaces Lords of Trade England and Scotland to merge parliaments to become kingdom of Great Britain 1707 (Under Queen Anne)

48 Government and Religion in the British Colonies, 1720 Note, only three proprietary colonies remain following the Glorious Revolution!

49 “Imperial Federalism” 1689-1707: transitions defined the structure of the British Empire until American Revolution Parliament rarely regulated anything except trade in the colonies Minimal compliance from colonists when Parliament did try to regulate inland affairs De facto federalism: –Arrangement of convenience for England –To colonists became right to consent to taxes and local laws

50 Anglicizing the Role of Women Women worked harder to maintain family status Some trends of inheritance (widows) reversed European double standards of sexual behavior prevailed

51 The Mid-Atlantic Colonies: The “Best Poor Man’s Country” Pennsylvania most attractive for immigrants –Scots-Irish (Ulsterites) –Germans (‘redemptioniers) –Philadelphia largest city in British North America by 1770s

52 The Enlightenment in America Man can improve his condition, God not vengeful Low Church vs. High Church (reformed vs. old school) Sir Isaac Newton, laws of motion John Locke, philosopher Enlightenment spirit dominates Harvard Yale College (1701) founded as reaction against Enlightenment

53 Georgia: the Failure of a Enlightenment Utopia Background 1730s: convergence of ideas of humanitarianism and social improvement led to founding of Georgia Georgia’s purposes –Make productive use of “worthy” poor –Buffer of armed free men between S. Carolina and Spanish Florida –Produce silk and wine Operation Slaves and Liquor banned Silk and wine production fail No elective assembly Outcome –Royal govt. imposed 1752 –Economic structure mimics South Carolina

54 Origins of the Revivals Theodorus Frelinghuysen –German Reformed, open service, free discussion advocate Gilbert Tennent –The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry (1740) Jonathan Edwards –A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God (1737) John Wesley –Methodists

55 Long-Term Consequences of the Revivals Evangelical churches “feminized” Freemasons Congregational Church and evangelical secession Jonathan Edwards and A Treatise concerning Religious Affections (1746 )

56 Denominational Realignment Pre-realignment dominant groups New England Congregationalist Delaware valley Quakers South Anglican Groups that gain MethodistsBaptistsPresbyterians

57 Political Culture in the Colonies Colonists felt they were free because they were British Mixed constitutions that united monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy in perfect balance 1720s: every colony (except Connecticut and Rhode Island) had an appointive governor, council and elective assembly –Governor = monarch –Council = aristocracy –Elected assembly = commons

58 The Rise of the Assembly and the Governor In all 13 colonies, settlers elected their assembly Three-fourths of free adult white men in colonies could vote (vs. one-third in England) Assemblies gain power at expense of councils Royally appointed governors: success dependent on winning over assembly “Factions” (political parties) universally condemned in colonies

59 Contrasting Empires: Spain and France in North America 1689, Spain and France were primary enemies of England Spain and France: –Catholic –American empires

60 The Pueblo Revolt Causes –Increasing Spanish oppression and enslavement –Drought –Raids by neighboring tribes Popé (revolt leader) –Pueblo must abandon Christianity and return to traditional religion –Attack Spanish settlements –Revolt collapses when traditional religion does not solve problems either and Spanish return in force

61 New France and the Middle Ground Iroquois vs. Algonquians French help Algonquians Peace and the “Middle Ground” 1701 French use Indian methods of diplomacy

62 French Louisiana and Spanish Texas Early French exploration of the Miss. – Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet –René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle Choctaws vs. Chickasaws and Creeks French help Choctaws Spain’s response –Pensacola –Texas

63 An Empire of Settlement: The British Colonies 1700: 250,000 settlers and slaves living in British mainland colonies Population doubled every 25 years 1700: 14,000 settlers in New France Spanish missionaries declined Britain's great advantage: its growing population

64 The Engine of British Expansion: The Colonial Household The American way: rejection of entail and primogeniture By mid-1750s new land needed to continue the American way Household ideal –Produced surplus –Long-term debt free

65 Entail(def) obsolescent term in common law. It describes an estate of inheritance in real property which cannot be sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the owner, but which passes by operation of law to the owner's heirs upon his death. Entail: (def) obsolescent term in common law. It describes an estate of inheritance in real property which cannot be sold, devised by will, or otherwise alienated by the owner, but which passes by operation of law to the owner's heirs upon his death. Primogeniture(def) is the common tradition of inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parent's wealth, estate or office; or in the absence of children, by collateral relatives, in order of seniority of the collateral line. Primogeniture: (def) is the common tradition of inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parent's wealth, estate or office; or in the absence of children, by collateral relatives, in order of seniority of the collateral line. Both these concepts, in use in England, were increasingly rejected by many in the colonies, as many “second and third sons” had been among the settlers in the mid and southern colonies because of primogeniture. The desire to be able to sell land “out of the family” was also strong.

66 Conclusion [as of 1750] Britain and colonies mutually dependent –Trade beneficial to both England and colonies –Colonists need English protection against hostile Indians and internal discord Political values of England and colonies converge after Glorious Revolution –Property sacred and is guarantor of liberty –Government by consent –Toleration for Protestants Racism –Common settlers anti-Indian, elites accommodating –Elites anti-African, commoners less so


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