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**Finding Real Roots of Polynomial Equations 6-5**

Warm Up Lesson Presentation Lesson Quiz Holt Algebra 2

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**Warm Up Factor completely. 1. 2y3 + 4y2 – 30y 2y(y – 3)(y + 5)**

2. 3x4 – 6x2 – 24 3(x – 2)(x + 2)(x2 + 2) Solve each equation. 3. x2 – 9 = 0 x = – 3, 3 4. x3 + 3x2 – 4x = 0 x = –4, 0, 1

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**Objectives Identify the multiplicity of roots.**

Use the Rational Root Theorem and the irrational Root Theorem to solve polynomial equations.

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Vocabulary multiplicity

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**In Lesson 6-4, you used several methods for factoring polynomials**

In Lesson 6-4, you used several methods for factoring polynomials. As with some quadratic equations, factoring a polynomial equation is one way to find its real roots. Recall the Zero Product Property from Lesson 5-3. You can find the roots, or solutions, of the polynomial equation P(x) = 0 by setting each factor equal to 0 and solving for x.

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**Example 1A: Using Factoring to Solve Polynomial Equations**

Solve the polynomial equation by factoring. 4x6 + 4x5 – 24x4 = 0 4x4(x2 + x – 6) = 0 Factor out the GCF, 4x4. 4x4(x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 Factor the quadratic. 4x4 = 0 or (x + 3) = 0 or (x – 2) = 0 Set each factor equal to 0. x = 0, x = –3, x = 2 Solve for x. The roots are 0, –3, and 2.

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Example 1A Continued Check Use a graph. The roots appear to be located at x = 0, x = –3, and x = 2.

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**Example 1B: Using Factoring to Solve Polynomial Equations**

Solve the polynomial equation by factoring. x = 26x2 x4 – 26 x = 0 Set the equation equal to 0. Factor the trinomial in quadratic form. (x2 – 25)(x2 – 1) = 0 (x – 5)(x + 5)(x – 1)(x + 1) Factor the difference of two squares. x – 5 = 0, x + 5 = 0, x – 1 = 0, or x + 1 =0 x = 5, x = –5, x = 1 or x = –1 Solve for x. The roots are 5, –5, 1, and –1.

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Check It Out! Example 1a Solve the polynomial equation by factoring. 2x6 – 10x5 – 12x4 = 0 2x4(x2 – 5x – 6) = 0 Factor out the GCF, 2x4. 2x4(x – 6)(x + 1) = 0 Factor the quadratic. 2x4 = 0 or (x – 6) = 0 or (x + 1) = 0 Set each factor equal to 0. x = 0, x = 6, x = –1 Solve for x. The roots are 0, 6, and –1.

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Check It Out! Example 1b Solve the polynomial equation by factoring. x3 – 2x2 – 25x = –50 x3 – 2x2 – 25x + 50 = 0 Set the equation equal to 0. (x + 5)(x – 2)(x – 5) = 0 Factor. x + 5 = 0, x – 2 = 0, or x – 5 = 0 x = –5, x = 2, or x = 5 Solve for x. The roots are –5, 2, and 5.

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Sometimes a polynomial equation has a factor that appears more than once. This creates a multiple root. In 3x5 + 18x4 + 27x3 = 0 has two multiple roots, 0 and –3. For example, the root 0 is a factor three times because 3x3 = 0. The multiplicity of root r is the number of times that x – r is a factor of P(x). When a real root has even multiplicity, the graph of y = P(x) touches the x-axis but does not cross it. When a real root has odd multiplicity greater than 1, the graph “bends” as it crosses the x-axis.

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**You cannot always determine the multiplicity of a root from a graph**

You cannot always determine the multiplicity of a root from a graph. It is easiest to determine multiplicity when the polynomial is in factored form.

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**Example 2A: Identifying Multiplicity**

Identify the roots of each equation. State the multiplicity of each root. x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 = 0 x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 = (x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 2) x + 2 is a factor three times. The root –2 has a multiplicity of 3. Check Use a graph. A calculator graph shows a bend near (–2, 0).

