2The Beginnings of African Slavery It was common in the 15th c. to capture and sell slaves (in the Mediterranean)People began to object to Christians being taken as slaves and the Pope banned itIt was still acceptable to enslave Muslims and Africans thoughWhile some Europeans would capture the slaves themselves most found it more efficient to purchase slaves from AfricansThe Beginnings of African Slavery
3The Beginnings of African Slavery Sugar became a driving force behind slave tradeSlaves were first used in the Mediterranean to farm sugarThe Portuguese were given a license to bring slaves to the Americas when the indigenous people were no longer available for slave laborBrazil was a model of the efficient and brutal use of slave laborThe Beginnings of African Slavery
4The Beginnings of African Slavery The Dutch gained control of Brazil and then expanded the sugar industry from a luxury to an everyday necessityBritain saw how successful the Dutch were in making Barbados into a profitable island so they did the same with JamaicaFrance took control of present day Haiti and created a sugar colonyCaribbean sugar and slaves were the centerpiece of European colonizationThe Beginnings of African Slavery
5The Beginnings of African Slavery The slaves most often came from the western coast of AfricaThere were 100+ different cultures living thereCommunities were established by kinshipMen frequently took on multiple wives (polygyny) who bore fewer children therefore they could work as tradeswomenThe developed farming cultures similar to the native of N.A. (burn fields and then plant)The Beginnings of African Slavery
6The Beginnings of African Slavery Over time some kingdoms developed such as Timbuktu and Songhai (Mali)The Portuguese bargained with Songhai for Africans who could be sold as slavesSlavery in Africa differed from slavery in N.A.In Africa slaves were captured as part of war or for criminal behaviorThey were allowed to marry and have children, and the children were born freeIt was a culture shock when these slaves were sold to be shipped to N.A.The Beginnings of African Slavery
7The enslaved men, women, and children transported to the Americas came from West Africa, the majority from the lower Niger River (called the Slave Coast) and the region of the Congo and Angola.
8The African slave trade is the largest forced migration in history Africans outnumbered Europeans 6:1 before the 19th c.The slave trade would not in in the U.S. until (1870s in other parts of the Americas)About 11 million slaves were transported to N.A. over 4 centuries~600K were delivered to English colonies in N.A.Men outnumbered women 2:1 and most were between 15 and 30 years oldAfrican Slave Trade
9All colonizing European nations participated in the slave trade Holland was the most prominent during the sugar boom of the 17th c.England quickly became the dominate nation with its commercialization of the tradeEuropeans didn’t venture into the interior parts of Africa, they established outposts and portsBy the 1700s colonists were making slave runs trading rum or salt fish for humansMA was the dominate colony until 1750 when RI took overMany New England fortunes were built off of slave tradeAfrican Slave Trade
10By the eighteenth century, the system of slavery had created societies with large African populations throughout the Caribbean and along the southern coast of North America.
11To reinforce their community ties to Africa, many Europeans would live in coastal forts and marry African womenThe Europeans left slave raiding to the AfricansOttobah Cugoano said “I must own to the shame of my own countrymen that I was first kidnapped and betrayed by [those of] my own complexion.”Sometimes they came from war, other times they were simply kidnappedAfrican Slave Trade
12A slave coffle in an eighteenth-century print A slave coffle in an eighteenth-century print. As the demand for slaves increased, raids extended deeper and deeper into the African interior. Tied together with forked logs or bark rope, men, women, and children were marched hundreds of miles toward the coast, where their African captors traded them to Europeans.
13African Slave Trade As demand increased raids went deeper into Africa To avoid collective resistance traders would split up families and ethnic groupsCaptains would then brand the slaves on the back or buttocks with the mark of their buyerMany slaves were convinced they were being shipped to N.A. to be eatenAfrican Slave Trade
14“those white men with horrible looks, red faces, and long hair, looked and acted…in so savage a manner,…I had never seen among any people such instances of brutal cruelty.”Equiano was one of few who wrote an narrative of his encounterHe eventually secured his freedom and published his narrativeOlaudah Equiano
15Slaves were tossed on ships that followed the Middle Passage path England to Africa, Africa to America, America to EnglandThe slaves were packed so tight their elbows would be rubbed to the bone from scraping on the planksA trip would take from 3 weeks to 3 monthsDaily routine included being brought up on deck for food, exercise, food, and then storageThe nights were filled with the shrieks and stench of deathAfrican Slave Trade
16The worst part of the ride over was lack of bathroom facilities While captains order the crew to clean the holding areas, it usually didn’t happenSlaves were forced to sleep in their own wasteThis led to spread of disease such as dysentery, smallpox, measles, and yellow feverHistorians estimate that 1:6 died in route to the AmericasMany revolts occurred when the coast of Africa was still visible, but once it disappeared, the revolts turned to suicide attemptsAfrican Slave Trade
17Slaves below deck on a Spanish slaver, a sketch made when the vessel was captured by a British warship in the early nineteenth century. Slaves were "stowed so close, that they were not allowed above a foot and a half for each in breadth," wrote one observer. The close quarters and unsanitary conditions created a stench so bad that Atlantic sailors said you could "smell a slaver five miles down wind."
18Once arriving, the crew would attempt to make the slave presentable for sale Sales were done either by one wealthy plantation owner, a merchant who planned to sell for commission, auctioning, or the scrambleThe scramble is where prices are set and you go a pick out your favoriteThis separated the slaves so that most never saw their families againAfrican Slave Trade
19Africans herded from a slave ship to a corral where they were to be sold by the cruel method known as "the scramble," buyers rushing in and grabbing their pick. This image was featured in an antislavery narrative published in 1796.
