RECOGNITION, EVALUATION, AND CONTROL OF SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS
STEP 1 RECOGNITION Defining and Identifying Surface and Dermal Hazards
DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS Chemicals that can cause dermatitis or skin damage Chemicals that can enter the body through intact skin and cause toxic effects in various organ systems
DEFINING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS PROPERTIES: Can penetrate or injure the skin Toxic if ingested Inhalation hazard if resuspended Low vapor pressure Can remain on surfaces for prolonged periods EXAMPLES: Amines Isocyanates Metal dusts PCBs and dioxins Pesticides VOCs Acids/bases Beryllium
IDENTIFYING SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) and ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs ® ) indicate these hazards with: SKIN Notation SENSITIZER Notation
THE SKIN NOTATION Does NOT denote the capability for the chemical to cause irritation, dermatitis, and sensitization Refers to the potential contribution to the overall exposure by the cutaneous route including absorption through skin, mucous membranes, and eyes
THE SKIN NOTATION “Is intended to alert the reader that air sampling alone is insufficient to accurately quantitate exposure and that measures to prevent significant cutaneous absorption may be required.” +
THE ACGIH SENSITIZER NOTATION (SEN) Is designed to protect workers from becoming sensitized through respiratory, dermal, and conjunctival exposures
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS Are necessary for those chemicals that have BOTH a low exposure limit and a skin or sensitizer notation Include process controls, measurement of airborne chemicals, worker training, and a complete dermal exposure reduction program
A DERMAL EXPOSURE REDUCTION PROGRAM DETECTION of skin and surface contaminants. PROTECTION through the proper selection and changing frequency of personal protective equipment. DECONTAMINATION of skin, work surfaces, tools, and equipment. DETERMINATION of program effectiveness through biological monitoring.
STEP 2 EVALUATION WHY, WHERE, AND HOW TO SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To ensure a comprehensive exposure assessment Dermal sampling, air sampling, and biological monitoring are all components of a comprehensive exposure assessment strategy.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To select proper personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly hand protection Surface contamination inside a glove indicates glove failure or improper work practices. Sampling can determine if and why PPE failure occurred and can be used to retrain workers so as to enhance PPE effectiveness.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To comply with OSHA PPE standard 1910.138 (b) requires employers to select hand protection on an evaluation of the performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To eliminate take home toxins Employees’ shoes, glasses, tools, and lunchboxes contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be an exposure source for family members.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To prevent the inadvertent mixing of incompatible chemicals
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination procedures Sampling can be done initially to determine a “normal” concentration of surface contaminant following a prescribed cleaning regimen. Future samples can be used to document that the ongoing cleaning procedures result in an acceptable surface contaminant level.
WHY SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS To evaluate non- controlled work areas Provides documentation that contamination of non-controlled work areas has not occurred from adjacent work areas and activities.
WHERE TO SAMPLE SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS CONDUCTING THE INVESTIGATION
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 1. Review the published literature to evaluate the potential for skin absorption for the contaminant under study. 2. Rate specific jobs in regards to the amount and the frequency of exposure. 3. Conduct a walk-through survey of the work area making an assessment of personal and work-area hygiene.
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 4. Collect a bulk sample of suspect materials and have them analyzed to confirm contents. 5. Note parts of the skin regularly exposed to contaminants due to machine design or employee work practices. 6. Note possible contamination of surfaces frequently touched by workers in production areas such as lids, equipment, tools, and switches.
CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION FOR SURFACE AND DERMAL HAZARDS 7. Check for cross contamination on cafeteria lunch tables, desktops, doorknobs, and changing rooms. 8. Investigate the potential for exposure from handling contaminated equipment or clothing. 9. Check for contamination on door handles, seats, and flooring of vehicles driven on the job and on the inside of respirators, hard hats, and reusable gloves.
