10Cervical Plexus Has no key muscle, flexors, extensors, lateral flexors and rotators are tested in groups.C1: Mainly motor fibres.C2: Key point: protuberantia occipitalis externa.C3: Key point: middle of the fossa supraclavicularis.C4: Key point: acromio-clavicular joint.
11Brachial PlexusC5: KM: biceps, brachialis, KP: lateral of the antecubital fossa, DTR:biceps.C6: KM: extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, KP: middle of thedorsum of the first phalanx of the thumb, DTR: brachioradialis.C7: KM: triceps, KP: middle of the dorsum of the first phalanx of themiddle finger, DTR: tricepsC8: KM: flexor digitorum profundus, KP: middle of the dorsum of thefirst phalanx of the little finger.T1: KM: abductor digiti minimi, KP: medial of the antecubitalfossa.
12Special Tests -1-Distraction: To perform this test, place the open palm of one hand under the patient’s chin, and the other hand under the occiput. Then, gradually lift (distract) to remove its weight from the neck, if the neck and/or arm pain decreases or disappaers, the test is positive.It demonstrates the effect that neck traction might have in relieving pain by widening the foramen, decreasing pressure on the joints capsules around the facet joints. In addition it may help to alleviate muscle spasm by relaxing the contracted muscles.
13Special Tests -2-Compression: To perform this test, press down upon the top of the patient’s head while he is either sitting or lying down, if there is an increase in pain in the neck and/or arm(s), then the test is considered to be positive.A narrowing of the neural foramen, pressure on the facet joints or muscle spasm can cause increased pain. In addition, this test may reproduce pain referred to the upper extremity from the cervical helping to locate the neurological level of any existing pathology.
14Special Tests -3-Valsalva: To perform this test, have the patient hold his breath and bear down as he/she were moving his/her bowels. Then, ask the patient whether he/she feels any increase in pain, and if so, whether he/she can describes the location. If the response is accurate, the test is positive.This test increases intrathecal pressure. If a space occupying lesion such as a herniated disc or a tumor, is present in the cervical canal, the patient may develop pain in the cervical spine. The pain may also radiate according to the neurological level.
15Special Tests -4-Swallowing: Difficulty or pain upon swallowing can sometimes be caused by cervical spine pathology such as bony protuberances, osteophytes, or by soft tissue swelling due to hematomas, infection, or tumor in the anterior portion of the cervical spine.
16Special Tests -5-Adson: To perform this test, take the patient’s radial pulse at the wrist. As you continue to feel the pulse, abduct, extend and externally rotate his arm. Then istruct him/her to take a deep breath and to turn his/her head toward the arm being tested. If there is compression of the subclavian artrey, you will feel a marked diminution or absence of the radial pulse, then the test is positive.This test is used to determine the state of the subclavian artery, which may be compressed by an extra cervical rib or by tightened scalenus anticus and scalenus medius muscles, which can compress the artery where it passes between them on its way to the upper extremity.
17Special Tests -6-Spurling: To perform this test, instruct the paient to extend, lateral flex and rotate his/her head. Then, press down upon the the top of the patient’s head while he is either sitting or lying down, if there is an increase in pain in the neck and/or arm(s), then the test is considered to be positive.A narrowing of the neural foramen, pressure on the facet joints or muscle spasm can cause increased pain. In addition, this test may reproduce pain referred to the upper extremity from the cervical helping to locate the neurological level of any existing pathology.
18Special Tests -7-Slump: This test is a progressive series of maneuvers designed to place the sciatic nerve roots under increasing tension. The patient sitting on the examining table, flexes the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, extends one of the knees and dorsifelexes the foot on the same side. If the patient experiences pain in low-back and/or leg(s), the test is positive.
30* Structural scoliosis does not change in flexion ROM-2* Sitting position,* C7-T12: 3 sm., C7-S1 15 sm.* Structural scoliosis does notchange in flexion
31Neurologic Examination The level of the lesion by key pointsThere is no key muscleBeevor’s sign
32Key Points T2: KP: Apex of the axilla T3: KP: Third intercostal space (mid-clavicular line)T4: KP: Fourth intercostal space (nipple level, mid-clavicular line)T5: KP: Fifth intercostal space (mid-clavicular line)T6: KP: Sixth intercostal space (xiphoid level, mid-clavicular line)T7: KP: Between T6 and T8 (mid-clavicular line)T8: KP: Between T7 and T9 (mid-clavicular line)T9: KP: Between T8 and T10 (mid-clavicular line)T10: KP: Umblicus (mid-clavicular line)T11: KP: Between T10 and T12 (mid-clavicular line)T12: KP: Superior of the middle of the inguinal ligament (mid-clavicularline)
34Special tests - 2Passive scapular approximation test: The patient lies prone. The shoulders are stretched backwards with the approximation of scapulae. If there is pain or pain worsening the test is pozitive.This test stretches the first thoracal spinal nerve.
