2Sigmund FloydSigmund Floyd (Sigmund Freud, ), Jews, Austria psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. The founder of the psychoanalysis school. He believes that the repressed desire most is nature, the disturbing is the root cause of mental illness. Author of "Three Essays on the theory of sexuality", "the interpretation of dreams", "totem and taboo", "daily life", "the spirit of psychological pathology analysis", "spirit", a new analysis introduction
3The basic point of viewPsychoanalysis: people, first of all it is a living organism, since people first is the organism, so, the fundamental motive of all human activities is the inevitable result of biological instincts, and the most core impulses which impulses for reproductive instinct (i.e. sex instinct or sexual impulse, and this can) in the pressing social and legal, moral, cultural, public opinion, people were forced to be repressed into the unconscious sexual instinct, which can not be entered into people's consciousness, and social allows the form to vent out, such as literature, art, the late Freud put forward corresponding to "reproductive instinct" "death instinct" theory, that in addition to maintain their own life growth and development of energy (i.e. survival instinct, of which the core instinct as a sexual instinct), and its biological organism into inorganic state, namely death under the condition of energy, namely the death instinct, death instinct in the war, hate, murder, is very obvious show themselves.
4The spirit levelThe theory explains the human mental activities, including desire, impulse, thinking, imagination, judgment, decision, emotion and so on Freud's worksWill happen, and on different levels of consciousness. Different levels of consciousness includes consciousness, three levels of consciousness and subconsciousness, as the level of crust shades of existence, it is called a spirit level.Consciousness (conscious) that is conscious, that they can detect mental activity is consciousness, psychological structure, which belongs to the surface, it perceived external reality and stimulation, the rational content things use language to reflect and summarize.Of consciousness (preconscious) is the conscious and unconscious intermediary mechanism. Before consciousness is part of consciousness, is a kind of can be recalled, can be called to the conscious part, its role is more reflected in preventing the unconscious conscious, it plays a role of "check", most of the subconscious mind is full of instinct impulse control, can not become a preconscious, more could not enter consciousness.The subconscious (also known as the unconscious, English unconscious, also translated as the subconscious), is not under conscious and preconscious repressed is aware of the psychological activity, represents the deep, more human, more hidden more primitive, more fundamental psychological energy. "Subconscious" all human behavior is the inner drive, which includes the original impulse and instinct (mainly the instincts and desires the same instinct) about. Because the subconscious with original, animal and barbarous, no rational capacity in the community, they were suppressed at the threshold of consciousness (the so-called awareness valve, refers to the dividing line can realize) down, but not destroyed. It constantly covert activities, directly or indirectly, to meet the requirements of. These are the things from the deep dominates the whole psychology and behavior, all became a source of motivation and intent. The subconscious (unconscious) concept is the core part of psychoanalysis, is the basic theory of Freud.
5personality-formation Personality structure is the most basic level is the ID (ID), the equivalent of his early the subconscious. It was at the bottom of the heart, is a kind of innate animal instincts, especially sexual impulse. It is confusing, there is no reason, only according to the pleasure principle (pleasure principle) act, the blind pursuit of satisfaction.The middle layer is the self (ego), which is derived from the ID is a part of reality to gradually sensible. Self as the ID and the external world contact and the arbiter, and the superego under the guidance of supervision of my activities, it is a kind of contradiction, can adjust the ID and superego according to the actual conditions of the surrounding environment of the decisions on their own behavior consciousness, representative is usually said the reason or the correct judgment. According to the "reality principle" action, it must satisfy, but also to avoid the pain.The top layer is the superego (super-ego), which can self - criticism and moral control of the ideal of the self, it is the children during the growth of society especially for parents to his punishment activities, in other words, are the parents as role the role of love and discipline punishment authority internalization. It mainly includes two aspects: one is the ordinary people said conscience, represents the personal punishment and standardize the social moral function, on the other hand, is the ideal self, determine the standards of ethical conduct. Main responsibilities is to guide the ego superego himself to the moral conscience, to limit, repressed ID instincts, and according to the principle of ideal activities.
