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EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM What is Imperialism?. Imperialism is the direct or indirect control of one nation or people over another. word It comes from the.

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Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM What is Imperialism?. Imperialism is the direct or indirect control of one nation or people over another. word It comes from the."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM What is Imperialism?

2 Imperialism is the direct or indirect control of one nation or people over another. word It comes from the Latin word imperator

3 The "Old Imperialism," 16th to early-19th centuries Spain led the way in the 16th century colonization of the New World

4 The New Imperialism At its largest territorial extent, the British Empire (shaded ares to the left) covered about 20% of the earth’s total landmass. Those territories held by Britain were among the richest and most desirable lands in all the world.

5 Explanations of Imperialism —Why Europe Expanded Outside Its Geographic Boundaries

6 An Indian parable tells of blindfolded men told to describe an elephant. Each man’s description was limited to the part of the beast that he could feel or touch—the tail, the leg, the body, the trunk. Similarly, imperialism has many “body parts.” One’s explanation for the phenomenon depends on where one puts the focus.

7 Three Main Explanations Provide a Comprehensive View The Economic Explanation—the Deterministic Interpretation The Politico-Strategic Explanation The Shumpeterian Explanation

8 #1—The Economic Explanation— the Deterministic Interpretation Overseas markets Areas of investment Sources of raw materials New land was taken to secure:

9 Crass material motives trigger imperialism; expansion is a function of economic self- interest for both present and future protection of domestic and foreign trade J. A. Hobson's Imperialism, 1902—the 1st articulation of the economic argument. Hobson based his conclusions on his experiences on a visit to South Africa Cecil Rhodes with J. A. Hobson Rhodes made a fortune in exploiting South Africa’s gold and diamond reserves.

10 The steady advance of industrial society creates a need for imperialism When Britain's monopoly of world trade ended, she was forced to find markets and investment abroad Other European powers entering the race for overseas territories (France and Germany) erected high tariff walls to safeguard her markets Imperialism is a response to overproduction, mass society, and the world market created by the 2nd Industrial Revolution Imperialism and Industrialization

11 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Best known for his leadership of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 that overturned Tsarist Russia, Lenin also proposed the “Theory of Imperialism” as monopoly capitalism in Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1917.

12 Lenin believed that industrial capitalism harmed the workingman, led to overproduction, and the consequent imperialist search for overseas markets. A period cartoon–a worker carries an imperialist soldier

13 Imperialism and Industrialization Continued It amounts to exploitation of the underdeveloped world Trade/investment is an alternative to making industry more competitive, efficient, modern Imperialism is an alternative to sharing the profits of industrialization with the working man

14 The Critique of the Economic Argument The areas taken usually weren't good security risks for investors Regions taken after 1870 were generally the bottom of the barrel In Britain, the standard of living for the working class actually improved as the 19th century advanced Joseph Chamberlain

15 British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain ( ) invested some of his immense personal wealth in East Africa (left). His venture not only failed to turn a profit but resulted in a significant loss for this English entrepreneur, imperialist, and politician.

16 #2—The Politico-Strategic Explanation The “Colossus of Rhodes”—a parody on Cecil Rhodes’ “Cape to Cairo” ambitions Political Imperialism is an aggressive nationalism going out to conquer the world—a power game; defensive diplomatic maneuvering; protection of strategic areas of interest

17 Egyptian Khedive Ismail Pasha, — Ottoman viceroy ( ) who opened the Suez Canal British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, , and Queen Victoria, —“Dizzy” purchased the controlling interest of Suez Canal stock when Ismail (left) needed money to retire his huge debts to European creditors

18 England around Africa to India England to India When complete in 1869, the Suez Canal cut over 4,000 miles off of the route from England to India. As such, it became essential to the British government to control this new artery of transportation to insure the security of the Empire Boat passing through the Suez Canal, the “Spinal Cord” of Empire

19 A Bird’s Eye View Mose in egitto! Or Moses Modernized

20

21 #3—The Shumpeterian Explanation Framed as a Challenge to Lenin's Prediction of the Inevitable Fate of Capitalism Joseph Shumpeter's Definition of imperialism: "the objectless pursuit for territory and glory" Schumpeter explained imperialism as a social atavism or throwback to the feudal era when a warrior aristocracy ruled Europe

