Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 Cognition, Intelligence, and Creativity
2Cognition: Definition of Terms Cognition: Mentally processing information (images, concepts, etc.); thinkingImages: picture-like mental representationsConcept: Generalized idea representing a class of related objects or eventsLanguage: Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication
3Types of Mental ImagesStored Image: Mental image kept in long-term memory (LTM) and retrieved when appropriateCreated Image: Image that has been assembled or invented rather than rememberedKinesthetic Image: Created from produced, remembered, or imagined muscular sensations
4Figure 8.1FIGURE 8.1 Imagery in thinking. (Top) Subjects were shown a drawing similar to (a) and drawings of how (a) would look in other positions, such as (b) and (c). Subjects could recognize (a) after it had been “rotated” from its original position. However, the more (a) was rotated in space, the longer it took to recognize it. This result suggests that people actually formed a three-dimensional image of (a) and rotated the image to see if it matched. (Shepard, 1975.) (Bottom) Try your ability to manipulate mental images: Picture each of these shapes as a piece of paper that can be folded to make a cube. After they have been folded, on which cubes do the arrow tips meet?
5Figure 8.2FIGURE 8.2 When you see a flower, its image is represented by activity in the primary visual area of the cortex, at the back of the brain. Information about the flower is also relayed to other brain areas. If you form a mental image of a flower, information follows a reverse path. The result, once again, is activation of the primary visual area.
6Concept FormationProcess of classifying world into meaningful categoriesPositive Instance: Object or event that belongs to the concept classNegative Instance: Object or event that does not belong to the concept classConceptual Rule: Guidelines for deciding whether objects or events belong to concept class
7Figure 8.3FIGURE 8.3 When does a cup become a bowl or a vase? Deciding if an object belongs to a conceptual class is aided by relating it to a prototype, or ideal example. Subjects in one experiment chose number 5 as the “best” cup.
8Concept Formation (cont'd) Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that are defined by the presence of two or more common features (e.g., object is pink and soft)Relational Concept: Based on how an object relates to something else or how its features relate to one anotherDisjunctive Concept: Objects that have at least one of several possible features; either-or concept (strike in baseball)
9More Concept Issues and Terms Prototypes: Ideal model used as an example of a good conceptDenotative Meaning: Exact definition of a word or conceptConnotative Meaning: Emotional or personal meaning of a concept
10Figure 8.4FIGURE 8.4 Use of prototypes in concept identification. Even though its shape is unusual, item (a) can be related to a model (an ordinary set of pliers) and thus recognized. But what are items (b) and (c)? If you don’t recognize them, look ahead to figure 8.6.
11Figure 8.5FIGURE 8.5 This is an example of Osgood’s semantic differential. The connotative meaning of the word jazz can be established by rating it on the scales. Mark your own rating by placing dots or X’s in the spaces. Connect the marks with a line; then have a friend rate the word and compare your responses. It might be interesting to do the same for rock and roll, classical, and rap. You also might want to try the word psychology.
12Figure 8.6FIGURE 8.6 Context can substitute for a lack of appropriate prototypes in concept identification.
13LanguageEncoding: Translating information into symbols that are easy to manipulate and understandSemantics: Study of meanings in languagePhoneme: Basic speech soundsMorpheme: Speech sounds collected into meaningful units, like syllables or words
14Figure 8.8FIGURE 8.6 Context can substitute for a lack of appropriate prototypes in concept identification.
15Language (cont'd)Grammar: Set of rules for making sounds into words or words into sentencesSyntax: Rules for word order in sentencesTransformation Rules: Rules that allow us to change a declarative sentence into other voices (passive, active) or formsProductivity: Ability of language to generate new thoughts or ideasAmerican Sign Language (ASL): Language used by deaf and hearing-impaired people
16Figure 8.9FIGURE 8.9 Animals around the world make pretty much the same sounds. Notice, however, how various languages use slightly different phonemes to express the sound a duck makes.
17Figure 8.10FIGURE 8.10 ASL has only 3,000 root signs, compared with roughly 600,000 words in English. However, variations in signs make ASL a highly expressive language. For example, the sign LOOK-AT can be varied in ways to make it mean look at me, look at her, look at each, stare at, gaze, watch, look for a long time, look at again and again, reminisce, sightsee, look forward to, predict, anticipate, browse, and many more variations.