WIPE SAMPLING FOR CHEMICALS ON SURFACES A routine method involving the use of a filter media used dry or wetted with a liquid or solvent specified in the procedure
WIPE SAMPLING MEDIA Gauze pads - PCBs, pesticides Filters - Hexavalent chromium Cotton gloves - Pesticides Cotton balls - 2,4 D Ghost Wipes - Lead Cotton swabs - DNT, TNT Adhesive labels and cellophane tape - Dust and mold spores
GHOST WIPES SKC Cat. No. 225-2414 Ease sample preparation and analysis of surface lead Hold together in the field even when wiping rough surfaces Readily and completely dissolve during digestion for complete dispersion of analytes and uniform recoveries Specified in OSHA Wipe Method ID-125G for metals
WIPE SAMPLE COLLECTION PROTOCOLS FOR OSHA Wipe a test area of 100 cm 2 Dry wipes or filter paper wetted with distilled water should be used for liquid residues or for sampling on skin, PPE, and surfaces that contact food. FOR HUD Wipe a test area of 1 ft 2 Templates of various shapes are helpful to sample the required area on a variety of surfaces such as floors and window sills. SKC offers plastic HUD templates as SKC Cat. No. 225-2406.
SURFACE SAMPLING OF VOLATILE CONTAMINANTS Wipe sampling is not effective for many volatile contaminants. For these compounds, surface contamination can be determined using a general survey monitor such as a photoionization detector (PID). SKC 730 Series
VACUUM SAMPLING FOR PESTICIDES AND METALS A 3-piece cassette loaded with an appropriate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet acting as a nozzle is attached to a personal pump at flows of 2+ L/min.
VACUUM SAMPLING FOR ASBESTOS ASTM D5755 and D5756 specify a carbon-filled black polypropylene cassette with cowl loaded with an MCE or polycarbonate filter and a short length of tubing on the inlet. The tubing on the inlet serves as a nozzle to vacuum contaminants from a 100 cm 2 area at 1 to 5 L/min followed by transmission electron microscopy. SKC Cat. No. 225-322
COLORIMETRIC SWABS FOR LEAD Lead poisoning continues to be a public health problem, particularly among children. Rapid, inexpensive surface sampling kits have been developed that allow non- professionals to answer the basic question, “Is lead present?”
LEADCHECK ® SWABS U.S. EPA TESTING Recognized by U.S. EPA to reliably determine the absence of lead paint Detects lead on 96.6% of surfaces tests Suitable for surfaces, but activated swabs are not suitable for use on skin SKC Cat. No. 225-2404
LEADCHECK SWABS NIOSH METHOD 7700 Lead in Air by Chemical Spot Test Specifies 0.8 µm MCE filters at 2 L/min for sample collection. LeadCheck swabs are used to check for the presence of lead on the filter sample. Laboratory analysis can be done to quantitate levels if colorimetric test is positive.
LEAD DETECTION ON SKIN OR SURFACES Developed by U.S. NIOSH; NIOSH Method 9105 Licensed by SKC Scientific breakthrough - Colorimetric wipe for lead on skin or surfaces Behavior modification tool - Allows workers to determine if their hand washing has been thorough enough Limit of ID is 18 µg of lead
FULL DISCLOSURE ® LEAD WIPES Step 1Step 2Step 3 SKC Cat. Nos. 550-001/2
COLORIMETRIC SWYPE ® SAMPLING Designed to detect contamination of work surfaces or skin Formulated to be specific to a particular compound group Sensitive to levels equal to or below PELs for comparable airborne exposures
COLORIMETRIC SWYPE SAMPLING CHEMICAL SPECIFIC TEST KITS Aromatic amines Aliphatic amines Aromatic isocyanates Aliphatic isocyanates Hydrazine Acids/bases SKC 769-Series
COLORIMETRIC SWYPE SAMPLING For surface sampling, spray the proprietary Developer Solution lightly on the test surface and then wipe with the SWYPE indicator pad. Wait 2 to 3 minutes for color to develop. For skin sampling, first wipe the skin and then immerse the SWYPE indicator pad in the Developer Solution. Wait 2 to 3 minutes for color to develop.
SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS A swab or filter wetted with sterile water or wash solution is used to wipe a specified area. Typically, the swab is then used to inoculate a culture plate. SKC Cat. No. 225-2402
SURFACE SAMPLING FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS SKC Stick-to-it Lift Tape consists of a flexible plastic microscope with an adhesive area Press onto the surface and insert into the plastic mailers for shipment to the lab. SKC Cat. No. 225-9808
PPE AND DERMAL EXPOSURES Wearing the WRONG glove is worse than wearing no glove at all! If the chemical can permeate the glove material, the presence of the glove along with sweating will enhance chemical absorption 5 to 10 times!
PERMEA-TEC ® PADS A SCREENING TOOL FOR PPE NEW GLOVE EVALUATION Double-glove workers and place PERMEA-TEC pad between the two gloves. After 1 hour, remove the outside glove and inspect the PERMEA-TEC for color change. Continue checking at regular intervals.