22 Support System of Imperialism Some have said that the justification for Imperialism rested on the twin pillars of Nationalism and Humanitarianism

23 Nationalism—imperialism appealed to the national ego and sense of national security and interest. Action to preserve national security also gave sanction to imperialism Humanitarianism—pro-imperialists argued that imperialism improved the moral and material conditions of the subject people (e.g., through public works, education, health programs, etc.), preparing them for eventual independence

24 A Dozen Variations on the Imperial Theme #1 Neo-Mercantilism The desire to build a powerful national economy augmented by overseas possessions whose economies/producti on are geared to the needs of the Mother Nation

25 In Wealth of Nations, Smith wrote concerning colonies: “The general advantages which Europe, considered as one great country, has derived from the discovery and colonization of America, consist, first, in the increase of its enjoyments; and, secondly, in the augmentation of its industry..... One of the principal effects of those discoveries has been to raise the mercantile system to a degree of splendour and glory, which it could never otherwise have attained to. It is the object of that system to enrich a great nation rather by trade and manufactures than by the improvement and cultivation of land, rather by the industry of the towns than by that of the country.”

26 #2 Colonialism Colonialism is a desire for space for surplus population—a quest as old as the Greek city-states 5th Century B. C. Greek City- States—the prosperity and subsequent population increase in these polities produced the need for colonization. Indeed, the Greek colonies spread throughout the entire Mediterranean world, not only in nearby Asia Minor but along the banks of the Black Sea, Italy, France, Spain, and the northeast African coast

27 Greek Colonies in Ionia—The Greeks planted colonies in Asia Minor (above). Beginning in the 17th century, the English did the same in North America.

28 #3 Creeping Imperialism The collection of colonies (particularly by Britain) in the 18th century was a slow, almost mindless acquisition of overseas territory. From 1783 (the end of the American Revolutionary War to 1870, Empire grew without welcome from the home government or public interest. The Incorporati on of Fiji into the British Empire

29 Sir J. R. Seeley’s Expansion of England (1883) observed: “the British Empire was acquired in a fit of absence of mind.”

30 In 1874, at the invitation of Fiji chiefs, the British annexed the Fiji Islands (right), incorporating them into the British Empire. This came only after the U.S. failed to acknowledge a similar request to be annexed. In an age of high imperialism, the Fijian people preferred to be under American or British rule rather than submit to the late-19th century German imperial expansion that threatened to swallow them up.

31 The Dynamic of the Age Gladstone, the Reluctant Imperialist vs. Disraeli, the Architect of Empire

32 How England Acquired Egypt Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, — England’s “reluctant” imperialist. “Rescue and Retire” was his Egyptian policy. In Gladstone’s Midlothian (Scotland) Campaign of (map, left), he attacked Conservative Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli’s pro-imperialist policies and won the prime ministership. Nevertheless, forces beyond his control pulled him into Egypt in The British imperial presence remained there until 1956.

33 Gladstone’s Midlothian Campaign of and the promise to return Cyprus

34 British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (Lord Beaconsfield), Disraeli took Cyprus (the green island above) for England in 1878

35 Sir Garnet Wolseley, Battle of Tel-el-Kebir, September 13, 1882

36 #4 Social Imperialism Giving the masses “something to shout about.” Imperialism used as a method to secure national unity, gain full employment; it is an alternative to socialism and class war. The notion is diametrically opposed to the idea of national community; it sought to transform class struggle into national struggle.

37 #5 Diversionary Imperialism Diversionary Imperialism was imperial activity designed to divert the public attention and interest away from problems by stirring up things on the periphery. Alfred Harmsworth (Lord Northcliffe), Publications like Harmsworth’s Daily Mail (first appearing on May 4, 1896) stirred public opinion and generated popular support for imperial activity. Through careful manipulation and cleverly crafted press releases or information leaks, European governments could sometimes divert attention away from domestic problems and re-focus public interest on imperial action in some distant corner of the globe.