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**Example 2B: Identifying Multiplicity**

Identify the roots of each equation. State the multiplicity of each root. x4 + 8x3 + 18x2 – 27 = 0 x4 + 8x3 + 18x2 – 27 = (x – 1)(x + 3)(x + 3)(x + 3) x – 1 is a factor once, and x + 3 is a factor three times. The root 1 has a multiplicity of 1. The root –3 has a multiplicity of 3. Check Use a graph. A calculator graph shows a bend near (–3, 0) and crosses at (1, 0).

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**x – 2 is a factor four times. The root 2 has a multiplicity of 4.**

Check It Out! Example 2a Identify the roots of each equation. State the multiplicity of each root. x4 – 8x3 + 24x2 – 32x + 16 = 0 x4 – 8x3 + 24x2 – 32x + 16 = (x – 2)(x – 2)(x – 2)(x – 2) x – 2 is a factor four times. The root 2 has a multiplicity of 4. Check Use a graph. A calculator graph shows a bend near (2, 0).

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Check It Out! Example 2b Identify the roots of each equation. State the multiplicity of each root. 2x6 – 22x5 + 48x4 + 72x3 = 0 2x6 – 22x5 + 48x4 + 72x3 = 2x3(x + 1)(x – 6)(x – 6) x is a factor three times, x + 1 is a factor once, and x – 6 is a factor two times. The root 0 has a multiplicity of 3. The root –1 has a multiplicity of 1. The root 6 has a multiplicity of 2.

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Not all polynomials are factorable, but the Rational Root Theorem can help you find all possible rational roots of a polynomial equation.

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**Example 3: Marketing Application**

The design of a box specifies that its length is 4 inches greater than its width. The height is 1 inch less than the width. The volume of the box is 12 cubic inches. What is the width of the box? Step 1 Write an equation to model the volume of the box. Let x represent the width in inches. Then the length is x + 4, and the height is x – 1. x(x + 4)(x – 1) = 12 V = lwh. x3 + 3x2 – 4x = 12 Multiply the left side. x3 + 3x2 – 4x – 12 = 0 Set the equation equal to 0.

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Example 3 Continued Step 2 Use the Rational Root Theorem to identify all possible rational roots. Factors of –12: ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, ±6, ±12 Step 3 Test the possible roots to find one that is actually a root. The width must be positive, so try only positive rational roots. Use a synthetic substitution table to organize your work. The first row represents the coefficients of the polynomial. The first column represents the divisors and the last column represents the remainders. Test divisors to identify at least one root.

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Example 3 Continued Step 4 Factor the polynomial. The synthetic substitution of 2 results in a remainder of 0, so 2 is a root and the polynomial in factored form is (x – 2)(x2 + 5x + 6). (x – 2)(x2 + 5x + 6) = 0 Set the equation equal to 0. (x – 2)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0 Factor x2 + 5x + 6. Set each factor equal to 0, and solve. x = 2, x = –2, or x = –3 The width must be positive, so the width should be 2 inches.

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Check It Out! Example 3 A shipping crate must hold 12 cubic feet. The width should be 1 foot less than the length, and the height should be 4 feet greater than the length. What should the length of the crate be? Step 1 Write an equation to model the volume of the box. Let x represent the length in feet. Then the width is x – 1, and the height is x + 4. x(x – 1)(x + 4) = 12 V = lwh. x3 + 3x2 – 4x = 12 Multiply the left side. x3 + 3x2 – 4x– 12 = 0 Set the equation equal to 0.

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**Check It Out! Example 3 Continued**

Step 2 Use the Rational Root Theorem to identify all possible rational roots. Factors of –12: ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, ±6, ±12 Step 3 Test the possible roots to find one that is actually a root. The width must be positive, so try only positive rational roots. p q 1 –4 3 –12 4 2 6 5 14 30 24 7 84 Use a synthetic substitution table to organize your work. The first row represents the coefficients of the polynomial. The first column represents the divisors and the last column represents the remainders. Test divisors to identify at least one root.

