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Test of handwriting skills-revised

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1 Test of handwriting skills-revised
Author: Michael Milone, PhD Cassie Legg & Chris Matzye

2 Characteristics Age range: 6.0 years through 18.11 years (manuscript)
8.0 years through years (cursive) Visual-motor (sensory) integration Individual/group administration Domain: Handwriting Neurosensory integration

3 Purpose Assesses neurosensory integration ability as evidenced by manuscript or cursive writing Determines if neurosensory integration difficulties contribute to learning problems (should be used with other assessments) Monitors progress of students with disabilities Guides instructional or rehabilitation practices *NOT a classroom penmanship test

4 Test 10 Subtests Testing time 10 minutes to administer
15 minutes to score Test cost Kit (manual, 15 manuscript test booklets, 15 cursive test booklets, 30 record forms, and training video= $150.00 Manual= $60.00

5 Test development and standardization
Majority of standardization tests were done on children ages 6- 10 Type of task and order of subtests remained the same as the original version because literature found them to still be valid Bias was tested and was not evident the U.S. population (region, race/ethnicity, gender, parent education) based on U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000 N= 1608 Ages 6 through 18.11

6 Psychometric properties
Internal Consistency Test-Retest Interrater Validity Manuscript ( ) N= 46 N= 53 Manuscript= 12 Cursive= 41 Content= developed so each would be common to a wide variety of children in standard academic settings Cursive ( ) Interval= 14 days Agreement among raters= Construct= developmental changes, exceptional group differences: how these are involved in neurosensory integration Total test score = 0.82 Typical correspondence=

7 Test procedures Establish everyday writing style of student (manuscript or cursive) Standardized methods Use the exact wording in the instruction manual Test must be administered in order beginning with Subtest 1 and ending with Subtest 10 (utilize abbreviated assessment when time is limited: Subtest 6 & 7) Can be administered individually or in small groups but additional administrators are recommended for groups Subtests 1 & 2 are timed Note any behaviors that contribute to performance or suggest an underlying problem

8 Example of test items

9 Scoring

10 Scoring and interpretation
Score each letter from a 0 to 3 scale: 0 is the lowest, 3 the highest Score spelling errors as if the letters were correct- just look at the letter’s form Ancillary scores- # of letters written in 20 seconds (test 1 & 2), reversals, touching (only manuscript), case On record form, write raw score in appropriate box, for letters in 20 seconds take the totals for 1-2, for reversals take the total of 1-4, touching take 1-4 manuscript, case take 1-4 Use appendix to convert raw scores into scaled, %, and standard scores

11 Area of occupation addressed
Education Formal education participation

12 Assessment approach Bottom-Up
Uses letter formation to assess neurosensory integration

13 Application of assessment
School system Private practice

14 Frame of reference Sensory integration
Looks at neurosensory integration skills Good visual-motor integration is dependent upon motor, visual, and neurological maturation Deficits in this can be seen in children with ADHD and LD which is proven with this assessment Deficits in this area will manifest itself in the results of this assessment.

15 Measurement concerns Competency in scoring and interpretation

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