38 #6 Sub-Imperialism, a.k.a., Secondary Imperialism and Settler Imperialism The actions of those living in colonial or imperial regions precipitate events that compel the home government to further involve itself in support of imperial activity which, in many instances, it would just as soon not support (usually because of the costs involved). The Flag Follows Trade

39 Cecil Rhodes, — diamond miner and entrepreneur

40 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Rhodes hoped to recover the American colonies, build a British-controlled Cape- to-Cairo railway, and inaugurate an era of Anglo-Saxon world rule. Kimberley Diamond Mine—the Largest Manmade Hole on Earth

41 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Ropes from to surface mine claims Kimberley Diamond Mine—the Largest Manmade Hole on Earth

42 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Ropes from to surface mine claims Ropes leading to claims

43 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Ropes from to surface mine claims At work in Kimberly Mine

44 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Ropes from to surface mine claims At work in Kimberly Mine

45 British expansion in South Africa is an excellent example of the dynamic of Sub- Imperialism. The discovery of gold and diamonds in the South African interior created an irresistible pull that drew England increasingly deeper into the African continent. Cecil Rhodes often led this advance. He became rich from the Kimberley diamond mine and Witwatersrand gold field. Ropes from to surface mine claims At work in Kimberly Mine

46 Colonist's land hunger, bullion hunting, and seeking of labor and supplies—all of these forces pushed settlers deeper into the interior. Sub-Imperialism might also be the product of military personnel pushing boundaries farther in hopes of satisfying ambition, gaining personal prestige or promotion, career enhancement, or a desire to maintain order on a turbulent frontier. For example... the British in Sudan

47 Sayyid Muhammad Ahmad Al Mahdi, In 1883, the Mahdi began a vigorous revolt against British intrusions into the region of Sudan. The British government sent Charles Gordon (right) to the region. Charles Gordon, — Gordon was to supervise withdrawal of Britain from the area.

48 The death of Gordon at Khartoum—Gordon chose instead to remain in the Sudan and subsequently lost his life.

49 General Horatio Herbert Kitchener, Kitchener went to the Sudan in 1898 to avenge the death of Gordon and re-establish British control over the region. He and his army (including the 21st Lancers above) routed the Sudanese forces under Khalifa Abdullahi (the Mahdi’s successor) at Omdurman on September 2, Two days later, Kitchener conducted a memorial service in honor of the fallen Gordon. The Last Great Cavalry Charge of the British Empire

50 British India—the Raj To insure control of India, Britain took the adjacent areas of Afghanistan and Burma. Later, the British government would feel compelled to take Egypt and others areas of the Middle East to defend its interest on the Asian sub- continent. The security of India drove much British imperial expansion. Where does such a process ultimately end? #7 Defensive Imperialism

51 #8 Pre-Emptive Imperialism Taking a territory to prevent a different or rival power from doing so before you can The “Scramble for Africa” in the late-19th century was perhaps the most dramatic example of this type of imperialism.

52 #8 Pre-emptive Imperialism Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Rosebery summarized defensive imperialism as the "pegging out claims for posterity" or the future, i.e., the acquisition of territory against the chance that its markets or resources might be of some future use.

53 Otto von Bismarck, Host of the Berlin Conference of that initiated the Scramble for Africa In 1885, the imperial powers of Europe divided the African continent among themselves. They did so without respect to the customs, traditions, or tribal boundaries of the native African people.

54 #9 Ultra-Imperialism Karl Kautsky, Austro-German Karl Kautsky's term to describe a capitalist world planned, conducted, and financed and directed by finance capital. Among a long list of other works, Kautsky wrote a book entitled Imperialism and the War (1914).

55 #10 Informal Imperialism Control over a region (usually based on economic realities) without colonies or formal administrative control

56 European and American influence in Asia (left) is a classic example of 19th century informal imperialism. Rather than assuming the expensive costs of administering imperial territories on the other side of the world, many European imperialist powers divided up the Chinese coast into “spheres of influence” where they enjoyed powers of extraterritoriality and could act with a relatively free hand. In this manner, the imperial powers were able to do such things as advance the business interests of their respective nations or freely spread the message of Christianity. Understandably, this subtle form of imperialism bred keen resentment among the Chinese people.

57 #11 Anti-Imperialism Imperialism An ideology employed by the U. S. and the U. S. S. R. after World War II. In spite of anti-imperialist rhetoric—not to mention encouraging the dissolution of the British Empire—the U.S. and U.S.S.R. embarked on their own kind of imperial expansion following World War II.

