Also known as Unit Testing, Module Testing, and Program Testing
Component Testing ◦ Searching for defects in, and verifies the functioning of software that are separately testable. ◦ This testing can be done in isolation of other parts of the system, using stubs and drivers. A B A Stub Driver B
Component Testing ◦ May include the testing of the functionality and specific non-functional characteristics such as resource behaviour, e.g. Memory leaks ◦ Also Robustness testing or performance testing ◦ Also structure testing, e.g. Decision coverage
◦ Testing interfaces between components, as well as interactions to different parts of the system, such as an operating system, and a file system. ◦ Component Integration Testing is testing interactions between components ◦ System Integration Testing is testing the interaction of the developed system with other systems
Integration Testing ◦ It’s generally better to integrate components to each other in groups, and then test that process, rather than a “big bang” integration when all discrete components are integrated simultaneously. ◦ With the “big bang” approach, it is very difficult to trace the cause of failures to one specific component. ◦ The opposite approach is integrating one component at a time, which can often be too time consuming.
Integration Testing ◦ This incremental approach to integration leads to a number of possible approaches: Top-Down: Test starts at the top, e.g. From the GUI or main menu Bottom-up: One component at a time Functional Incremental: Integration and testing on the basis of functionality
Looking at the behaviour of the whole system as defined by the scope of a development project. It may include tests based on risks and/or requirements specification, business processes, use cases, or other high-level descriptions of system behaviour, interactions with the operating system, and system resources.
System Testing It is most often the final testing on behalf of the development to verify that the system delivered meets the specification.
System Testing It should include investigation of both the functional and non-functional requirements of the system ◦ Typical non-functional tests include performance and reliability. ◦ Typical functional tests include black-box testing.
System Testing It must be undertaken in a controlled test environment, with software versions, testware, and test data. The test environment needs to match the live environment as much as possible.
This is testing done by the customers/users, potentially as well as other stakeholders. The goal of this testing is to establish confidence in the system, focussing on issues such as fit-for-purpose, and usability.
Acceptance Testing Two types of acceptance testing: ◦ The user acceptance test focuses mainly on functionality thereby validating the fitness-for- use of the system by the users. ◦ The operational acceptance test validates whether the system meets the requirements for operation.
Acceptance Testing Other types of acceptance testing: ◦ Contract acceptance tests performed against a contract’s acceptance criteria for producing the software. ◦ Compliance acceptance tests are preformed against regulations such as governmental, legal or safety regulations.
Acceptance Testing If the software is intended for the mass market, customer testing is impractical, but feedback is needed, so it’s often done in a two stage process ◦ The first is Alpha Testing, this takes place at the developers site, a cross-section of potential users are invited to use the system, and developers observe the users and note problems. ◦ The second is Beta Testing, sends the system out to a cross-section of the users, who install it, and use it under real-world conditions. The users send records of incidents with the system to the development organisation where the defects are repaired.
The function of a system is “what it does”. Typically described in requirements document, or in use cases. Can be based on ISO 9124, but focusing on suitability, interoperability, security, accuracy, and compliance.
ISO is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
Functional Testing Two types, Requirements-based testing and Business-process-based testing ◦ Requirements-based testing use the functional specification to develop tests. ◦ Business-process-based testing uses the knowledge of business processes.
Looking at quality characteristics, looking at how well something is being done, or how fast. Includes things like, performance testing, load testing, stress testing, usability testing, maintainability testing, reliability testing, and portability testing.
Non-Functional Testing Can be based on ISO 9124, but focusing on reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability.
Looking at the system architecture or structure of the system or component. Often used as a way of measuring the thoroughness of the testing through coverage of a set of structural elements of coverage items.
START END Does A/2 give a remainder ? No Read in A Yes Print “It’s Odd” Print “It’s Even”
START END A>B? No Read in A and B Yes Print APrint B
START END A>B? No Read in A, B and C Yes A>C?B>C? Print APrint CPrint B Yes No
START END Is A==6? No A = 1 Yes Print A A = A + 1
Confirmation and Regression Testing
Testing changes to software, two general types: ◦ Confirmation Testing ◦ Regression Testing
Confirmation and Regression Testing Confirmation Testing When a test fails and we determine the cause of the failure, once that defect is fixed, we need to rerun the test again to confirm that the error has been corrected. It is important to rerun the test in the exact same way – same input, same data, and same environment.
Confirmation and Regression Testing Regression Testing Testing to check if there hasn’t been any “unexpected side-effects” as a result of some change.