Presentation on theme: "Test of handwriting skills-revised"— Presentation transcript:
1 Test of handwriting skills-revised Author: Michael Milone, PhDCassie Legg & Chris Matzye
2 Characteristics Age range: 6.0 years through 18.11 years (manuscript) 8.0 years through years (cursive)Visual-motor (sensory) integrationIndividual/group administrationDomain: HandwritingNeurosensory integration
3 PurposeAssesses neurosensory integration ability as evidenced by manuscript or cursive writingDetermines if neurosensory integration difficulties contribute to learning problems (should be used with other assessments)Monitors progress of students with disabilitiesGuides instructional or rehabilitation practices*NOT a classroom penmanship test
4 Test 10 Subtests Testing time 10 minutes to administer 15 minutes to scoreTest costKit (manual, 15 manuscript test booklets, 15 cursive test booklets, 30 record forms, and training video= $150.00Manual= $60.00
5 Test development and standardization Majority of standardization tests were done on children ages 6- 10Type of task and order of subtests remained the same as the original version because literature found them to still be validBias was tested and was not evidentthe U.S. population (region, race/ethnicity, gender, parent education) based on U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000N= 1608Ages 6 through 18.11
6 Psychometric properties Internal ConsistencyTest-RetestInterraterValidityManuscript ( )N= 46N= 53Manuscript= 12Cursive= 41Content= developed so each would be common to a wide variety of children in standard academic settingsCursive ( )Interval= 14 daysAgreement among raters=Construct= developmental changes, exceptional group differences: how these are involved in neurosensory integrationTotal test score = 0.82Typical correspondence=
7 Test proceduresEstablish everyday writing style of student (manuscript or cursive)Standardized methodsUse the exact wording in the instruction manualTest must be administered in order beginning with Subtest 1 and ending with Subtest 10 (utilize abbreviated assessment when time is limited: Subtest 6 & 7)Can be administered individually or in small groups but additional administrators are recommended for groupsSubtests 1 & 2 are timedNote any behaviors that contribute to performance or suggest an underlying problem
10 Scoring and interpretation Score each letter from a 0 to 3 scale: 0 is the lowest, 3 the highestScore spelling errors as if the letters were correct- just look at the letter’s formAncillary scores- # of letters written in 20 seconds (test 1 & 2), reversals, touching (only manuscript), caseOn record form, write raw score in appropriate box, for letters in 20 seconds take the totals for 1-2, for reversals take the total of 1-4, touching take 1-4 manuscript, case take 1-4Use appendix to convert raw scores into scaled, %, and standard scores
11 Area of occupation addressed EducationFormal education participation
12 Assessment approach Bottom-Up Uses letter formation to assess neurosensory integration
13 Application of assessment School systemPrivate practice
14 Frame of reference Sensory integration Looks at neurosensory integration skillsGood visual-motor integration is dependent upon motor, visual, and neurological maturationDeficits in this can be seen in children with ADHD and LD which is proven with this assessmentDeficits in this area will manifest itself in the results of this assessment.
15 Measurement concernsCompetency in scoring and interpretation
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