Presentation on theme: "Community Based Pedagogies to Enhance the EFL Curriculum Amparo Clavijo Olarte PhD Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Bogotá, Colombia LESLLA."— Presentation transcript:
Community Based Pedagogies to Enhance the EFL Curriculum Amparo Clavijo Olarte PhD Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas Bogotá, Colombia LESLLA 2014 Nijmegen, Netherlands
Context 2008-present Integrated CBP activities in the literacy and research courses in the MA program in Applied Linguistics Community Based project with 15 teachers in four schools in Bogotá
Multiyear Collaborative Study Colombia-USA Question: How do we promote knowledge of local communities as rich resources for language teaching and learning integrating community- based pedagogies?
Conceptual Framework Sociocultural approach to language Critical perspectives to literacy Funds of Knowledge Community based Pedagogies
Sociocultural approach to language and literacy “The nature of literacy embeds the interaction between the humans and their environments”. Barton (2007, p.29) “Literacies are situated and all literate activity is an indicative of broader social practices”. (Barton & Hamilton, 2000 p.1)
Critical Perspectives to Literacy “Literacy implies more than reading the world; it deals with having learners write and re write reality, transforming reality through a conscious work.” (p. 56).It implies reading the word- reality because “there is not any use of language that is not related to reality.” (Freire and Macedo, 1987, p.53) Funds of knowledge refer to the “historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household or individual functioning and well-being” (Moll, Amanti, Neff & Gonzalez, 1992, p. 133).
Community-based Pedagogies Curriculum and practices that reflect knowledge and appreciation of the communities in which schools are located and students and their families inhabit. It is an asset-based approach that does not ignore the realities of curriculum standards that teachers must address but emphasizes local knowledge and resources as starting points for teaching and learning (Sharkey & Clavijo Olarte, 2012, p. 41)
Research Methodology Research Methodology 8 We employed a collective case study methodology in our investigation. For our project, the study is bounded by participants, location (i.e., school sites), time, and task (i.e., curriculum that reflect community knowledge). Data from interviews to teachers, classroom observations, Curricular units, Students´ community projects Participants: EFL teachers and adult learners from basic English level at two universities in Bogota. The study also included two public schools: School 1: Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo, 27 students, age 16-18; low working class, 3 hours English per week. School 2: IED Jazmin, three elementary school teachers, low working class students..
Community-based Pedagogies Framework Research Observation of community practices Community scanning /mapping Investigating Community Knowledge and practices Funds of Knowledge Examining how Curriculum is constructed, for whom? Developing research projects that address community issues in the language classroom Teaching Understanding Learning as a social practice within a community Reflecting and Identifying key aspects of community literacy practices Establishing possible Connections with the Curriculum content Reflecting upon the implications in their teaching
Video with pictures of mapping the community around the school Video of children reporting about their visit to the community
Community as Curriculum: Linking the community, school, and home in the lives of refugee students (Manchester, USA) An exploration of the community through the eyes of refugee students, visiting places such as: Parks Police station Boys and Girls Club Currier Museum of Art
Evidences -Student´s artifact -Survey
Universidad Nacional Teachers and students explore places in the community and interview some inhabitants.
Community Investigations Community asset mapping using photographs1 Links with the curriculum Standards2 Planning the pedagogical units using the community assets3 Implementation of the projects4 Sharing the outcomes with a wider audience5
Identifying connections between the community and the curriculum Sharing the project results with an academic audience Designing community projects with students Renewing curriculum through community projects Human Assets Linguistic Assets Cultural Assets Recognizing Community assets How do we promote knowledge of local communities as rich resources for language teaching and learning integrating community-based pedagogies? Ecological Assets Historical Assets Findings
Ecological Assets Ecological assets. National University in Bogotá has a resource that benefits the university community, Surrounding people and to Bogota, the flora that is present on our campus, which creates a quiet space in which we conduct our activities academic daily. The flora of the campus is comprised of native plants, And introduced plants. As an example of an introduced plant found a beautiful tree known scientifically Eucalyptus globulus known as Eucalyptus (photo 1). this tree up to 100 m of high originating in Australia and very used in marshy areas by their ability to absorb large quantities of water and pleasant aroma is one of my best friends. With a group of companions the named Lipton. he is behind the engineering classroom building and CYT, the side of a companion of the same kind sadly marked with blue spray as Bathroom. We visit Lipton more than once a week for lunch, relax and share. He gives us peace, company, wisdom, and foster care; Lipton connects us to the natural world taking us out of the routine, we disconnected from the Internet, television, cellular, stress, the contamination which are subjected to everyday. etc; with its lovely fragrance relaxes and helps to recognize our animal part that we all have inside. (Andres’ first posting, September 24, 2012) 18
