Presentation on theme: "Standardized Tests What They Measure How They Measure."— Presentation transcript:
Standardized Tests What They Measure How They Measure
Construction: Constructed by test construction experts Assisted by curriculum experts, teachers, and school administrators Administered and scored according to specific and uniform (i.e. standard) procedures
Purpose: To determine a student’s level of performance relative to the performance of other students in similar age and grade
Type: Criterion-Referenced Test Comparison is made to meeting a criterion or absolute standard –Helps develop proficiency in or master of some skill or set of skills –Helps determine if student needs more work with a skill. –Does not rank or place –PSSA tests
Type: Norm-Referenced Test Students are compared to a norm or average of performance by other similar students. Helps to determine place or rank
How are tests normed? Compiled from scores of students who took the tests years earlier when the test was being developed or revised –Current test takers do not affect the norm
The Bell Curve
Comparison with Other Students Grading on a Curve or Norm Referenced Grade% of Students A10 B25 C40 D20 F 5
Problems with Normed Tests Group tested can vary greatly from group who normed the test May not match curriculum May not match schedule –(traditional vs. block)
Student-Related Issues Age, Sex, and Development Motivation Emotional State Disabilities
Test Bias The presence of some characteristic of an item that results in differential performance for individuals of the same ability but from different ethnic, cultural, socio-economic, or religious groups
Interpreting Scores: Grade Equivalents Biggest Problem: People interpret them as a standard rather than a norm! –They are estimates above or below grade level 7th grader has 11.3 reading grade level Only students one year below and above were tested –Equal distance in scores do not necessarily reflect equal distance in achievement. Growth from 2.6 to 3.6 is not the same as growth from 7.6 to 8.6 (more sophisticated skills)
Age Equivalents Same issues as grade equivalents Used often to ascertain normal child development Have not attracted widespread acceptance in schools
Percentile Rank Not a percentage! Best indicator: –Comparison are within grade level –Less likely to be considered as standards for performance –Easiest for all to understand Percentile rank of 62 means the student scored 62 % better than those who took the test.
Stanine 1-9 levels of markings to show where student falls in the norm referencing. It is same as percentile. “5” is average. Every other number is a certain standard deviation above or below the mean (average).