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Cervical Cancer and Vaccines IMELDA DE VERA GUIMARY, APN DIVISION OF GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL.

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Presentation on theme: "Cervical Cancer and Vaccines IMELDA DE VERA GUIMARY, APN DIVISION OF GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cervical Cancer and Vaccines IMELDA DE VERA GUIMARY, APN DIVISION OF GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL

2 The Cervix  It is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (or womb)

3 Cervical Cancer  Each year, approximately 12,000 women in the US get cervical cancer  Among the leading causes of death worldwide  Used to be the leading cause of cancer death in the US  In the past 40 years, there has been a major decrease in the number of deaths from cervical cancer DUE TO…

4 PAP tests!  One of the most reliable and effective screening tests available  All women should start getting regular Pap tests at age 21  Cervical cancer is the only gynecologic cancer with an effective screening test  The Pap test ONLY screens for cervical cancer

5 Pap Tests (cont’d)  Who should get it and how often?  Women between the ages of should get a Pap test every 3 years  Women should get a HPV test with a Pap test every 5 year  IF you are 65+, ask your doctor  If you had a hysterectomy, you no longer need to get them  The HPV test looks for HPV, and can be used with the Pap test (co-testing)

6 Types of Pap tests  Conventional Pap = samples collected from the cervix using a speculum and then smeared onto a slide directly  Best to be used when not menstruating  Liquid based cytology = uses an arrow-shaped brush rather than a speculum to obtain a sample of cells and then suspended in a bottle of preservatives while transported to the library  Can be done while woman is menstruating

7 Who get cervical cancer?  Occurs most often in women over the age of 30  All women with a cervix are at risk  Women who have had a total hysterectomy are not at risk

8 What can cause or increase the risk of getting cervical cancer?  Human papillomavirus (HPV) – a sexually transmitted infection (STI)  Smoking  Having HIV  Using birth control pills for a long time  Having given birth to three or more children

9 What are the signs and symptoms?  Vaginal bleeding (especially after sex)  Abnormal discharge from the vagina

10 HPV Vaccines  There are two types of HPV vaccines:  Gardasil (Merck)  Cervarix (GSK)  What do they do?  They prevent cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers  Taken in 3 doses

11 Who should get the HPV vaccines?  Recommended for:  11 and 12 year old girls  Females between the ages of years who have never received any of the shots when they were younger  Also for boys and young men

12 Vaginal and Vulvar cancers IMELDA DE VERA GUIMARY, APN DIVISION OF GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY UNIVERSITY HOSTPIAL

13 The Vagina and Vulva  Vagina = the birth canal  Vulva = outer part of the female genitals (the labia)

14 Who gets vaginal and vulvar cancers?  Approximately 1,000 women in the US every year (vaginal)  Approximately 3,500 women in the US every year (vulvar)  Rarer types but still a sizeable portion

15 What causes or increases the risk of getting vaginal OR vulvar cancer?  Many similarities with cervical cancer:  HPV  Smoking  HIV  Some different:  Being aged 50 or older (vulvar)  Exposure before birth (while in the womb) to Diethystilbestrol (DES), a man-made form of estrogen

16 Signs and symptoms of Vaginal  Abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding  Bleeding may be:  Heavy or long  Occurring outside of menstruation or between periods  Occurring after menopause  Pain in pelvis or abdomen, especially when urinating or having sex

17 Signs and Symptoms of Vulvar  Itching, burning, bleeding on vulva  Color changes or rashes, warts, sores on skin of vulva  Pain in pelvis, especially when urinating or having sex

18 KEY POINTS  Cervical cancer is the only gynecologic cancer with an effective screening test (Pap)  The Pap test ONLY screens for cervical cancer  HPV vaccines can help prevent cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers  Smoking and HPV can increase the risk of getting these cancers  Call your doctor after experiencing any of the warning signs and symptoms for two weeks or longer


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