58 #12 Missionary Imperialism A duty to deliver a superior culture, system, and way of life to the backward peoples of the world Rudyard Kipling, Kipling's "White Man's Burden” is the classic statement of this mentality.

59 Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed- Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child.

60 In cartoon to left, Uncle Sam observes, “I don’t like the job, Rudyard my boy!”

61 Queen Victoria, The Secret of British Greatness— Queen Victoria presents a Bible to an African chieftain

62 Civilizing mission often included Christian missionary work. Much as the Christian missionaries of the 1st century A. D. used the infrastructure of the Roman Empire to spread their Gospel message, 19th century Europeans followed the path of imperial expansion and sewed the seeds of Christianity as far as the roads of empire would take them. As these cartoons imply, civilized states had both the right and responsibility to help barbaric societies develop, become elevated

63 The Historical Evolution of Modern Imperialism Ruthlessness Belligerence Blatant aggression Bloody, one-sided wars The "New Imperialism," c Key Traits:

64 Cambridge historian D. K. Fieldhouse (above) likened the British to an “ambitious minnow” in a pike in a pond. Eventually, Britain became the “dominant pike.” In Fieldhouse’s imperial scheme, when the pike had consumed all of the smaller fish, they subsequently began to turn upon one another.

65 Winston Churchill in the last great cavalry charge of British history. It occurred at Omdurman and was a lopsided victory for British arms. This victory at Omdurman was typical of many colonial conflicts where the European imperial power overwhelmed the less developed peoples with technology and force of arms

66 Traits Continued 5. Keen competition among the Great Powers for territory (which involved perpetual diplomatic crises) In one of the most extraordinary episodes of imperial history, France dispatched a force of 150 Senegalese soldiers under the command of Captain Jean- François Marchand to cut off the British Cape-to-Cairo route. It took Marchand almost 2 ½ years to traverse the 4,000 miles from Senegal (far right) to Fashoda in the Sudan.

67 Marachand lay claim for France to the region. British Field Marshal Kitchener (right), with more than 2,500 troops, went to Fashoda to challenge the French garrison there. Field Marshal H. H. Kitchener,

68 Although the situation was successfully resolved in December 1898 when the French withdrew from the area, the Fashoda Crisis brought England and France to the brink of war. Moreover, it was typical of the many imperial rivalries that heightened tensions between the Great Powers and ultimately contributed to the coming of World War I.

69 #6 Most historians agree that the "New Imperialism" was principally defensive in nature Imperialism Reached its Peak in 1914 Europeans controlled over half of the land in the world Their actions affected the lives of over a billion people

70 National Variations England Pride in Empire reflected in a Canadian postage stamp “Painting the Globe Red” became a common expression in 19th century England for the process of empire building. As England added new territories to its imperial holdings, map-makers represented those regions in the color red. Indeed, the British Lion went about the world devouring whom it wished.

71 The “Crown Jewel of the Imperial Diadem” India—the “Crown Jewel of the Imperial Diadem”—was the most important possession of the British Empire. After establishing dominance there in 1763, the British control gradually expanded to fill the Asian subcontinent. When India achieved independence in 1948, the rationale for empire dissolved. By the late-1960s, Britain’s Empire had all but vanished.

72 Britain constructed the largest empire the world had ever known. By the end of the Seven Years’ War ( ), Britain’s empire had become the most impressive imperial edifice in the world. While its colonial administration differed from one imperial holding to the next, British officials and soldiers tended to remain aloof from the native populations—a condescending behavior which sometimes instilled acute resentment within the subject peoples.

73 France Shaded areas on map above show the territories included in France’s West African imperial holdings Map of Francophone Africa These are the African nations that today are French-speaking. Such is their legacy from the high day of French imperialism on the African continent

74 France held Algeria in northwest Africa as an imperial territory from The nationalist move-ment in Algeria contributed to the general de-colonization following World War II. French overseas expansion began about the same time as did England’s. In contrast to their British counterparts, French imperialists tended to view native populations somewhat more favorably. French explorers and colonists were more likely to assimilate with the native peoples and by the 20th century, the French government actually extended to some regions under French imperial control the opportunity to be represented in the French National Assembly.

75 Holland Jan Pieterzn Coen, an early Dutch Governor-General in the Dutch East Indies (left) In the East Indies, the Dutch were notorious for their brutal, ruthless colonial administration and exploitation of the spice trade.