18Figure 8.11FIGURE 8.11 Here is a sample of some of the word symbols that Sarah the chimpanzee used to communicate with humans.
19Problem SolvingMechanical Solution: Achieved by trial and error or by roteAlgorithm: Learned set of rules that always leads to the correct solutionGeneral Solution: States the requirements for success but not in enough detail for further actionRandom Search Strategy: All possibilities are tried, more or less randomlyHeuristic: Strategy for identifying and evaluating problem solutions
21InsightWhen an answer appears suddenly in problem solving (a-ha learning)Involves three abilitiesSelective Encoding: Selecting information that is relevant to a problem while ignoring distractionsSelective Combination: Connecting seemingly unrelated bits of useful informationSelective Comparison: Comparing new problems with old information or with problems already solved
22Figure 8.14FIGURE 8.14 A schematic representation of Duncker’s tumor problem. The dark spot represents a tumor surrounded by healthy tissue. How can the tumor be destroyed without injuring surrounding tissue? (After Duncker, 1945.)
23FixationsFixations: Tendency to repeat wrong solutions and to “fixate” on them, or to become blind to alternativesFunctional Fixedness: Inability to see new uses (functions) for familiar objects or for things that were used in a particular way
24Figure 8.17FIGURE 8.17 Four trees can be placed equidistant from one another by piling dirt into a mound. Three of the trees are planted equal distances apart around the base of the mound. The fourth tree is planted on the top of the mound. If you were fixated on arrangements that involve level ground, you may have been blind to this three-dimensional solution.
25Barriers to Problem Solving Emotional Barriers: Inhibition and fear of making a fool of oneself or of making a mistakeCultural Barriers: Belief that fantasy is a waste and feelings and humor have no place in problem solvingLearned Barriers: Taboos; staying with conventional usesPerceptual Barriers: Habits leading to a failure to identify important elements of a problem
26Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computers (and their programs) that perform human-like problem solving or intelligent responding (Deep Blue, the chess-playing supercomputer)Computer Simulations: Programs that attempt to duplicate human behavior, especially thinking, problem solving, or decision makingExpert Systems: Computer programs that respond as an expert human wouldResponding like a chess Grand MasterOrganized Knowledge: Systematic informationAcquired Strategies: Learned tactics
27Figure 8.19FIGURE 8.19 The left chessboard shows a realistic game. The right chessboard is a random arrangement of pieces. Expert chess players can memorize the left board at a glance, yet they are no better than beginners at memorizing the random board (Saariluoma, 1994). Expert performance at most thinking tasks is based on acquired strategies and knowledge. If you would like to excel at a profession or a mental skill, plan on adding to your knowledge every day
28Defining Intelligence Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environmentOperational Definition: Specifies what procedures we will use to measure a concept
29Testing IntelligenceStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; items are age-ranked
31Figure 8.22FIGURE 8.22 Distribution of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores for 3,184 children.
32Some Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Terms Norm: Average score for a designated group of peopleChronological Age: Person’s age in yearsMental Age: Average intellectual performance
33More Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Terms Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; original definition; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scoresAverage IQ in the U.S.: 100
34Wechsler TestsWechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3rd Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilitiesWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children from 6 years to 16 years, 11 months, 30 daysPerformance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligenceVerbal Intelligence: Language or symbol-oriented intelligence
35Group TestsThese tests can be given to a large group of people with little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice itemsNormal (Bell-shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to the average, and very few are found at the extremes
36IQ Research Results, and a Few More Terms to Know A strong correlation (about .50) exists between IQ and school grades.IQ is NOT a good predictor of success in art, music, writing, dramatics, science and leadership.Men and women do NOT appear to differ in overall intelligence.Giftedness: Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5).
37Figure 8.23FIGURE 8.23 Approximate correlations between IQ scores for persons with varying degrees of genetic and environmental similarity. Notice that the correlations grow smaller as the degree of genetic similarity declines. Also note that a shared environment increases the correlation in all cases.
38Figure 8.24FIGURE 8.24 Comparison of an adopted child and a biological child reared in the same family.
39Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences Language: Used for thinking by lawyers, writers, comediansLogic and Math: Used by scientists, accountants, programmersVisual and Spatial Thinking: Used by engineers, inventors, aviatorsMusic: Used by composers, musicians, music critics
40Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences (cont'd) Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Used by dancers, athletes, surgeonsIntrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Used by poets, actors, ministersInterpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Used by psychologists, teachers, politiciansNaturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): Used by biologists, organic farmers
41Mental Retardation: Some Definitions Presence of a developmental disability or an IQ score below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior also figures into the definitionAdaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing, eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-careFamilial Retardation: Mild retardation that occurs in homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual stimulation, medical care, and emotional support
42Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Related to physical disordersBirth Injuries: Lack of oxygen to the brain, for exampleFetal Damage: Congenital problem; prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug abuse by the motherMetabolic Disorders: Disorder in metabolism; affects energy use and production in the bodyGenetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes
43Creative ThinkingInductive Thought: Going from specific facts or observations to general principlesDeductive Thought: Going from general principles to specific situationsLogical Thought: Going from given information to new conclusions based on specific rulesIllogical Thought: Thought that is intuitive, associative, or personal
44How to “Rate” Creative Thoughts Fluency: Total number of suggestions you can makeFlexibility: Number of times you shift from one class of possible uses to anotherOriginality: How novel or unusual or unique your suggestions areConvergent Thinking: Many thoughts or variations converging on a single answer; conventional thinkingDivergent Thinking: Many possibilities developing from one starting point
45Tests of CreativityUnusual Uses Test: Find as many uses for an object as possible (Tell me all the things you can do with this pencil.)Consequences Test: List all the consequences that would follow if a basic change were made in the world (What would happen if we were able to read everyone’s thoughts?)Anagrams Test: Make as many new words as possible from the letters in a given wordOften seen on puzzle pages in newspapers
46Figure 8.25FIGURE 8.25 Some tests of divergent thinking. Creative responses are more original and more complex.
47Stages of Creative Thought Orientation: Defining the problemPreparation: Gaining as much information as possibleIncubation: The problem, while not appearing to be actively worked on, is still “cooking” in the backgroundIllumination: The “a-ha” experience; rapid insight into the solutionVerification: Testing and critically evaluating the solution
48Creative PersonalitySmarter people have a slight tendency to be more creative.Creative people usually have a greater than average range of knowledge and interests.Creative people have openness to experience.Creative people value independence and have a preference for complex things
49Logic and IntuitionIntuition: Quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of formal reasoningRepresentativeness Heuristic: Giving a choice greater weight if it seems to be representative of what is already knownBase Rate: Underlying probability of an eventFraming: The way a problem is stated or the way it is structured
50Figure 8.26FIGURE 8.26 (a) Nine dots are arranged in a square. Can you connect them by drawing four continuous straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper? (b) Six matches must be arranged to make four triangles. The triangles must be the same size, with each side equal to the length of one match. (The solutions to these problems appear in FIGURE 8.27.)
51Figure 8.27FIGURE 8.27 Problem solutions. (a) The dot problem can be solved by extending the lines beyond the square formed by the dots. Most people assume incorrectly that they may not do this. (b) The match problem can be solved by building a three-dimensional pyramid. Most people assume that the matches must be arranged on a flat surface. If you remembered the four-tree problem from earlier in the chapter, the match problem may have been easy to solve.
52How to Enhance Creativity Break mental sets and challenge assumptions.Mental Set: Tendency to perceive or respond in a certain way that blinds us to possible solutions.Define problems broadly.Restate the problem in different ways.Allow time for incubation.
53How to Enhance Creativity (cont'd) Seek varied input.Look for analogies.Take sensible risks.Delay evaluation.
54BrainstormingKeeping the production of ideas separate from the evaluation of them; producing ideas with no criticismCross-Stimulation Effect: When one participant’s ideas in a brainstorming session trigger ideas from others
55Brainstorming Rules Criticism of ideas is absolutely barred Modification or combination with other ideas is encouragedQuantity of ideas is soughtUnusual, remote, or wild ideas are soughtRecord ideas as they occurElaborate or improve on the most promising ideas