What Is Intelligence? Ability to adjust to different situations. Ability to learn. Ability to engage in abstract thinking.
Definition By Wechsler “The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally and deal effectively with the environment.”
Definition Aggregate and Global implies it is revealed by an individual behaviour as a whole. Purposeful implies that intelligent behaviour is goal directed which is based on drives and incentives.
Test Behavior Ensure the purpose of undergoing evaluation. Use the language he/she is comfortable conversing in. Adjustment to the testing situation. Attention and concentration. Reaction to failure.
Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale For Children By Dr M. Bhatt This scale includes 12 separate sub- tests. Age 5+ to15+ It yields Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ. Verbal Tests Information General Comprehension Arithmetic Similarities Vocabulary Digit Span Performance Subtests Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Coding Mazes
WISC Profile Verbal IQ111 Performance IQ124 Full Scale / Global IQ120
Graphical Representation of the WISC Profile
Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Children (MISIC) This IQ test was developed by Dr Arthur Malin. It is an Indian adaptation of the WISC and similar to the WISC subtests. Picture Arrangement is excluded in this version. Some items are adapted to suit Indian culture. Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Full Scale IQ are obtained from this test.
WISC Pointers for Sp LD Discrepancy of ≥ 15 points between VIQ and PIQ. The Global IQ needs to be interpreted with caution. ACID profile another positive indicator. The graph often appears jagged with many peaks and dips. Fewer subtest scores fall in the average range.
Binet Kamath Intelligence Scale Kamath undertook a revision of the Stanford Binet Scales to suit Indian conditions. The test has subtests from Age III to XXII. For each item passed the child earns a credit of 2 months, 4 months or 6 months depending on the corresponding age. IQ = Mental Age × 100 Chronological Age The IQ thus obtained is classified.
1916 Stanford-Binet Sample Items for 12 year olds
Seguin Form Board Aim: The individual has to insert geometrical shaped blocks into corresponding recesses as quickly as possible. Used particularly for young children and supplemented with other tests. Advantages: Spontaneous arousal in children. Amenable & brief. Valid ‘g’ obtained.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices It is a test of observation and clear thinking. Measures ability to form perceptual relations, reason by analogy independent of language and formal schooling. It consists of 5 sets of 12 items each. Each item contains a figure with a missing piece. Norms are available for age 6 – 16.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
DSM –IV TR Classification IQ Borderline Intellectual Functioning. IQ to approx. 70 Mild Mental Retardation. IQ to approx Moderate Mental Retardation. IQ to approx Severe Mental Retardation. IQ Below20-25 Profound Mental Retardation.
Wechsler’s IQ Classification IQ 90 – 109 Average Intelligence. IQ Above Average Intelligence. IQ Superior Intelligence. IQ 130 and above Very Superior Intelligence.
What Next? In the case of students with an IQ of <85 it is preferable that a revised curriculum is followed with the help of a resource person. In the case of students with 90 and above IQ points and still showing a discrepancy between capability and achievement scores further investigations need to be done.
Further Investigations This could be followed up with a Psychologist. Possible reasons for poor school performance: 1.Specific Learning Disability. 2.English as a Second Language issues (ESL). 3.ADHD/ ADD issues. 4.Emotional Disturbance.
Conclusions IQ tests are used as screening measures to understand the capability of the individual. In order to get authentic results it is advisable that the test must be conducted by a trained psychologist. Principal, teachers, parents and the student need to understand the purpose of undergoing an evaluation.