6personality development Freud in different parts of the body to obtain impulse satisfaction as the standard, the development of personality can be divided into 5 stages, the theory of personality development and mental development theory.The works of FreudOral stage (oral stage): from birth to 1 years about . The infant to suck, bite and swallow oral activities to meet the needs of instinct and sexual.The anal stage (anal stage): 2-3 years old. This period of child sexual desires are mainly from the anus or the defecation process.Phallic stage (phallia stage): 4-5 years old. The period of physiological differentiation of children lead to psychological differentiation, children showed great interest in the genitals, demand concentrated in the organ itself. They not only by playing the organ is satisfied, and satisfied through the imagination. The boy will experience "Oedipus complex" (Oedipus complx, Oedipus complex), for girls, experienced "Electra complex" (Electra complex, Electra complex).Latency (latency stage): 6 years old to 12 years old. In this period, children's interest to the outside world, participate in the school and community activities, and peer entertainment, sports, development of same-sex friendships, meet from the outside, curiosity and knowledge content, entertainment and sports.The reproductive period (genital stage): 13 to 18 years old. The puberty sexual organs after the maturity, needs to get satisfaction from the relations between the sexes, mate selection guide, become more realistic and socialization of adult.
7mind-cureFree association (free association). Freud believed that emerge anything in mind is not it is without rhyme or reason., both with a certain causal relationship, to dig out the crux of the subconscious. Free association is to allow patients the freedom to say anything in mind, encourage patients to try to recall the childhood suffered trauma.Interpretation of dreams (dream interpretation). Freud will be divided into two levels: the dream of the memory are known as the dominant dream (manifest dream-content), the dominant dream dream is not real. Another is the memory is not as hidden dream (latent dream-thought), implied more important significance of hidden dream. Psychological therapy, in patients with manifest dream to analysis according to its implicit meaning in their dreams, in order to find out the problems in the subconscious.Empathy (transference). The patients with psychological doctor emotional reaction. Positive transference (Positive transference) and negative transference (negative transference), positive transference is patients will transfer the positive emotion to doctors, patients with negative transference is to transfer negative emotions to doctors. With the help of empathy, the pathological complex patients early formation to reproduce, reliving past emotions, and then help him solve these psychological conflict.
8Important worksStudies on hysteria", and Joseph Brewer (Josef Breuer). (Studies on Hysteria / Studien BER Hysterie, 1895)"The interpretation of dreams" (The Interpretation of Dreams / Die Traumdeutung, 1899)"Psychiatry of daily life" (The Psychopathology of Everyday Life / Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens, 1901)"Three Essays on the theory of sexuality" (Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality / Drei Abhandlungen Zur Sexualtheorie, 1905)"Totem and taboo" (Totem and Taboo / Totem und Tabu, 1913)"On narcissism" (On Narcissism / Zur Einf ü hrung der Narziß mus, 1914)"Beyond the pleasure principle" (Beyond the Pleasure Principle / Jenseits des Lustprinzips, 1920)"The ego and ID" (The Ego and the Id / Das Ich und Das Es, 1923)"The future of an illusion" (The Future of an Illusion / Die Zukunft einer Illusion, 1927)"Civilization and its discontents" (Civilization and Its Discontents / Das Unbehagen in der Kultur, 1929)"Mose" (and Monotheism / Moses. Der Mann Moses und die Monotheistische Religion, 1939)"Outline of psychoanalysis" (An Outline of Psycho-Analysis / Abriß der Psychoanalyse, 1940)
9contributeAs a treatment for mental illness doctor, Freud created a relates to human psychological structure and function theory. His point of view not only in psychiatry, has been widely used in artistic creation, education and political activities etc.. Freud's theory of Freud and his childrenThe argument has been later modification, development. People realize that, human behavior is not only governed by sex, socio-economic factors for the formation of personality, education also plays a role of nature. Although Freud's theory has been subjected to attacks, it takes nothing away from his image. His extreme theory, treatment technology and hiding of human psychology that part of a profound understanding of, and created a new field of psychology. He founded the theory, fundamentally changed the's view of human nature.Psychoanalytic school founder Freud made great contribution to psychology, use short words difficult to summarize. He stressed that the unconscious thinking process of human behavior is extremely important in. He demonstrated how this process affects the content of dreams, how to cause the common misfortune, such as a slip of the tongue, forget the name, injury accident, even disease.Freud is best known for perhaps because he put forward by inhibiting the sex will often lead to mental illness or neurological this theory (in fact this doctrine is not created by Freud, although his works made many contributions to popularize this theory). He also pointed out, sex and sexual desire begins in early childhood than adulthood. Freud created the method of psychoanalysis to treat mental illness. He systematically expounded the theory of personality structure of human development and popularization, also some psychological theories, such as anxiety, defense function, emotion, repression and sublimation.Freud is famous, mainly because he revolutionized the psychology, founded the psychopathology and psychotherapy system. In sociology he is a abnormal person. He wrote Imoto's sociological Writings: "totem and taboo," (1913), "group analysis and self analysis" (1921), the prospect of "illusion" (1928), "civilization and its discontents" (1930), "Mose" (1939) and monotheism.
