Presentation on theme: "Laura Gosse Devin Ouellette Brennan Cupples. Congress of Vienna: 1. Restores power and influence to European powers. Austria in particular. 2. Opposed."— Presentation transcript:
Congress of Vienna: 1. Restores power and influence to European powers. Austria in particular. 2. Opposed to Italian unification. 3. Controls the majority of northeastern Italy. 4. Hinder the nationalistic movement of Italy.
After the congress of Vienna divided up the Italian states a prominent revolutionary group known as the Carbonari began to become a threat. Rulers of the states had to condemn to death those who met with the Carbonari’s.
After the Spanish revolt in 1820 Guglielmo Pepe led a and managed to conquer the peninsular portion of Two Sicilies. Pepe did not agree with the constitution and wanted changes. This revolt did not last long and no changes were made in the constitution. After this revolt attempts to squash any revolutionary movements was amplified.
Santorre di Santarosa led the next revolutionary movement in Italy. Santarosa wanted to unite to remove Austrian occupation and he also wanted to unify Italy under the house of Savoy. This king of Piedmont who was away agreed to change the constitution in order to appease the revolutionaries. However once he returned he undid the changes and managed to defeat the revolutionaries. Revolutionaries adopted the tri color flag (green, white and red)
The revolutionary movement grew in influence and this the Congress of Vienna had to help the Italian rulers in order to fully suppress the many Italian revolts.
Camillo di Cavour became the president of Piedmont had a great ambition to unify Italy. With the help of Napoleon the 3 rd he was able to successfully defeat the Austrian army and eventually was able to unify much of northern and central Italy.
Garibaldi in southern Italy managed to unite southern Italy. Garibaldi was able to quickly gather supporters and eventually was successful in gathering an extensive army. Garibaldi invaded and conquered Sicily.
Now with both the North and South unified Garibaldi ceded to king Victor Emmanuel the 2 nd. Emmanuel then made Rome the capital of Italy. The 17 th of March 1861 was the date that Victor Emmanuel was crowned king of Italy. Three months later Cavour died after having seen his dream completed.
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. (1882) Triple Entente: Great-Britain, France and Russia. (1907)
The religion of Italy did not change during this time period. Roman Catholic or Christianity remained the dominate religion in Italy with a small amount of Jewish worshipers.
Victor Emmanuel the 2 nd was a legitimate king as he was born into a long line of royalty. Garibaldi however was not a legitimate ruler as he was simply temporary figure head who was able to inspire the Italian people to fight for unification.
The publishing of the Promessi Sposi also know as The Betrothed became the first historical novel written in Italian. It was written by Alessandro Mazoni. This novel also helped to spread the nationalistic movement as well as the movement towards Italian unification. Another book by the name of Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians was published by a Piedmontese priest. He believed that the Italy should be joined to form one kingdom under the pope.
Lorenzo Viani (1882-1936) Gino Severini (1883-1926) Guiseppe De Nittis (1882- 1936) Mose Bianchi (1840-1904)
Dominant artistic expression at this time include: 1. Futurism:used techniques of Divisionism (breaking light and colour down into a field of dots and stripes) or cubism which offered a means of analyzing energy in paintings and expressing dynamics. 2. Expressionism: seek to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical realityImpressionism: 3. Impressionism - visible brush strokes, emphasis on light in it's changing qualities (passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (1835-1910) in 1877 he observed "canali" (rivers/canals) on Mars - Guiseppe Bianchi, Astronomer (1791-1866) observatory of Modenea built in 1826 - Guliemo Marconi (1874-1937) Nobel Prize for physics in 1909 built a machine to transmit and receive radio waves and the 1st radio transmission across the Atlantic Ocean was on December 12th, 1901 - Count Alessandro Guiseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (1745-1827) invented the chemical battery in1800. Provided the first generator of continuous electrical current. The volt, the unit of electrical potential was named for Volta in 1881
Italy covers 301,338km². Capital city at this time is Turin. Current capital is Rome. Much of the country is surrounded by water. Southern portion is a peninsula. Northern portion is mountainous with the Alps. Borders France and Austria.
"Italian unification -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 10 Feb. 2010.. Spielvogel, Jackson J., and William J. Duiker. World History. 4th ed. Clark Baxter. Print. "SparkNotes: Europe (1848-1871): Italian Unification (1848-1870)." SparkNotes: Today's Most Popular Study Guides. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. "File:Unification of Italy 1815-1870.jpg -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 10 Feb. 2010.