2MarylandThe Maryland Colony was founded by the Calverts. A family of wealthy English landowners.Their goal was to make money, but also to provide refuge for Catholics. Catholics in England could not worship as they wished.George Calvert was also called “Lord Baltimore.” He was a member of The Virginia Company. He asked King Charles I for a charter for a new colony along Chesapeake Bay, north of Virginia.George died before the charter was signed in His son, Cecilius Calvert, became the new Lord Baltimore & owner of the new colony of Maryland.2
3MarylandCecilius chose his other brother, Leonard, to be Maryland’s first governor.The Calvert brothers planned their colony carefully to avoid a “Starving Time” like Virginia (yes-this should sound familiar!)In 1633 Calvert sent first colonists to Maryland. Most were indentured servants. Landed near the mouth of the Potomac River. They founded their first settlement- St. Mary’s City.Leo3
4Life in maryland & virginia Controlled by CalvertsWelcomed any different religionsPassed “Toleration Act.”Largest English Colony in NALarger populationControlled by KingThe climate & soil were great for growing crops. Some grew very rich on huge tobacco plantations, but most struggled on small farms.Next to Chesapeake bay & Potomac River.Mild ClimateFertile soil for growing tobacco cropsHave governorsElected representatives to assembliesIn 1649 Maryland Assembly passed the “Toleration Act,” which allowed religious freedom in the colony.4
6The carolina ColoniesAs the colonies of Maryland and Virginia grew, colonists started building villages and farms farther south.In 1663 England’s Charles II granted land for another colony called Carolina. It stretched from Virginia to Florida.Carolina was divided among 8 English leaders called Lords Proprieters.The Carolina Colony became too large and difficult to govern. In 1712 the colony divided into 2 new colonies-North Carolina and South Carolina.The colonists in the original Carolina colony would ignore the laws they didn’t like.
8North Carolina South Carolina Land was flat and swampy, not good for growing tobacco.West Indies settlers arrived with African slaves. The colony began to prosper.Rice was the most important crop.NC was hilly and perfect for growing tobacco and corn.8
9GeorgiaEngland, France and Spain claimed area south of South Carolina. This made King George II unhappy-he wanted control of that area.James Oglethorpe, a wealthy English leader, had an idea to send debtors-people who owed money-to settle the colony. He wanted to give them a chance at a new lifeKG II loved the idea and granted J.O. and his partner a charter. Named the colony Georgia in honor of gool ol’ Georgy.In 1773 the first group arrived in Georgia and founded Savannah.
10Georgia’s colony prospered as a result of plantations and slave labor. James Oglethorpe did not allow:Trade with American IndiansSlaveryHuge farmsColonists illegally imported slaves. In 1751 Georgia’s leaders allowed slavery. Sorry JamesGeorgia’s colony prospered as a result of plantations and slave labor.10
11Heading westBy the 1700s most cities, farms, and plantations in the colonies were located near the coast (Coastal Plain).Very few colonists settled in the Piedmont-the land between the Coastal Plain the and Appalachian Mountains. Known as “backcountry” because it was in back of the area settled by Europeans.Settlers started moving using an American Indian trail. Became wide enough for wagons to use and became known as the “The Great Wagon Road.”
12Conflicts with indians The SC settlements were taking over the tribe lands of thousands of American Indians. Resentment grew.The Tuscarora Village of Chattawka was destroyed by German & Swiss settlers to build the settlement of New Bern. Some colonists were upset with the unfair treatment of Indians.The Tuscarora attacked several settlements hoping to frighten away settlers. This lead to the the Tuscaroro War.
13War ended in 1713. The Tuscaroro Indians were. . . Killed during that war (over 950)Captured and sold into slaverySent to West Indies to work on plantationsDied fighting over land and trade, post warDied in large numbers from European diseases (smallpox/measles)Settlers in the Southern Colonies continued pushing Indians away from their lands.American Indians decided to move west to lands the European settlers hadn’t yet reached. Eventually the settlers followed.13
14By mid 1700s slavery was legal in all 13 colonies. Life in the southFirst Africans arrived in Virginia in Soon thousands of enslaved Africans were brought to the colonies. Taken from their homes, chained together in ships & sold in the cities.At first slaves were indentured. Assemblies passed laws making slavery legal. It became institutionalized-a part of life in all of the colonies.By mid 1700s slavery was legal in all 13 colonies.