PERMEA-TEC PADS A SCREENING TOOL FOR PPE ROUTINE GLOVE EVALUATION After a “safe use” time for a glove has been determined, design a change-out schedule for gloves and use PERMEA-TEC to assure and document protection from chemical exposure.
PERMEA-TEC PADS DIRECTIONS FOR USE For glove evaluation, place the pads on the thumb, middle finger, and palm with the pad side facing out. Don PPE normally worn. After specified time, remove PPE. Examine PERMEA-TEC for color change. SKC 769 Series
PERMEA-TEC PADS FOR SOLVENTS Contain a color indicator and an activated charcoal pad The color indicator strip turns from white to gray with exposure to common POLAR organic solvents The charcoal pad can be analyzed by gas chromatography like a charcoal tube.
DECONTAMINATION ISSUES THE BEST CLEANSERS: Will not disrupt or abrade the natural barrier properties of the skin Will not enhance penetration of contaminants into the skin Will remove water insoluble contaminants such as pesticides Are chemical specific
SKIN CLEANSERS D-TAM ™ SKIN CLEANSERS FROM SKC Do not contain lanolin or harsh surfactants Will remove water-insoluble contaminants Chemical specific See SKC Surface/Dermal Response kits with chemical specific SWYPES, PERMEA-TEC pads, decontamination solutions, and D-TAM skin cleansers. (SKC 769 Series)
METHAMPHETAMINE: DEFINING THE PROBLEM Methamphetamine or "meth" is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is highly addictive, cheap, and easy to produce. Meth is derived from commonly available decongestants and diet aids containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and cooked in clandestine (illegal) “labs.”
RESPONDING TO METH Health and safety professionals have a role to play in the response and cleanup of clandestine meth laboratories.
ROLE OF HEALTH AND SAFETY PROS IN METH LABS To protect first-responders and other personnel from the hazards To develop health and safety plans for decontamination of buildings/environment To confirm that appropriate “safe” levels have been met prior to reoccupancy
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS OF METH WHO? Law enforcement Fire, hazmat, or ambulance crews Social services Utilities services Landlords Custodial or housekeeping staff WHERE? Homes Cars Hotel rooms Storage units Dumpsters Tents/campsites
SAMPLE COLLECTION NIOSH reports that air sampling for individual contaminants is only effective during active “cooking” of meth. The particulate aerosol formed during meth production, however, deposits onto available surfaces. A better method for sampling meth after a cook is using surface wipe sampling.
NIOSH SURFACE WIPE METHODS FOR METH To evaluate meth surface residue, NIOSH has developed two field detection kits and transferred this technology to SKC for commercial production.
SKC METH RESIDUE KITS Detects the presence of meth residue with a limit of identification of 15 micrograms/100 cm 2 Color results develop rapidly for on-the-spot qualitative assessments. Designed to check meth remediation/cleanup Can assess meth residue on surfaces with limits of identification relevant to state cleanup guidelines Measures as low as 50 nanograms
SKC Cat. No. 560-001 Kit Includes: - Gauze wipes - Disposable gloves - 10 x 10 cm templates - Wetting agent spray - Developer sprays - Color Guide Instructions and accessories Must be kept cool during storage/transport
Allows assessment of meth residues on surfaces with limits of identification relevant to state cleanup guidelines: MethChek 1500 - detects 1500 nanograms/100 cm 2 MethChek 500 - detects 500 nanograms/100 cm 2 MethChek 100 - detects 100 nanograms/100 cm 2 MethChek 50 - detects 50 nanograms/100 cm 2
Each kit contains solutions and multiple individually packaged test packets that include: Gauze wipes/cotton swabs Disposable gloves Disposable 10 x 10-cm templates Syringes Pipettes Extractor solution in vials Sample storage mini bags Detection cartridges Color Quick Guide instructions Wetting Agent spray Complete Operating Instructions and accessories SKC Cat. Nos. 560-002 to -005B
THANK YOU FOR YOUR INTEREST IN SKC SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES! WWW.SKCINC.COM
SURFACE CONTAMINATION AND DERMAL HAZARDS CDC-NIOSH has released a technical resource titled Effects of Skin Contact with Chemicals: What a Worker Should Know. Link to www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2011- 199/pdfs/2011-199.pdf.