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This week Review American Renaissance Review American Renaissance Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Slave Narratives Slave Narratives Mark Twain Mark.

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Presentation on theme: "This week Review American Renaissance Review American Renaissance Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Slave Narratives Slave Narratives Mark Twain Mark."— Presentation transcript:

1 This week Review American Renaissance Review American Renaissance Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin Slave Narratives Slave Narratives Mark Twain Mark Twain

2 IV. Lit. of American Renaissance (1837 – 1865) Why name? Why name? Why dates? Why dates? What works? What works?

3 5 years – 5 classics The Scarlet Letter (1850) The Scarlet Letter (1850) Moby Dick (1851) Moby Dick (1851) Walden (1853) Walden (1853) Leaves of Grass (1855) Leaves of Grass (1855) by Walt Whitman by Walt Whitman #5 ? #5 ?

4 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Sold 300,000 copies in 1st year Sold 300,000 copies in 1st year Translated into 22 languages Translated into 22 languages Finally sold over 3 million Finally sold over 3 million

5 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Christian values vs.slavery Christian values vs.slavery Corrupting influence of slavery Corrupting influence of slavery Moral power of women Moral power of women

6 Uncle Tom’s Cabin At this table was seated Uncle Tom, Mr. Shelby's best hand, who, as he is to be the hero of our story, we must daguerreotype for our readers. He was a large, broad-chested, powerfully-made man, of a full glossy black, and a face whose truly African features were characterized by an expression of grave and steady good sense, united with much kindliness and benevolence. There was something about his whole air self- respecting and dignified, yet united with a confiding and humble simplicity.

7 Uncle Tom’s Cabin He was very busily intent at this moment on a slate lying before him, on which he was carefully and slowly endeavoring to accomplish a copy of some letters, in which operation he was overlooked by young Mas'r George, a smart, bright boy of thirteen, who appeared fully to realize the dignity of his position as instructor.

8 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Paternalistic racism? Paternalistic racism? White child / black man White child / black man Infantilizing black Infantilizing black Made safe and sterile Made safe and sterile

9 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Christianity humanizes black slave (but also docile, passive, submissive) Christianity humanizes black slave (but also docile, passive, submissive) Successful in 19th C Successful in 19th C Negative in 20th C (today considered an insult) Negative in 20th C (today considered an insult)

10 Uncle Tom’s Cabin By this time, Master George had arrived at that pass to which even a boy can come (under uncommon circumstances, when he really could not eat another morsel), and, therefore, he was at leisure to notice the pile of woolly heads and glistening eyes which were regarding their operations hungrily from the opposite corner. "Here, you Mose, Pete," he said, breaking off liberal bits, and throwing it at them; "you want some, don't you? Come, Aunt Chloe, bake them some cakes."

11 Aunt Jemima Stereotyped image of black woman Stereotyped image of black woman Food Food Motherly Motherly Servant Servant Happy Happy

12 Aunt Jemima changes

13 Negative image still used today

14 Slave Narratives Most popular in 1840s & 50s Most popular in 1840s & 50s Books sponsored by abolitionists Books sponsored by abolitionists sometimes ghost written, usually edited sometimes ghost written, usually edited Used as propaganda Used as propaganda

15 Slave narratives – development of a genre Male author Male author ”I was born…” ”I was born…” Learns to read & write Learns to read & write Realization of status as slave Realization of status as slave Depiction of wicked slaveholders Depiction of wicked slaveholders Slave usually Christian Slave usually Christian Story stops when reaches North Story stops when reaches North

16 Slave narrative problems Establish credibility with white audience Establish credibility with white audience How to tell own story if the purpose is to appear as a ”type” (black slave) How to tell own story if the purpose is to appear as a ”type” (black slave) Need to follow formula Need to follow formula Often the stories follow same pattern. Often the stories follow same pattern. Formula similar to Franklin ”self-made man” Formula similar to Franklin ”self-made man”

17 Frederick Douglass Most famous slave author Most famous slave author Father was master? Father was master? Escaped & joined aboltionist movement Escaped & joined aboltionist movement Remained active during & after war Remained active during & after war

18 V. Literature of the Gilded Age (1865 – 1912) Mark Twain Mark TwainLifeWorks Huck Finn

19 Gilded Age - characteristics Urbanization Urbanization Industrialization Industrialization Immigration Immigration

20 Mark Twain Transition figure Transition figure Work published after Civil War Work published after Civil War Associated with antebellum era Associated with antebellum era

21 Twain - Life Born in Hannibal, MO (1835) as Samuel Clemens Born in Hannibal, MO (1835) as Samuel Clemens Worked on Miss. steamboats Worked on Miss. steamboats Fought in Civil War Fought in Civil War Journalist after war in California & Nevada Journalist after war in California & Nevada

22 Twain - Life Published ”Jumping Frog” in 1869 Published ”Jumping Frog” in 1869 Later moved East – full-time writer, lecturer Later moved East – full-time writer, lecturer Nationally famous Nationally famous Personal troubles lead to ”Great Dark” period in 1890s Personal troubles lead to ”Great Dark” period in 1890s Dies in Connecticut (1910) Dies in Connecticut (1910)

23 Twain - life Humorist Humorist Southwestern humor Southwestern humor Tall tale Tall tale Realist Realist Anti-imperialist Anti-imperialist

24 Contradictions Associated w/ West Associated w/ West Associated w/ antebellum era Associated w/ antebellum era Known as humorist Known as humorist Wrote about simple man Wrote about simple man Lived mostly in East Lived mostly in East All works written after Civil War All works written after Civil War Cynical at end of life Cynical at end of life Very money-conscious Very money-conscious

25 Twain - Works “Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865) “Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865) Innocents Abroad (1869) Innocents Abroad (1869) The Gilded Age (1873) The Gilded Age (1873) Tom Sawyer (1876) Tom Sawyer (1876) Huck Finn (1883) Huck Finn (1883) Connecticut Yankee (1889) Connecticut Yankee (1889)

26 Huckleberry Finn "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. If you read it you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating. But it's the best book we've had. All American writing comes from that. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since." Ernest Hemingway, Green Hills of Africa, 1935

27 Huck Finn - Reception Criticized in 1880s when it first appeared Criticized in 1880s when it first appeared Banned by Concord Library Banned by Concord Library Why? Why? Criticized today for different reason Criticized today for different reason On list of ”Most Challenged Books” from by ALA On list of ”Most Challenged Books” from by ALA Why? Why?

28 ALA list of most challenged books 1. Scary Stories (Series) by Alvin Schwartz 2. Daddy’s Roommate by Michael Willhoite 3. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou 4. The Chocolate War by Robert Cormier 5. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain 6. Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck 7. Harry Potter (Series) by J.K. Rowling 8. Forever by Judy Blume 9. Bridge to Terabithia by Katherine Paterson 10. Alice (Series) by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor 11. Heather Has Two Mommies by Leslea Newman

29 Huck Finn “Good gracious! anybody hurt?” “No’m. Killed a nigger.” “Well, it’s lucky; because sometimes people do get hurt.

30 Huck Finn - innovations Language Language Perspective of common man Perspective of common man

31 Huck Finn – major themes Search for freedom Search for freedom Social satire Social satire Development of Huck Development of Huck

32 Huck Finn Two major problems with novels?

33 Huckleberry Finn 1. Logic of fleeing southward. 2. Tom & Huck freeing Jim at end.

34 Next week Lit of the Gilded Age Lit of the Gilded Age Poetry Poetry Realism & Naturalism Realism & Naturalism


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