Communitarian Assets The university offers a plethora of services for community inhabitants and citizens in general. Libraries, cafeterias, dentistry, veterinary hospital, legal aid clinic and psychological service are some of these services that have been created to assist the larger society. 19
Linguistic Assets 20
Cultural Assets “A nivel general el proyecto sobre la comunidad me ayudó en varios aspectos: Conocer la riqueza en espacios que tenemos en la universidad los cuales en muchas ocasiones no son aprovechados por nuestro propio desconocimiento de las actividades que ofrecen y todo lo que nos pueden aportar social y académico para nuestro paso por la comunidad. Conocer que diversidad cultural y social podemos encontrar en la comunidad para así distinguir la riqueza social que tenemos de la cual se puede aprender y enriquecernos” ( Romapega, Students’ survey, UNAL, November 2012 ) 21
Recognizing Community Assets Recognizing Community Assets McKnight and Kretzman (1993): a process of documenting the tangible and intangible resources of a community by viewing the community as a place with strengths or assets that need to be preserved and enhanced, not deficits to be remedied. Recognizing valuable sources available in the community helps learners acquire knowledge embedded in social, cultural and material contexts (Gee, 2000). Five types of assets were identified in the community as follows: human, cultural, historical-ideological, ecological, communitarian and linguistic. 22
Community as curriculum Community-situated pedagogies (Schecter, Solomon, and Kittmer, 2003): Posit community as curriculum resource and challenges teachers to design and implement pedagogies based on community knowledge. Curriculum change (Canagarajah. 2006) considers that curriculum change should be a ground up construction taking into account resources and knowledge, with a sense of partnership between local and outside experts. Teachers in different communities have to devise curricula and pedagogies that have local relevance (p. 20).
English in the Community Foreign Language Standard: “I can recognize other cultures and their values and this allows me to construct my own interpretation of their identity” 10th &11th grade “In my neighborhood There are some ads in english…. Why? - I ask the owner,why? He say : Because people likes it … so I sell more.” Student’s mapping, 2013
From the teacher perspective: “It was an opportunity for me to learn more about their community. I could engage my students in their English learning in a more authentic way—they saw their environment as a resource.” Teacher’s final interview Community as Curriculum
From Students’ Perspective “This project allowed us to find out about the life-story that forms part of the university. We found out about the teachers that give us their best to improve the university as well as the administrative staff whose smiles make us feel at home in the same way as the smiles of our fellow students do”. (Leidy’s survey, November, 2012) “A nivel general el proyecto sobre la comunidad me ayudó en varios aspectos: Conocer la riqueza en espacios que tenemos en la universidad los cuales en muchas ocasiones no son aprovechados por nuestro propio desconocimiento de las actividades que ofrecen y todo lo que nos pueden aportar social y académico para nuestro paso por la universidad. Conocer que diversidad cultural y social podemos encontrar en la universidad para así distinguir la riqueza social que tenemos de la cual se puede aprender y enriquecernos”. (Romapega’s survey, November 26,2012)
Reflections In the development of community projects teachers and students: Increased and/or changed awareness of local resources in the communities Valued students’ agency in the co- construction of curriculum Made community knowledge applicable and relevant in the content areas Used the community as a learning resource by examining students´reality.
Publications Sharkey, J. and Clavijo, A. (2012). Promoting the value of local knowledge in ESL EFL teacher education through community-based field assignments. In Medrado, B. and Carla Reichmann (Eds.). Projetos e praticas na formacao de professors de lingua inglesa. Paraiba: Brasil. Editora Universitaria UFPB.Promoting the value of local knowledge in ESL EFL teacher education through community-based field assignments Clavijo, A. & Sharkey, J. (2011). Community-Based Pedagogies Projects and Possiblities in Colombia an the United States. In Andrea Honigsfeld and Audrey Cohan (Eds.). Breaking the Mold of Education for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. R & L EducationCommunity-Based Pedagogies Projects and Possiblities in Colombia an the United States Graduate students’ theses Ana Milena Valcarcel. Inquiry as a way to generate inclusive learning environments in EFL contexts July Rincón. Fostering students’ inquiry skills through the exploration of community based pedagogies and expressed in an EFL blog.2014 Ángela Pamela González. Community Based Pedagogy and Ӗbẽra Immigrant Kids Schooling Process in Bogotá Leidy Maje. EFL University Students as inquirers investigating community problems.2014 Rosa Alejandra Medina.Community Based Projects as Literacy Resources in an EFL course of a Virtual Program.2013