35Special tests - 3First thoracal nerve stretching test: The patient abducts the shoulder to 90°, flexes the elbow and holds the occipital region of the head and the shoulder is forced to extention. If there is pain or pain worsening the test is pozitive.This test stretches the first thoracal spinal nerve.
36Special tests - 4Beevor's sign is the movement of the belly button towards the head on flexing the neck. It is caused by weakness of the lower abdominal muscles.Beevor’s sign is characteristic of spinal cord injury at the T10 level. It has also been described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.
43PALPATION-3VALLEIX POINTS: 1. Middle of the trochanter major ve ischial tuberosity 2. Middle of the posteroir thigh 3. Middle of the popliteal fossa 4. Middle of the gastrocnemius muscle 5. Middle of the Achilles tendon
46Neurologic examination L1: KM: None, KP: inferior of the middle of the inguinal ligament. L2: KM: iliopsoas, KP: midway of the KPs L1 and L3 L3: KM: quad. femoris, KP: medial femoral condyl, DTR: patella. L4: KM: tibialis anterior, KP: medial malleolus L5: KM: extensor hallucis longus, KP: third metatarsophalangeal joint at the dorsum of the foot. S1: KM: gastrocnemius-soleus, KP: lateral of the heel, DTR: Achilles.
47Special tests – 1-Straight Leg Raising Test (SLRT): The patient lies on his back (supine). The examiner raises the leg with the knee extended straight. Normally, the angle between the leg and the bench can reach 70° – 80° without any discomfort. If the patient experiences pain before, the test is positive.To differentiate between sciatic nerve stretching and hamstring muscles tightness, lower the leg a few angle and dorsiflex the foot in order to relax the hamstrings and to stretch sciatic nerve. If the patient reexperiences pain along the sciatic nerve, this is due to sciatic nerve stretching.
48Special tests - 2Contralateral SLRT: If there is low-back and/or contralateral leg pain when the uninvolved leg is raised the test is positive.This test may be associated with a considerable disc hernation or a space occupying lesion.
49Special tests - 3Kernig’ sign: The patient lies supine (flat on the back), flexes his head with hands on the occipital region. If the patient experiences neck pain and/or pain along the vertebral column the test is positive.This may be a sign of meningeal or spinal nerve roots irritation.
50Special tests - 4Naffziger’s test: Pressure is applied on the jugular vein of the patient lying on his/her back for 10 seconds. When the face of the paient flushes he/she is requested to cough. If he/she experiences low-back and/or leg pain the test is positive.Pressure on the jugular vein results in increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure and may cause pain in the case of a herniated disc.
51Special tests - 5Valsalva test: The patient takes a deep breath, holds and attempts exhalation against a closed glottis and closed mouth and nose.If there is low-back and/or leg pain the test is positive.Valsalva test increases the intrathecal pressure.
52Special tests - 6Hoover test: This test determines whether the patient is malingering when he states that he/she cannot raise his leg, and should be performed in conjuction with straight leg raising test. When a patient is genuinely trying to raise his/her leg, he/she puts pressure on the calcaneus of his/her opposite leg to gain leverage; you can feel downward pressure on your hand. If there is no pressure the patient is malingering.
53Special Tests - 7Pelvic Rock: The patient lying supine, the examiner places hands on the iliac crests of the patient with thumbs on the anterior superior iliac spines, and palms on the iliac tubercles. Then, forcibly compresses the pelvis toward the midline of the body. If the patient complains of pain around the sacroiliac joint, there may be pathology in the joint itself, such an infection or problem secondary to trauma.
54Special Tests - 8Gaenslen’s sign: Have the patient lie supine on the table and ask him to draw both legs onto the chest. Then, shift the patient to the side of the table so that one buttock extends over the edge of the table while the other remains on it. Allow the unsupported leg to drop over the edge, while the opposite leg remains flexed. Complaints of subsequent pain in the area of the sacroiliac joint give another indication of pathology in that area.
55Special Tests - 9Femoral nerve stretch: The patient lying prone, the examiner fully flexes the knee and extends the hip. If the patient experiences pain in the anterior area of the thigh, the test is positive.
56Special Tests - 10Slump: This test is a progressive series of maneuvers designed to place the sciatic nerve roots under increasing tension. The patient sitting on the examining table, flexes the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, extends one of the knees and dorsiflexes the foot on the same side. If the patient experiences pain in low-back and/or leg(s), the test is positive.