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Racism and Racial Stereotype Group 4 Alice, Angela, Chelle, Josephine, Nancy, Penny
Report Outline Introduction to Racism Bamboozled: (1) Stereotypes; (2) Who is Black and what is Black?StereotypesWho is Black and what is Black Save the Last Dance Racial Identities Power Relations and in BamboozledRacial Identities Power Relations and in Bamboozled Analysis of the 2 Films: Comparison and ContrastAnalysis of the 2 Films: Comparison and Contrast Conclusion
Introduction: What is Racism? Starting Question: What comes to your mind when you hear, “racism?” Bigotry: An obstinate or blind attachment to a particular belief, unreasonable enthusiasm in favor of a party, sect or opinion; excessive prejudice or intolerance (Newman 9). Bigotry turns to racismracism
Racism Any attitude, belief, behavior, or institutional arrangement that tends to favor over one race or ethnic group over another (Newman and E.N.Layfield, 9).
4 Types of Racism Attitudinal Racism: General dislike of a certain race or group without reason Ideological Racism: Believing some races superior to others. Ex: Adolf Hitler. Individual/ Group Racism Ex: KKK. Institutional Racism: Create patterns of injustice and inequality because of skin color. Ex: voting (1960), high price of colleges in America. (Newman 11-15)
3 Assumptions on U.S. Racism Black people in America live a better life. Americans set a good example in setting positive aspects of the Black experience. Americans have Civil Rights Movement and Black Nationalism, suggest equal opportunities for Blacks in work force and education. Are They Completely Correct?
The Fact is… Equal opportunities is not the case between the White and Black in America (Small 8). Whites, and middle class blacks are proud of him. But it is difficult for the young brother on the corner to see Powell as a hero. (Voice, 26 March 1991:11)
History of Racism in America (1) America was a former colonial plantation society, characterized by immigration, forced or voluntary. Ex: Slavery and foreign labor & Indians banished to reservations. European immigrants protected their interests, forcing exclusion of Blacks Ex: Radicalized discrimination on the Blacks in the most disadvantaged sections of the society & the segregation in 1960s.
Some Sad Facts The “Color Line” exists, the Blacks remained at the bottom of societies. Inequality of Blacks represent they are victimized. Stereotypes of Blacks include images of poverty, educational failure, unemployment, teenage childbirth and crime. Ex: Angelique’s Letter
History of Racism in America (2) In the 1980s, economic fortunes of the Blacks have gone to extremes, but still can’t be compared with the Whites. Blacks account for only 4% with assets of $50,000 or more. While Black income is roughly 60% of the whites, the median net worth of black households in 1988 was merely 1/10 of the whites. (Small, 40-50)
Racism in America-- Jobs 70% of Black men (16+ in work force), compared with 77% of White men. 15% of Black men and 30% of the white worked in professional specialties in the 1980s, while women was 19% and 26%. Unemployment: 11.8% for Black men, 4.8 White. Black labor grow to 20% in 2000, and the greatest fear is US economy become 2-tier.
Racism in America– Schools Occurrences of segregation, inferior faculties & limited resources. Ex: Washington D.C., Detroit and NYC at the end of 1980s.Ex: Washington D.C., Detroit and NYC at the end of 1980s. The performance of Blacks, in schools, is relatively problematic.
Situation in the 1980s In 1986, 27.5% of black school children, and 30% Hispanic school children enrolled in 25 largest central city school districts. However, only 3.3% of all whites attend these schools (Small, 54).
Racism in America– Health Care 2 studies show that treatment vary with the race of patients and not the insurance coverage of the patient. Ex: Dr. Katherine L. Kahn.Ex: Dr. Katherine L. Kahn. Or, the Veteran Administration Hospitals.Veteran Administration Hospitals
Dr. Kahn. ‘s Quote Within each type of hospital, patients who were black or from poor neighborhoods got less care (Newman and Eleanor Newman Layfield, 76).
Dr. Eric Peterson Dr. Eric Peterson, a cardiologist, helped to conduct the studies, suggest that evidence seems to be that the disparity in treatment points to racism as a factor when patients have the same health coverage and socioeconomic backgrounds (Newman and E. Newman Layfield, 76).
Racism Today in America Civil Rights Act created in 1964, stopping discrimination in employment based on race, religion, gender or national origin. The results? Elis CoseElis Cose Re-segregation on College campus Public schools new re-segregation policy, and integrated schools are under attack.
