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Two examples. Canadian Lynx data 1821-1934 Annual trappings of Canadian Lynx.

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Presentation on theme: "Two examples. Canadian Lynx data 1821-1934 Annual trappings of Canadian Lynx."— Presentation transcript:

1 Two examples

2 Canadian Lynx data Annual trappings of Canadian Lynx

3 The Data (an example of a prey-predator relationship). Note sharp peaks and wide minima

4 Try Log Scale

5 Its ACF. MA models not likely. Looks like AR model with complex roots

6 PACF is confusing though. Should we try AR(2) or AR(4) or AR(7) or even AR(11)?

7 AR(2)? m = p-value a 1 = 1.39 p-value a 2 = p-value Portmanteau test: p-value

8 ACF for residuals in AR(2) model. Looks good? But-

9 AR(4)? m = p-value a 1 = p-value a 2 = p-value a 3 = p-value a 4 = p-value Portmanteau test: p-value

10 ACF for residuals in AR(4) model, Portmanteau test is no good any longer.

11 AR(7)? m = p-value a 1 = 1.269p-value a 2 = p-value a 3 = p-value a 4 = p-value a 5 = p-value a 6 = p-value a 7 = p-value Portmanteau test: p-value

12 For AR(7) model, Portmanteau test is even worse: p-value 0.018

13 AR(10)-first model with good Portmanteau test m = p-value a 1 = 1.243p-value a 2 = p-value a 3 = p-value a 4 = p-value a 5 = p-value a 6 = p-value a 7 = 0.174p-value a 8 = p-value a 9 = p-value a 10 = p-value Portmanteau test: p-value

14 ACF for residuals in AR(10) model

15 Since φ(11) looked significant, we try AR(11) as well m = p-value a 1 = 1.168p-value a 2 = p-value a 3 = p-value a 4 = p-value a 5 = p-value a 6 = p-value a 7 = 0.05p-value a 8 = p-value a 9 = p-value a 10 = p-value a 11 = p-value Portmanteau test: p-value

16 ACF for residuals in AR(11) model

17 AR(11) has the best AIC value, followed by AR(12)-AR(19) (??) Remember, the data set is 114 points long.

18 AIC values

19 Sunspots data

20 As of Yesterday …

21 We have seen this series before. We clearly see 11 years cycle. The data is too short to see longer (100+ years) cycles

22 Here is another view:

23 and another …

24 Yet another view (reversed in time)

25 Let’s consider this, once again

26 ACF. Typical behavior for AR(2) model with complex roots.

27 Its PACF. AR(2)?

28 Now, let us look at monthly data,778 points, since December Note steep accents and not as steep drops. This is a clear evidence of non-linearity in the model.

29 Its ACF (200 points, about 19 years)

30 Its PACF. First model that has reasonable Portmanteau test, is AR(13)

31 Since the data is only 60+ years long, we can see only the 11 years cycle here though longer cycles definitely exist. The model below predicts next grand minimum around 2050

32 Have a Nice Break!


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