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**Course : S0705 – Soil Mechanic**

Year : 2008 TOPIC 3 SOIL STRESS

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**CONTENT TOTAL STRESS EFFECTIVE STRESS STRESS DISTRIBUTION**

Bina Nusantara

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TOTAL NORMAL STRESS Generated by the mass in the soil body, calculated by sum up the unit weight of all the material (soil solids + water) multiflied by soil thickness or depth. Denoted as , v, Po The unit weight of soil is in natural condition and the water influence is ignored. z = The depth of point Bina Nusantara

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**·A ·B ·C ·D EXAMPLE A = t,1 x 1 m t,1 = 17 kN/m3 = 17 kN/m2**

d,1 = 13 kN/m3 3 m 4 m B = t,1 x 3 m = 51 kN/m2 t,2 = 18 kN/m3 d,2 = 14 kN/m3 C = t,1 x 3 m + t,2 x 4 m = 123 kN/m2 2 m t,3 = 18 kN/m3 d,3 = 15 kN/m3 D = t,1 x 3 m + t,2 x 4 m + t,3 x 2 m = 159 kN/m2 Bina Nusantara

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EFFECTIVE STRESS Defined as soil stress which influenced by water pressure in soil body. Published first time by Terzaghi at 1923 base on the experimental result Applied to saturated soil and has a relationship with two type of stress i.e.: Total Normal Stress () Pore Water Pressure (u) Effective stress formula Bina Nusantara

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EFFECTIVE STRESS Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE Sand h1 = 2 m t = 18.0 kN/m3 d = 13.1 kN/m3 h2 = 2.5 m**

MAT Clay t = kN/m3 x Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE Total Stress = d,1 . h1 + t,1 . h2 + t,2 . h3**

= = kN/m2 Pore Water Pressure u = w . (h2+h3) u = = 70 kN/m2 Effective Stress ’ = - u = 90.3 kN/m2 ’ = d,1 . h1 + (t,2 - w) . h2 + (t,2 - w) . h3 ’ = (18-10) (19,8-10) . 4.5 = 90.3 kN/m2 Bina Nusantara

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**Profile of Vertical Stress**

EXAMPLE Total Stress () Pore Water Pressure (u) Effective Stress (’) 26.2 kPa 26.2 kPa -2.0 71.2 kPa 25 kPa 46.2 kPa -4.5 160.3 kPa 70 kPa 90.3 kPa -9.0 Bina Nusantara Profile of Vertical Stress

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**SOIL STRESS CAUSED BY EXTERNAL LOAD**

External Load Types Point Load Line Load Uniform Load Bina Nusantara

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**LOAD DISTRIBUTION PATTERN**

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STRESS CONTOUR Bina Nusantara

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STRESS DISTRIBUTION Point Load P z 2 1 z Bina Nusantara

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STRESS DISTRIBUTION Uniform Load L z B L+z B+z Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Point Load z P r z Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD ] Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Line Load z q r z x Bina Nusantara

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**BOUSSINESQ METHOD Uniform Load Square/Rectangular Circular Trapezoidal**

Triangle Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Rectangular z x y m = x/z n = y/z qo Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Rectangular Bina Nusantara

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**BOUSSINESQ METHOD Circular At the center of circle (X = 0)**

z x z 2r At the center of circle (X = 0) For other positions (X 0), Use chart for finding the influence factor Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Circular Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Trapezoidal Bina Nusantara

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BOUSSINESQ METHOD Triangle Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE The 5 m x 10 m area uniformly loaded with 100 kPa Y 5 m**

Question : Find the at a depth of 5 m under point Y Repeat question no.1 if the right half of the 5 x 10 m area were loaded with an additional 100 kPa Y A B C D E F G H I J 5 m 5 m m m Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE Question 1 z total = 23.8 – 20.9 – 20.6 + 18 = 0.3 kPa Item**

Area YABC -YAFD -YEGC YEHD x 15 10 5 y z m = x/z 3 2 1 n = y/z I 0.238 0.209 0.206 0.18 z 23.8 - 20.9 -20.6 18.0 z total = 23.8 – 20.9 – = 0.3 kPa Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE Question 2 z total = 47.6 – 41.9 – 43.8 + 38.6 = 0.5 kPa Item**

Area YABC -YAFD -YEGC YEHD x 15 10 5 y z m = x/z 3 2 1 n = y/z I 0.238 0.209 0.206 0.18 z 47.6 - 41.9 -43.8 38.6 z total = 47.6 – 41.9 – = 0.5 kPa Bina Nusantara

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**NEWMARK METHOD Where : qo = Uniform Load I = Influence factor**

N = No. of blocks Bina Nusantara

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**NEWMARK METHOD Diagram Drawing**

Take z/qo between 0 and 1, with increment 0.1 or other, then find r/z value Determine the scale of depth and length Example : 2.5 cm for 6 m 3. Calculate the radius of each circle by r/z value multiplied with depth (z) 4. Draw the circles with radius at step 3 by considering the scale at step 2 Bina Nusantara

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**NEWMARK METHOD Example, the depth of point (z) = 6 m**

z/qo r/z Radius (z=6 m) Radius at drawing Operation 0.1 0.27 1.62 m 0.675 cm 1.62/6 x 2.5 cm 0.2 0.40 2.40 m 1 cm 2.4/6 x 2.5 cm 0.3 0.52 3.12 m 1.3 cm 3.12/6 x 2.5 cm 0.4 0.64 3.84 m 1.6 cm 3.84/6 x 2.5 cm And so on, generally up to z/qo 1 because if z/qo = 1 we get r/z = Bina Nusantara

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NEWMARK METHOD Bina Nusantara

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EXAMPLE A uniform load of 250 kPa is applied to the loaded area shown in next figure : Find the stress at a depth of 80 m below the ground surface due to the loaded area under point O’ Bina Nusantara

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**EXAMPLE v = 250 . 0.02 . 8 = 40 kPa Solution :**

Draw the loaded area such that the length of the line OQ is scaled to 80 m. Place point O’, the point where the stress is required, over the center of the influence chart The number of blocks are counted under the loaded area The vertical stress at 80 m is then indicated by : v = qo . I . N v = = 40 kPa Bina Nusantara

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WESTERGAARD METHOD Point Load = 0 Bina Nusantara

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WESTERGAARD METHOD ] Bina Nusantara

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WESTERGAARD METHOD Circular Uniform Load Bina Nusantara

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WESTERGAARD METHOD Bina Nusantara

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**BOUSSINESQ VS WESTERGAARD**

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**BOUSSINESQ VS WESTERGAARD**

Bina Nusantara

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**BOUSSINESQ VS WESTERGAARD**

Bina Nusantara

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