20African Slave Trade The slave trade: resulted in the loss of millions of people over hundreds of yearsKing Dom Affonso said: “so great, Sir, is their corruption and licentiousness that our country is being depopulated.”weakened African states who became dependent on European tradecaused long-term stagnation of the West African economyprepared the way for European conquest of Africa in the nineteenth centuryOne poet talks about how they were too busy making a profit to protect their sovereigntyAfrican Slave Trade
21The Development of North American Slave Societies Slaves came into NA at a steady rate by the mid-1700sIt became more efficient to purchase a slave rather than indentured servantsLife as a slave got worse and resulted in the VA Slave CodesStatus of mother passed to childBaptism did not change statusDeath during punishment would not result in murder chargesThe Development of North American Slave Societies
22The Development of North American Slave Societies Tobacco plantations developed along the Tidewater Region (DE to NC)It was the most important export (accounted for ¼ of all exports in NA)It didn’t need large farms to grow, but was labor intensiveFarms varied in size from small farms where the farmer worked beside 1-2 slaves to larger farms with several dozen slavesThe Development of North American Slave Societies
23The Development of North American Slave Societies In the Caribbean and Brazil, slaves were worked to deathIn NA it was too expensive to work them to death, so they were better fed and worked lessThey also reproduced meaning that by 1770s a majority of slaves were “country-born”In S.C. the most profitable export was Indian slavesThey would cause wars between tribes and then sale the losing tribe to other coloniesThe Development of North American Slave Societies
24The Development of North American Slave Societies Elizabeth Pinckney introduced indigo to S.C.Like rice and cattle, indigo required use of West Indian slaves1:5 of today’s African American ancestors passed through Charleston on their way to rice/indigo fieldsSlavery was initially outlawed in GAAs more S.C. planters moved into the area slavery became acceptableThe Development of North American Slave Societies
25Residence and Slave Quarters of Mulberry Plantation, by Thomas Coram, ca The slave quarters are on the left in this painting of a rice plantation near Charleston, South Carolina. The steep roofs of the slave cabins, an African architectural feature introduced in America by slave builders, kept living quarters cool by allowing the heat to rise and dissipate in the rafters.
26The Development of North American Slave Societies Despite the Pope condemning the practice of slavery the Catholic Church in Spanish America owned and profited off of slavesEscaped slaves and natives were welcomed in Spanish FL as long as they were willing to defend the colony from the EnglishFt. Mose (near St. Augustine) was manned by black troops, commanded by their own officersSlaves in the colony were treated much better than in other Spanish coloniesThe Development of North American Slave Societies
27The Development of North American Slave Societies In the French colony of LA slaves were used for exporting crops of rice, indigo, and tobaccoNorth of the Chesapeake slavery was less importantSlaves and free blacks made up 9% of the pop.Quakers were the first to voice antislaveryIn NY, NJ, and RI slaves were used at ports and on dairy farmsThe Development of North American Slave Societies
28Becoming African American “Country-born” slaves were called “creoles”Africans built the South through the laborUsing their native experience, slaves worked as field handsLabor became specialized in the 18th c.They were provided clothing (not great for winter), often very colorful—shoes were notFood was sufficient enough for rapid reproductionSome worked beside their owners, others worked in large groupsBecoming African American
29Becoming African American Despite slave codes, slaves often lived on plantation in nuclear familiesIf on small farm, they would marry someone down the road and visit in evenings and on Sundays with permissionMarriage usually occurred after the woman got pregnantNaming often combined Anglo and African cultures and tied usually to kinChildren were taught to call all adults “auntie” or “uncle” and all age mates “brother” or “sister”Becoming African American
30Becoming African American Most African Americans were not introduced to Christianity until the Great Awakening (1760)Death and burial was one of their most important traditionsThey would place shells of pottery on the gravesiteWhile burying the person, they would perform the ring shoutBecoming African American
31Becoming African American Slaves easily mastered music as a form of bondingThey recreated African instruments such as the banjo and European instruments such as the violin and guitarDrums were outlawed so they “pat juba” (slap thighs)The most important cultural development was languageThey spoke Gullah or Geeche (some spoke this until the 20th c.)Becoming African American
32Becoming African American Africans became Americanized, but Southerners became AfricanizedThey often used the same conjures as slaves to cure illnessFood such as BBQ, black-eyed peas (ewww), fried chicken, greens, hot spices, and LA Cajun was adopted by the SouthernersArchitecture, decoration, and weaving practices were commonly sharedSlaves were used as wetnurses and therefore the children often picked up on African words like goober, yam, banjo, okay, and toteBecoming African American
33Becoming African American Violence was omnipresent amongst the slave coloniesUsually punishment came in form of extra work solitary confinement, or humiliationLashes, stabbing, burning, maiming, mutilating, raping, or castrating came as other forms of punishmentSlaves would often “resist” work by taking too long, hurting equipment or animals, or “accidently” breaking stuffBecoming African American
34Becoming African American Running away was also a common optionMore common for males in their 20sThey would runaway to FL which would become known as a maroon colony (runaways were called maroons)The runaways and the Creek Indians of FL came together to form the SeminolesRunaways in the Northern colonies were much less commonRevolt was the most direct form of resistanceBecoming African American