10Dispute evaluationHis works greatly aroused people's interest in psychology, many of his ideas have been a lot of controversy, but since he proposed has aroused heated debate. Since many of Freud's theory still has the very great dispute, so it is difficult to estimate his place in history. He has created a new theory of outstanding talent, was a pioneer and leader. But Freud's theory and Darwin's and Pasteur's, had never won a generally recognized in the scientific community, so it is difficult to say in his theory with a few percent will eventually be considered correct.Although Freud's theory has been controversial, he still is a history of human thought is extremely great man. His views of psychology that people had thorough revolution on human thought ideas, concepts and terminology he proposed has been in common use -- for example, ID (Id), ego, superego (Ego) (Superego), Oedipus emotional (Oedipus complex) and death (Death Drive or Death Instinct.).Most psychologists now believe that behavior without conscious thought process of the people play a decisive role -- a role before Freud was greatly underestimated. Freud was not the originator of psychology. From a long-term point of view, people might think he as psychologists proposed theory was not quite right; but he is clearly in the modern psychology development of most influential, the most important person.
11Individual innovation Point of viewHave a great influence on the principle of Freud two interrelated and different: he also developed the principles of human mental structure and internal operation and organization psychology is how to determine the behavior of people. This makes he agreed to try some clinical technology to help cure mental illness. He has explained the development of personality is based on personal experience of childhood. In his philosophical writings, he advocated an atheist world outlook; he was known as the "touchstone twentieth Century atheist."Early worksFreud a less known is interested in neurology. He is cerebral palsy (CP) early research theme.
12subconsciousness Main article: subconscious Freud on contemporary thought, concept of contribution, the subconscious. In nineteenth Century the western mainstream thoughts as positivism, believe that people can achieve on its own and the real cognitive environment, and the wisdom to master. Freud thinks that the ideal of free will, people can not completely aware of self, and the level of consciousness and behavior think, link between. The subconscious can overthrow the cause theory of the concept that Freud put forward previously, the level of consciousness "," under the surface "and thoughts operation. Freud said the dream for the "royal road to the unconscious", to provide the best into the subconscious life in diameter, is that the subconscious "logic" in good cases, the logic and the logic of different levels of consciousness thought. Freud in his dream of a book, the initial development of a psychological topology, and proves the subconscious, and describe how to participate in the subconscious method. The subconscious (the preconscious) is regarded as the thinking layer in between the conscious and subconscious, to explore is not difficult. Freud believes that the idea of enlightenment, positivism and rationalism, the complete, by understanding, conversion, and control the subconscious, rather than to deny or suppress.
