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Presentation by Eric Miller, Blinn College, Bryan, Texas. Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy: Administering the Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation by Eric Miller, Blinn College, Bryan, Texas. Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy: Administering the Government."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presentation by Eric Miller, Blinn College, Bryan, Texas. Chapter 13 The Federal Bureaucracy: Administering the Government

3 Norman Thomas [No] industrial society could manage the daily operations of its public affairs without bureaucratic organizations in which officials play a major policymaking role.

4 Federal Administration: Form, Personnel, and Activities  Bureaucratic Principles  Hierarchical Authority  Job Specialization  Formalized Rules  The Federal Bureaucracy in Americans’ Daily Lives  roughly 2.5 million employees  The President & Congress get more press but the bureaucracy has more impact on our daily lives:  delivers daily mail  maintains national forests  administers social security  regulates stock markets  build dams and generates hydroelectricity  develops the country’s defense systems

5 Federal Administration: Form, Personnel, and Activities  Types of Administrative Organizations  Cabinet Departments  Dept. of justice  FBI  Dept. of Agriculture  U.S. Forest service-“dual-use”- preserves forests for environmental reasons & opens them up for logging  Independent Agencies  NASA, CIA  Narrow area of responsibility compared to cabinet dept.  Divided into a number of smaller operating units  Exist independently of cabinet depts.  Head is appointed by POTUS  Regulatory Agencies  EPA, FCC  Created when Congress perceives a need for ongoing control of an economic activity  Legislative, executive, and judicial functions  Government Corporations  US Postal Service  Presidential Commissions

6 Cabinet (Executive) Departments

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8 Federal Administration: Form, Personnel, and Activities  Federal Employment  2.5 Million civilian employees  Dept. of Defense has the most  Plus more than 1.4 million active uniformed service members  Patronage system—designed to improve link between administration and the people  Abuses—spoils system  Merit criteria  most fed employees are hired on merit  GS pay scales  GS-1 (lowest) to GS-18 (the highest)  federal employees are underpaid compared to their private sector counterparts  College graduates usually start out at G-5 $22,000  Unions  Federal employees can form labor unions but they have limited authority  Taft-Hartley Act of 1947  prohibits strikes by federal employees  permits the firing of workers who do go on strike

9 Federal Administration: Form, Personnel, and Activities  The Federal Bureaucracy’s Policy Responsibilities  Policy Implementation (administration)  executing the policy decisions of the pres., Cong. & the courts  regulation of industries,such as meat and poultry  delivery of services as provided by laws  Development of Public Policy  Rulemaking- deciding how laws will work in practice

10 Development of the Federal Bureaucracy: Politics and Administration  Small Government and the Patronage System  developed during the Jackson administration  designed to make the admin. of gov. more responsive to citizens  It would tie the administration more closely to the people it served  Growth in Government and the Merit System  Civil Service System  Neutral Competence  Bureaucracy should be staffed by people chosen on the basis of ability and to do its work fairly on behalf of all citizens  Neutral administration  Civil servants are not partisan appointees, thus ensuring evenhanded work

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12 Development of the Federal Bureaucracy: Politics and Administration  Big Government and the Executive Leadership System  During the New Deal era, the fed bureaucracy grew substantially in size

13 The Bureaucracy’s Power Imperative  The Agency Point of View  Career bureaucrats tend to follow their agency's point of view  bureaucrats are specialists and elected officials are generalists  Promoting agency’s goals  Bureaucrats relay on specialized knowledge, backing of POTUS and Congress, and the support of clientele groups  Sources of Bureaucratic Power  Legally, the bureaucracy derives its authority from acts of Congress  The Power of Expertise  Career bureaucrats in the Dept. of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission are most likely to understand trade issues in the U.S.  The Power of Clientele Groups  SPECIAL INTERESTS THAT BENEFIT DIRECTLY FROM A bureaucratic AGENCY  The Power of Friends in High Places  Agency goals may conflict with president or Congress, but they still need agency expertise and competency

14 Bureaucratic Accountability  Accountability Through the Presidency  Reorganization  encounters opposition from  the bureaucracy itself  clientele groups  members of Congress  the public  Presidential Appointments  The Executive Budget  Office of Management and Budget  the most important part of the Executive Office of the President (EOP)  assigns each agency a budget limit in accordance with the president’s directives

15 The Budgetary Process  Year and a half long; begins with OMB assigning each agency a budget limit based on presidential directives  Agencies develop detailed budget; president finalizes with OMB  POTUS sends to Congress  House & Senate budget committees prepare budget resolution; full House and Senate vote  House and Senate appropriations committees prepare appropriations bills; full House and Senate vote  President signs or vetoes  Fiscal year begins Oct. 1  Continuing resolutions???

16 Federal Budgetary Process

17 Bureaucratic Accountability  Accountability Through Congress  Oversight  Sunset laws  Budget  GAO- Government Accountability Office  Has moved from a limited role of keeping track of agency spending to also monitoring whether the agency is implementing policies in the way Congress intended  CBO- Congressional Budget Office  Accountability Through the Courts  Lawsuits  African American farmers sued the Dept. of Agriculture for discrimination in granting federal farm loans  Courts tend to support administrators if their actions are in line with the law they are adm inistering  Agencies can apply reasonable interpretation of statutes  Administrators must have flexibility if they are to operate effectively

18 Bureaucratic Accountability  Accountability Within the Bureaucracy Itself  Senior Executive Service (SES)  Administrative law judges  Handles disputes that involve cases in which an individual believes that he or she was improperly disadvantaged by a bureaucrat’s decision  Whistle-Blowing  While employed- it takes “guts”  Post-employment  Richard Clarke accused George W. Bush of downplaying the terrorist threat  Demographic Representativeness  If all employees are taken into account, the federal bureaucracy is close to being representative of the nation’s population  The bureaucracy is not demographically representative at its highest levels  about 60% of managerial and professional positions are held by white males

19 Federal Job Rankings (GS) of Various Demographic Groups

20 Reinventing Government  Bureaucracy today was created in response to problems in the past.  Now suggested to focus on outputs.  Others question the focus on “customers” of the agencies.  Limits on what can be cut from the agencies.  “reinventing teams”- formed under the National Performance Review to analyze and make recommendations about bureaucratic effectiveness  Responsiveness, accountability, and efficiency

21 States in the Nation


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