15slaves Children of enslaved people were also slaves. Many worked on plantations. By 1750 over 200,000 slaves lived in this regionChildren of enslaved people were also slaves.Families were often split up and sold to different owners.Slave treatment varied with owners. They were free to beat, whip, or insult their slaves. The law did not protect them.No hope
16Christianity was also a source of strength. Some slaves resisted in small ways. Broke tools, pretended to be sick, worked slowly.Slaves dealt with hardships by singing African songs and telling stories about Africa. This helped to preserve their culture.Christianity was also a source of strength.16
17Plantation life Most slaves in SC lived and worked on plantations. Planters and plantation owners became the richest people in the SC from cash crops and slave labor.Some plantation owners began as poor indentured servants. Others were wealthy English settlers who were granted land by the King.As planters grew richer, the amount of land they owned grew.17
18Field slaves who worked in fields raising crops. Plantation set upnails/bricksworkshopMain building was the planter’s house, 2-3 stories high. Slaves helped to build.Overseers’ house is near the planter’s house. They watched over the field slaves.barrelskitchenworkshopTwo types of slaves:House slaves who worked in the planter’s homeField slaves who worked in fields raising crops.There were many buildings surrounding the planter’s house.Slave houses were far from planter’s. One room, wood building.18
19There were very few schools due to the distance between plantations. Planters did not work in the field. They managed the plantation and provided food and housing for everyone who worked there.Planter’s duties included public service, often judges or colonial assembly members.There were very few schools due to the distance between plantations.Planters hired private tutors for the children. The tutors lived and taught on the plantations. Enslaved children did not receive an education.19
20Small farmsMost Southern Colonists lived and worked on small farms. They planted and harvested their own crops.Families on small farms lived in one story homes. Kids slept in the loft where goods were stored.Very few became wealthy.Owned little furniture other than bedsLived far from other small farmsChurch services were religious & socialSome traveled hours to get to the closest churchMost did not own slaves. If they did, it was 1 or 2Lived and worked close to slaves, but not treated as equals.
21Free africansNot all Africans remained slaves. Some escaped, others bought their freedom.Some free Africans bought land and started their own farms.Former slave, Anthony Johnson, bought land in Virginia and became a wealthy tobacco planter. He even bought a slave of is very own-Casor. . . go figure.Some free Africans bought enslaved relatives to free them.Some risked their lives and ran away from their owners. Some were captured and returned to their owner. . .gulp.
22Some Africans found help in Spanish Florida from the American Indian tribes. The Seminole Indians provided food & shelter. They even gave them land to grow crops. In return they agreed to give 1/3 of their crops to the Indians.Former slaves started dressing and talking like Seminole Indians. They became known as the “Black Seminoles”.
23Fort moseFree Africans in Spanish Florida started their own communities.In 1738 a new town for Free Africans was settled.The first settlement in North America for free Africans was Fort Mose.23
24The Southern EconomyPlantations produced tons of cash crops each year. They were shipped to markets in England and the West Indies to be sold.Plantations in different colonies grew different crops depending on climate and soil conditions.Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina’s main cash crop was tobacco.Southern North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were too warm & wet for tobacco crops. Their main cash crop was rice.Rice was such an important cash crop for South Carolinathat rice became known as “Carolina Gold”
25Landowners in dry land grew indigo plants Landowners in dry land grew indigo plants. From these they made indigo, a blue dye used in the cloth making process.Eliza Lucas Pickney experimented with indigo plants. She spent several years growing different kinds of indigo.South Carolina settlers were selling 1 million pounds of indigo a year to cloth makers in Europe.25
26Plantations were the most important part of the economy in the Southern Colonies. But, they still depended on others for goods and services. This is called interdependence.Plantation owners needed people to sell their crops. They hired a broker-a person who is paid to buy and sell for someone else.Planters would send their broker to England or the West Indies to sell their crops. They would send a list of items the broker was to purchase for them while they were there.Southern port towns grew richer from exporting cash crops. Norfolk and Savannah grew into the largest towns & cities.26
27Ships from England arrived with imported tea, coffee, furniture, and silverware to be sold. Those ships sailed back to England loaded with tobacco, rice, and indigo.Most successful plantations & cities were often located near ports or deep rivers. This location was easy to ship crops to England .By 1740, ships sailing from Charlestown carried 30 million pounds of rice to England every year.27
28Baltimore, Maryland prospered by exporting grain and tobacco Baltimore, Maryland prospered by exporting grain and tobacco. It also became a major center for shipbuilding.Farming was an important industry in the Southern Colonies due to its natural resources.Many settlers in the backcountry made a living as hunters and trappers (deer & beaver).Wilmington, North Carolina became an important shipping center for forest products because of its location on the Cape Fear River. Fertile soil, lots of trees. Plenty to build sawmills.
29Trees were also used to make naval stores Trees were also used to make naval stores. These trees provided tar, turpentine, and pitch needed to waterproof the wood & rope on a ship.Shipbuilding became a large industry in the colonies. In the 1700s, Baltimore, Maryland’s shipyards were well known for improving the production of ships. They also developed the “Baltimore Clipper”- one of the world’s fastest sailing ships.29