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**Check It Out! Example 3 Continued**

Step 4 Factor the polynomial. The synthetic substitution of 2 results in a remainder of 0, so 2 is a root and the polynomial in factored form is (x – 2)(x2 + 5x + 6). (x – 2)(x2 + 5x + 6) = 0 Set the equation equal to 0. (x – 2)(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0 Factor x2 + 5x + 6. Set each factor equal to 0, and solve. x = 2, x = –2, or x = –3 The length must be positive, so the length should be 2 feet.

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**Polynomial equations may also have irrational roots.**

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The Irrational Root Theorem say that irrational roots come in conjugate pairs. For example, if you know that is a root of x3 – x2 – 3x – 1 = 0, then you know that 1 – is also a root. Recall that the real numbers are made up of the rational and irrational numbers. You can use the Rational Root Theorem and the Irrational Root Theorem together to find all of the real roots of P(x) = 0.

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**Example 4: Identifying All of the Real Roots of a Polynomial Equation**

Identify all the real roots of 2x3 – 9x2 + 2 = 0. Step 1 Use the Rational Root Theorem to identify possible rational roots. ±1, ±2 = ±1, ±2, ± . 1 2 p = 2 and q = 2 Step 2 Graph y = 2x3 – 9x2 + 2 to find the x-intercepts. The x-intercepts are located at or near –0.45, 0.5, and The x-intercepts –0.45 and 4.45 do not correspond to any of the possible rational roots.

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**Step 3 Test the possible rational root .**

Example 4 Continued 1 2 Step 3 Test the possible rational root . 1 2 Test The remainder is 0, so (x – ) is a factor. 1 2 2 – 1 –4 –2 2 –8 –4 The polynomial factors into (x – )(2x2 – 8x – 4). 1 2 Step 4 Solve 2x2 – 8x – 4 = 0 to find the remaining roots. 2(x2 – 4x – 2) = 0 Factor out the GCF, 2 Use the quadratic formula to identify the irrational roots. 4± 2 x = = ±

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**( ) Example 4 Continued The fully factored equation is 1**

2 x – x – x – 2 – = 0 2 æ é ç ë è ö ÷ ø ù û The roots are , , and 1 2 + -

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Check It Out! Example 4 Identify all the real roots of 2x3 – 3x2 –10x – 4 = 0. Step 1 Use the Rational Root Theorem to identify possible rational roots. ±1, ±2, ±4 ±1, ±2 = ±1, ±2, ±4, ± . 1 2 p = –4 and q = 2 Step 2 Graph y = 2x3 – 3x2 –10x – 4 to find the x-intercepts. The x-intercepts are located at or near –0.5, –1.2, and 3.2. The x-intercepts –1.2 and 3.2 do not correspond to any of the possible rational roots.

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**Check It Out! Example 4 Continued**

1 2 Step 3 Test the possible rational root – . Test – The remainder is 0, so (x ) is a factor. 1 2 1 2 – 2 –3 –10 –4 –1 2 4 2 –4 –8 The polynomial factors into (x + )(2x2 – 4x – 8). 1 2 Step 4 Solve 2x2 – 4x – 8 = 0 to find the remaining roots. 2(x2 – 2x – 4) = 0 Factor out the GCF, 2 Use the quadratic formula to identify the irrational roots. =1± 5 2± 2 x =

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**Check It Out! Example 4 Continued**

The fully factored equation is ( ) 1 2 x x – x – 1– 5 2 æ ù ç û è ö ÷ ø é ë The roots are – , , and 1 2 + -

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Lesson Quiz Solve by factoring. 1. x3 + 9 = x2 + 9x –3, 3, 1 Identify the roots of each equation. State the multiplicity of each root. 0 and 2 each with multiplicity 2 2. 5x4 – 20x3 + 20x2 = 0 3. x3 – 12x2 + 48x – 64 = 0 4 with multiplicity 3 4. A box is 2 inches longer than its height. The width is 2 inches less than the height. The volume of the box is 15 cubic inches. How tall is the box? 3 in. 5. Identify all the real roots of x3 + 5x2 – 3x – 3 = 0. 1, ,

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