Elis Cose New racists claim that African American are like products, and need to be careful about what is said about their work (Newman and Eleanor Newman Layfield, 82).
Outline Stereotype: Why & how ? Slaves- Uncle Tom Black women- Mammy Coon Jolly Nigger Bank Black men
Why there’re stereotype? (1) Every stereotype emerges in the wake of a pre-existing ideology which deforms it, appropriates it, and naturalizes it. The blackface stereotype too, by deforming the body, silences it and leaves room only for white supremacy to speak through it.
Why there’re stereotype? (2) The blackface stereotypes represent the white Souths retreat from the American Revolution, i.e., Reconstruction, the civil rights movement, and desegregation. In other words, the stereotypes help to maintain the myth of the gothic Old South and deny the changes in our contemporary society. --Kenneth Goings, in Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black American Collectibles and American Stereotyping (1994),
How stereotypes usually seen? The way stereotypes work with pastiche, caricature, and symbols: stereotypes always rob people of their history and shun their realism. It is in this violent and aggressive manner that the stereotype sends its message,which is automatically absorbed by the viewer/reader, and which replaces history. In Bamboozled…
Slaves Many of the first Africans in America are not slaves but indentured servants, like many of the first Europeans. Race slavery becomes law. Over a period of 400 years, the African slave trade that began with the Portuguese in 1441 captures 40 million Africans; 20 million arrive in the Americas. While the captives bring with them little material evidence of their culture, their music and dance have a lasting impact on that of the New World.
Uncle Tom “Uncle Tom's Cabin” by Harriet Beecher Stowe was the first social protest novel published in the United States. Described by Stowe herself as a "series of sketches" depicting the human cruelty of slavery, opens with a description of Arthur Shelby's Kentucky plantation during the antebellum period.
The Black Women :Mammy(1) Domesticity : *Is tied to the myth of the South. *Pastiche - cookie-jar, kitchen decoration, or housewares ¤ rotund, dressed in a long robe ¤ apron ¤ head kerchief, ¤ big smile face. ¤ carrying a bowl or a white baby in her arms.
Mammy’s uniform: *Organizes and disciplines *Domesticity and morality *The apron: appropriates and naturalizes permanent fixture of the white mansion. Neat and civilized ? Mammy(2)
Coon (Zip Coon) Uncivilized nature Sexuality, and evil: oversexed tragic mulattos Opposite to Mammy: physically punished, exposed to public ridicule for lacking decorum and decency. Half-human and half-animal. Pastiche : naked or scantily dressed,looking as if intoxicated by sexual desire
Black Men Uncivilized sleep & eat, slackers Thief, poverty chickens, watermelons Violence, sexual abusing rape, incest Amusing rap, dancing Pastiche : The disproportionately large upper torsos of the black men, with long faces and cheeks bigger than their heads… Jolly Nigger Bank,
Black Men 2 Cannibal : *white, black & red *half-human and half-animal *red - a symbol of cannibalism *bigger-than-normal teeth, with wide gaps between them. In Bamboozled…
Jolly Nigger Bank 1 Ridicule : *piggy banks in the shape of female and male busts *stereotype – a) zombie-like b) mouth is wide open, waiting to receive coins from the empty hand. c)vacant eyes, and distended hands
Jolly Nigger Bank 2 It is in this sense that the coin-swallowing becomes a metaphor for an appetite for human flesh, our skin. cannibal black people as robots or coin-swallowing monsters. In Bamboozled…
Jolly Nigger Bank 1 Ridicule is also reflected in making piggy banks in the shape of female and male busts, "Jolly Nigger Banks", in which the stereotype's mouth is wide open, waiting to receive coins from the empty hand. This toy for white children teaches them economic frugality at the same time as they learn to treat black people as robots or coin- swallowing monsters.
Jolly Nigger Bank 2 These photographs are frightening because the zombie-like characters seem to emerge out of the dark, with an unconscious motion which derives from their open mouths, vacant eyes, and distended hands. It is in this sense that the coin-swallowing becomes a metaphor for an appetite for human flesh, our skin. In Bamboozled…
Minstrel Show White performer Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice adds a new twist to the tradition of mimicking African Americans, and his "Jim Crow" dance earns him the title "father of blackface minstrelsy." Minstrel shows produce two major stereotypes that haunt black performers for years -- the clown and the dandy.
Black Men The stereotype of black men who do not fit the mold of the docile servant of the masters kitchen and mansion is equally rich in Africanist symbolism.