13Psychological Main article: psychological development Freud believes that the development of individual desire, such as distillation (sublimation) concept is shown, for changing the object. Life is "polymorphously perverse" (polymorphously perverse), any object can become a source of pleasure. With the different stages of development, will be fixed to the specific object of desire -- early oral stage (oral stage) (as a baby because lactation produce pleasure), followed by the anal stage (anal stage) (such as in control of intestinal pleasure), followed by a phallic stage (phallic stage). The child then undergoes period fixed desire to mother, known as the Oedipus complex, but the desire has the nature of taboo, must be depressed -- relatively unknown Electra complex (Electra complex) is fixed to the father.Freud hope this model can be universally true, so for classical mythology and contemporary ethnography as comparative material. Freud Oedipus complex word, formerly known as the Oedipus complex (Oedipus complex), is taken from the works of famous writer Alfonso Phu Chris "Greek tragedy Oedipus the king" (Oedipus Rex). Freud said: "I found in my mother's love from him, for my father. Now I think this is the ubiquitous phenomenon in children." Freud tried to psychological dynamic level to implement this development model. Each stage is to adult sexual maturity of the process, the mature period will produce a solid self, and developed the ability to delay gratification. (see "Three Essays on the theory of sexuality" (Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality)). Freud regards the Oedipus conflict for the pattern of psychological development and enlightenment, to point out that he was sure the human thirst for incest, and need to suppress the desire. He turned and cultural anthropology to study totem worship, advocates of this worship with the ceremony of deduction, reflects the tribal style of the Oedipus conflict.
14Any discussion of Freud thought, the influential and controversial, issues regarding the role of women and the psychological level, cannot be called complete. Although Freud is early advocate of freedom and education of women athletes (see 'civilized sexual morality and modern nervousness' (Civilized Sexual Morality and Modern Nervousness)), some women activists argue, but Freud on female sexual development view, let women in western culture progress back decades, to move closer to think that women are inferior to men. Ideology. Freud believe that the woman is incomplete male, must learn to accept their own damage (missing penis), physiological commandments that imagination. He put forward the penis envy and fear of castration and other terms, describe the desire to be outside of the home field, show the intellectual female psychology, not only the "rich" discrimination against women in rhetoric, resulting in more 1970 years ago, women's education right damage, increased entry of women into traditionally male dominated by social field obstacle.Although Freud's argument was about equal rights for women questioned, but Julia Michael (Juliet Mitchell), Nancy Chadeluo (Nancy Chodorow), Jessica, Benjamin (Jessica Benjamin), Jane Gallup (Jane Gallop), Jane Fleiss (Jane Flax), feminist theorist, that the theory of psychoanalysis and feminism for no Chi, can face, like other traditional theories, it is satisfied for their own use, remove the gender discrimination component. Another feminist Shulamith Phil stone (Shulamith Firestone), also agree with Freud theory on feminist movement is still be used. In the 'Freud doctrine: the misguided feminism' (Freudianism: The Misguided Feminism) in an article, that Freud's argument is basically correct, except for one important details should be modified: Freud wrote "penis", can be changed to "power" is a word.Also notable, as Freud thought earlier Hysteria (hysteria), derived from the childhood of more than a moment (sexual abuse), but then abandoned this called seduction theory (seduction theory) argument (see "of more than a moment index" (The Index of Sexual Abuse)), said in many cases are found, childhood memories of more than a moment, not from the facts, and more from the imagination. Focus instead on Oedipus theory, people hope that the subconscious sexual relations
15Ego super-ego Main article: the ID, ego and superego In his works, Freud put forward the psychology can be divided into three parts: the ID, ego and superego (ID, ego, and superego).The unconscious ID (the Latin word for "it", the German word for "Es") represent the thoughts of the original program - our most primitive, is to meet the demand of the mind; the word of Freud according to George Kodijk (Georg Groddeck) built by the works. Belong to the subconscious superego (the German word for "ber-Ich") represent social initiation of conscience, moral and ethical thought to counter the ID. Most belongs to the level of consciousness of self (Ich) is stored in the original requirement and moral / ethical beliefs, in order to balance. Healthy self with meet the practical ability, to contain the current I and the superego and the external world of interactive way. That the mind is not with single and homogeneity of the argument, still far-reaching influence people outside the field of psychology. Freud is extremely dynamic relations between the three parts of the mind, especially the conflict between the three way.The three system is perplexing, interaction, resulting in various kinds of behavior and thought. I asked to satisfy their desires, the superego demands self desire repressed, self is to reconcile the two aspects, in accordance with the reality of the environment, to take appropriate measures.