76 Germany Bismarck, Germany’s “Iron Chancellor” from 1871 to 1890 Bismarck oversaw the conference in Berlin that in1885 partitioned Africa among Europe’s great imperial powers.

77 The Germans were latecomers in the race for overseas colonies. The British and the French had been building empires since the early- 17th century. Germany did not become a formal, traditional nation-state until German leaders like Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm I ( ) considered overseas colonies to be part of the necessary trappings of a 19th century European Great Power. Accordingly, late in that century the Germans moved vigorously to acquire their colonial holdings and establish themselves as a major imperial polity.

78 Decline of Imperialism— Why? The Impact of Two Great World Wars Rising Nationalism Among Subject Peoples Democracy Was Incompatible With Keeping Subject Powers in Subjection

79 World War The “Great War” ( ) not only materially weakened the imperial powers of Europe. It undermined the European claim to moral and institutional superiority over the subject peoples under Europe’s imperial sway. Likewise, the Second World War ( ) drained Europe’s nation-states of the resources and physical strength necessary to maintain control over colonial areas. The Holocaust demonstrated a new and frightening capacity for man’s inhumanity to fellow-man Perhaps most importantly, World War II dramatically demonstrated that liberal, democratic, capitalist, industrial, and Christian institutions were no guarantee that a civilization was ethical, moral, or humane. The same civilization that had unlocked the secrets of the atom had applied that very knowledge to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

80 Rising Nationalism Among Subject Peoples Mahatma Gandhi, Kwame Nkrumah,

81 The British educated lawyer Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi led the way to Indian independence. India, being the lynchpin of the British Empire, was the underlying raison d’étre for Britain’s entire imperial enterprise. When India (left map above) ceased to be an imperial holding, the Empire very quickly began to unravel. At that juncture, many of Britain’s other imperial possessions began agitating for and ultimately received independence. In 1957, under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana (formerly the Ivory Coast—see map, upper right) became the first British colony in Africa to gain its freedom. Only a remnant of the British Empire remains today.

82 Results of Western Imperialism

83 Political In some instances, imperial powers permitted the creation and growth of local or national political parties—groups that formed the core of developing democracies in at least some of the former colonized regions. In the long run, those imperial powers with strong democratic traditions, e.g., Britain and France, could not surmount the philosophical tension between imperial control and liberal democratic theory—the latter demanded that the colonized areas of the world be given their freedom.

84 Economic The Age of European Imperialism set in motion forces that are transforming the world into a single, integrated global economy Many of the subject nations continue to play a subordinate role in the world economy, providing raw materials that the former imperial powers transform into finished goods and products. In some instances, the former colonial nations have adopted capitalist and industrial practices; in others, their experience as a subject nation to a capitalist-imperial power has inspired a more socialist approach to national economic development.

85 Social Effects The presence of developed imperial powers in backward areas of the world often shattered the old tribal identities of the native people Chieftains and tribal leaders who had previously drawn support and validation from their subject now looked to colonial administration for approval and validation—they often became “collaborating elites” who neglected the welfare of their own people The colonial powers often replaced relatively flexible tribal boundaries with rigid imperial ones; frequently, the new boundary lines lumped diverse and sometimes even hostile tribal groupings together (a volatile combination that could erupt in civil conflict once the paternal imperial power vacated the region after de-colonization ran its course)

86 Civilizing Effects The imperial powers often introduced helpful technological innovations and improvements—roads railways, bridges, dams, irrigation systems, and communication networks— ultimately creating an infrastructure that would facilitate internal domestic trade and development. They also introduced knowledge relevant to medicine and hygiene that would improve the health and lower the mortality rates of the native populations. They often brought with them opportunities for education, either by building schools in the colony itself or allowing the elite among the subject peoples to study in the schools of the imperial power itself

87 Lammers’ Law Among nation-states, there will always be disparity in power. Human nature, being what it is, will generally move in an assertive direction, i.e., those people, institutions, or nation-states with greater power tend to take advantage of that superior power to impose their will, values, culture, desires, and self-interest on those with less power. As such, imperialism is a practice and behavior that, like the poor, is destined to be with humanity as long as disparities of power continue to exist.

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