Black Men 2 Cannibal : For example, the disproportionately large upper torsos of the black men, with long faces and cheeks bigger than their heads,are a sign that they are half-human and half-animal. They can fool nobody, even when they wear a suit, tie, and hat, because their lips are painted with blood, which often spills over and creates a match with the tie. Red, as a symbol of cannibalism, is the dominant signifier here. The motif of cannibalism also circulates through the laughter of the stereotypes which reveal their bigger- than-normal teeth, with wide gaps between them.
Black Men 3:white, black & red The imminent darkness and the red symbolize our latent fear of cannibalism, and other awful things associated with Africa. Finally, the relationship between the black, the red, and the white gives us the stereotype,just as for Freud, the relationship of the dream to its latent meaning is the key to an interpretation of the problem.
Minstrel Show White performer Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice adds a new twist to the tradition of mimicking African Americans, and his "Jim Crow" dance earns him the title "father of blackface minstrelsy." Minstrel shows produce two major stereotypes that haunt black performers for years -- the clown and the dandy. In Bamboozled…
Outline Questions Black people: Delacroix, Manray(Mantan)&Womack(Sleep ‘n Eat), Julius & Mau Maus, Sloan, Junebug White people: Dunwitty, the Yale lawyer
Questions Is blackness only in skin color? Is blackness defined by specific mannerisms? Is it only possible for black to originate from having a drop of black blood?
Delacroix Satire la: a literary work in which human vice or folly is ridiculed or attacked scornfully...2. Irony, derision or caustic wit used to attack or expose folly, vice or stupidity.“ He quotes Baldwin saying, "People pay for what they do...what they have allowed themselves to become...by the lives they lead," and then recalls Junebug's admonition to "always keep them laughing."
Manray &Womack Ignorant, dull-witted, lazy and unluck. They are gonna make us laugh, they‘re gonna make us cry, they’re gonna make us feel good to be American. The name, Sleep n’ Eat, signified "the idea being...a black man was content as long as he had a place to sleep and enough to eat."
Sloan Julius &Mau Maus strong, wronged, avenging, abandoned, alternatively determined and confused woman They trickery, angry, dark, sullen, depressed, wicked, blacklisted…..
Dunwitty & Yale lawyer I am blacker than you. I have a black wife and two biracial kids. I got my ph.D. in African-American studies from Yale.
Outline The Interpretation of the Movie --- Racial relationsRacial relations The Problems of the Movie --- Simplify the problems (e.g. Ghetto/Drugs & Violence)Ghetto/Drugs & Violence --- Idealize the situation/ Fantasy (e.g. Sarah’s easy life in black society)Sarah’s easy life in black society
I. White Black A.Telephone Call --- “ No, I haven’t see anyone get shot yet, God, I didn't move to Bosnia.” “They got white guys at your school?” B. On the Metro --- play a childish game to shock the white woman The boundaries between two different races.
II. Black White A.Dancing Club Stepps --- Nikky: “Negro Club” different views about “negro” --- MalaKai: “That’s oil, you’re milk, there’s no point to mix”. different classes of people cannot be together
B. Restaurant --- “Snowflaking” Derek’s view v.s. Others’ view C. Sara and Nikky’s fight --- White woman conquering the black world Sarah’s unawareness about racism D. At the clinic--- Chenille agrees with Nikky’s point a. Different worlds v.s. one world b. Sarah’s ignorance
III. Black Black Conflicts between Derek and Malakai 1. Derek believes if he can do something of himself, so can Malakai 2. Malakai believes that revenge is the way to save his dignity. Different view & different future Dream vs. Corruption
Sara “It’s me and him, not us and everybody” White I. A.B. Derek “It’s not white women, it’s women” Black II. A.B.C.D. relationships crosses racial boundaries Different races should not be together
Ghetto A.Disorder environment 1. Guns & Drugs the situation cannot be improved 2. Violence the only way to solve problems B. Teenager’s values 1. Continuous corruption 2. No future 3. For example, Malakai. Simply take over those problems without offering deeper explanations
Sara’s Easiness The unreasonable reaction toward getting into the black community. Her ignorance toward the racial theme. The director makes things too easy for Sara.
Black Separatists – Believe in their black history and heritage and appreciate what they learned in the hood, so as to reject the Whites’ expectations from the blacks. They do not think the White can fully interpret the significance of Black people’s culture and blues. They tend to represent their dignity by not appreciating the white value system and practice their self-determination by reminding themselves of the amount of degradation they have suffered from the white and living with their past historical injuries. They tried to achieve the reality of a black-staffed, black-controlled, and black-financed society, in which the White can no longer interfere with the roles blacks play. Ex: Junebug
Black Separatists – Ex: Junebug – performing in a small black club. Treasures his dignity, unwilling to entertain the whites by devaluating self, so as to leave the Hollywood. Shares no big fame as Delacroix but content with his black identity.