16Psychological defense Main article: psychological defense mechanismFreud thinks that the self in order to solve the conflict between the superego and ID, use of psychological defense mechanism. The use of this mechanism to Eros (Eros) -- this is the Greek god of the name; Rome myth called Cupid (Cupid). If properly used, can slow down the defense mechanism of conflict between super-ego and ego, but excessive or when using, but not face to face a conflict, will cause anxiety or guilt (guilt), will eventually lead to such as depression depressed mental imbalance. Freud's daughter Anna Floyd, study on defense mechanism in the field of quite outstanding, but she will be the first of its kind to the defense mechanism of glory to his father. Defense mechanism has the following several kinds: denial (denial), (reaction, formation) reaction structure transfer (displacement), depression / inhibition (repression/suppression), projection (projection), intelligence (intellectualization), (rationalization), reasonable compensation (compensation), sublimation (sublimation), and degradation of emotion (regressive emotionality)."Deny" to avoid to recognize the threat to their unpleasant fact or reality. For example, students received underperforming transcripts, and said to himself, results are not important -- early researchers argue, Freud's "deny", and Nietzsche into slavery or herd moral "anger" (Ressentiment) and "revaluation of values" (revaluation of values) concept, high similarity.onscious desire completely opposite to. For example, someone strong hatred of a race, said the reasons for the racial low humble, but the subconscious, is the feeling of their lowly lowly have said."Transfer" as the mood to safe from danger. For example, hit the pillow, to avoid the attack of sb.
17"Depressed" as the subconscious will extremely painful experience (such as the wounds of war), forced to leave the level of consciousness; "suppression" is aware of the same work."Projection" is basically belongs to own a part of some unpleasant thoughts, motives, desires, or emotional, projected onto others. For example, a stingy person will say others love square accounts in every detail, and a reluctance to admit his thoughts of people may be more easily on the day thinking of others look angry."The reason" as the emotionally let ego from stressful events. Intellectualization is usually not through the acceptance of reality, and through reasonable explain for himself."Rationalization" through proper construction logic to make a decision, and this causes the initial decision, from a completely different from the rationalization of the other mental state. For example, a purchase of MP3 player to listen to the growth course, but if the real reason cannot be people agree, but told friends is to buy players to listen to classic rock."Compensation" is unable to reach some kind of behavior, and replaced by another kind of behavior. For example, the first child will study, second children often make their parents happy to get attention."Sublimation" will impulse guidance to social recognition behavior. Such as dark and somber poem describing life female poet Emily Dickinson, his creation as an example."Degraded emotion" refers to the behavior back to the juvenile stage (early stage) of pleasure and gratification behavior, to balance the psychological conflict. Common examples include nail biting, sucking the thumb, overeating, irritability and child tone.
18Life and death driveFreud believed that humans are driven by two conflicting desires: the original desire energy Eros and the death drive thanatos. Freud said love / lust, contains all the creativity, and the driving force of life. The death drive (Death Drive) (or the death instinct) for every impulse of internal, to return to the state of calm, and eventually back to no longer exist. Freud until his later years to acknowledge the death drive, and the two drive control, a revolution on behalf of Freud thought style.The psychology of religionFreud in different works interpretation of religious origin. "Totem and taboo" (Totem and Taboo) a book, the human begin with the "original tribe" style cluster, the polygamous (Polygamy) combination, contains a male, female, and the male offspring. According to Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the boy early life have sexual desire to the mother, the Oedipus complex is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Father has protective tribe, so men fell in love with him, but also because of the father and the mother's envy him. The sons of understanding alone cannot defeat the leader's father, so the ability to kill, to treat the cult forms taste, whereby his forces into my body. However, after the sons with guilt, but also to strengthen the memory of my father, and shall worship. The superego so replace his father, the internalization of power source. Tribe resulting incest and marriage taboo, and sacrifice to the symbolic animal (sacrifice) (sacrifice) to replace the ritual slaughter of the living."Mose" (Moses and Monotheism). The book, according to Freud Delhi on reconstruction of Bible history, however, biblical scholars and historians because of its history, with the existing historical data is credible inconsistent, will not be accepted. In "the future of an illusion of Freud thought" (The Future of an Illusion) and develop a book. And religion as an illusion (illusion), Freud stressed that as a fantastic structure, if people want to enter the mature stage, must from this structure. Freud handled the subconscious, is inclined to atheism.