Black militant separatists Share similar thoughts with separatists, only through more aggressive means. They tend to change the Whites’ stereotype of the Blacks, that they are not unable to organize themselves, but because the misunderstanding of the Whites that they cannot succeed without the White as backbone. They are to define their own roles and view the Whites with their own values.
Blacks struggling for survival Blacks that struggle for survival are often confused with their identity. They may try to challenge the society and end in vain, or grab at most opportunities to improve their living standards. They are often regarded as unworthy and incapable of adapting to the White values. Through them the black inferiority is being reinforced and so are more easily submitted to Whites’ power. Ex: Manray, Wormak, Mau Mau Crews.
Blacks struggling for survival E.g. Manray – performed tap-dance for a living. Join Mantan show with esteem to prove his talent but is confused by his black identity and the whites’ interest. Died as a victim of the media. Wormak – join the minstrel show for a living. Having no permanent shelter but is willing to give up the disgusting industry. Mau Mau Crews – a group of rappers having the attempt to give in and entertain the public. Despise the way the Mantan show represents the Negroes. End in brutal action executing Manray.
Black Assimilationist Thinks that they have to accept the Whites’ value and assassinate their black character in order to achieve liberation from discrimination and poverty. Allowed the white people to interpret and devalue the black race. Escaping from black identity. Ex: Delacroix
Black Assimilationist E.g. Delacroix – a film writer, under Dunwitty. Conduct the Mantan show, but having no opportunity to refuse Dunwitty’s demands to change the style of the show. Becomes a target of his own satire. Quite a success at career but a failure in recognizing black dignity.
Whites They take away black achievements and deny blacks’ human dignity by misinterpreting the blacks cultural heritage and focus merely on stereotypes. Racism is still alive through the spreading idea that Whites’ value system is better and by using successful Blacks, who dumped the Black identity in order to lead a better life, they confirm the idea that White power is superior. They never show respect or participate to blacks’ true identity, which is full of anxiety and fear, but only blindly assume they can take over the blacks’ value system and show their help them by means of stopping the blacks’ self-determination. Ex: Dunwitty
Whites Ex: Dunwitty is the producer, the one with money. Have the power to make decisions. Though not a black, financing a black program and making free adjustments. Confident in self-identity. Able to give judgments and demands.
Comparison Save The Last DanceBamboozled ThemeA biracial romance. Fantasy mode. A satire on the blacks. Realistic mode. Method/FilmingSimple filming. Idealistic development. Documentary-like filming. Careful use of ‘color code,’ Plain brown – daily life Shady blue – whites+media
Setting and PlotWhereas a white girl have to fit in the black community. White adapted easily. (Hip-Hop is a dancing style that expresses identity and involves interactions. It’s also a widely spread sub- culture to attract greater participation.) Whereas blacks have to set aside their dignity and identity in order to succeed in white society/industry. Blacks end in misery still. (Tap-dance with additional meaning implies black inferiority and suggests black as entertainment for whites.) Save The Last DanceBamboozled
Black Relationship Just briefly mentioned. Introduces stereotypes such as, gangs, rappers, drug-abusers, fights, and only one exception, which is educated Derrick. Clear exposition of individuals among blacks, such as those still struggling for better life, the ones assimilate to whites, and some shying away from the unacceptable white value. Solution/EndingA fair romantic happy ending. Leaving the ghetto unsolved with its problems. A miserable ending that evokes deep thoughts for blacks. Sleep-n-Eat stands as one black who succeeds in challenging the white value and live with acceptance of black identity. Save The Last DanceBamboozled
Words to Think About Alexix de Tocquevile, a French historian, predicted that changing the law to abolish slavery would be easy compared to changing people’s minds about slavery. Over 30 years after the Civil Rights Act, we still face problems that can be traced back to the days of slavery (Newman and E. Newman Layfield, 77).
Works Cited Small, Stephen. Racialised Barriers. London: Routledge, 1994. Newman, Gerald and Eleanor Newman Layfield. Racism: Divided by Color. Springfield: Enslow Publishers Inc, 1995. Manthia Diawara, The Blackface Stereotype. Black Cultural Studies Site,1998. Black Cultural Studies Site