2 NEB’s Position in NSF-Funded CNS Ethics Component, Center for Nanotechnology and Society (CNS)CNS is a center made up of 4 units, two larger, two smaller, each with a lead institutionLarger unit leaders: Arizona State University and University Of California, Santa BarbaraSmaller unit leaders: Harvard and the University of South CarolinaIIT is in the unit led by Harvard
3 The CNS, Harvard, and IITThis unit features among its projects NanoConnection to Society, an information portal to facilitate communication and research related to the development of nanotechnologyThe NanoEthics Bank isis one of the data base components of NanoConnectionis designed as an international resourceis a local resource for students, faculty, and researchersThe NEB gives international visibility to IIT for its role in responsible development of nanotechnology
4 The NanoEthicsBankis a resource for researchers, scholars, students, and the general public who are interested in the social and ethical implications of nanotechnology.It includes:normative documents, such as guidelines for safety in the workplacedescriptive materials, such as analysis of the U.S. government’s capacity for oversight and studies of the media coverage of nanotechnology.
5 Nanotechnology“Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.”A nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter.National Nanotechnology Initiative Web site (accessed 4/11/2007)
6 Nanotechnology + Ethics “Over time, nanotechnology should benefit every industrial sector and health care field. It should also help the environment through more efficient use of resources and better methods of pollution control. Nanotech does, however, pose new challenges to risk governance as well. Internationally, more needs to be done to collect the scientific information needed to resolve the ambiguities and to install the proper regulatory oversight. Helping the public to perceive nanotech soberly in a big picture that retains human values and quality of life will also be essential for this powerful new discipline to live up to its astonishing potential.”- Mihail Roco. ”Nanotechnology’s Future” Scientific American 295:2 August, pp. 39.
7 Nanotechnology + Ethics = NEB Nanotechnology should be understood in a broad sense, one that includes not only scientific developments but also its wider social context.To enable this understanding the NEB has three main goals:to advance the knowledge and understanding of the nano area from a multidisciplinary perspective that includes the social sciences, humanities, as well as engineering and scientific disciplinesto investigate institutions involved in nano developments and institutions that contribute to the oversight of developments relating to the environment and healthto document efforts to engage members of the public in information systems and venues that allow two way conversation, public participation, and a measure of public input.
8 Opportunities to Inform and Engage The NEB seeks to fulfill these goals by being a source for information and offering opportunities for interchange between members of the technical community, business leaders, ethicists, social scientists, students, teachers, researchers in the STS field, activist groups, and members of the general public.
9 Development of the NEBSeptember 2005-March 2006 – Development of a bibliography of materials to be included in the NEBApril 2006-October 2006: Test I of the NEB, a pilot covering the precautionary principleNovember 2006-February 2007 –Test II, bibliography entries added to NEB with annotations, new material added dailyMarch 2007-April 2007 – Expanding search capacities, help functions added, web portal re-designed.May 2007-Future - launch of the NEB for IIT, modifying Test II according to user feedbackAnurag – explain how database designed.
10 How can the NanoEthicsBank help me with my research or grant proposal? Materials help put nanotechnology in a larger, societal perspective.Scope of the NEB includes the following categories:National and international initiatives to build an oversight framework, including regulation for nanotechnology.perception and acceptance of nanotechnology, media coverage, efforts of public engagement by governments, academic institutions, and industryDevelopment of best practices for industry and businesses dealing in nanoparticles.Ethical development of nanotechnology: military use, privacy, bioethics and nanomedicine
11 Types of material in database “Nano Risk Framework Draft” DuPont and the Environmental Defense Fund. February 26, 2007.Draft of a framework for industries and companies to deal with risk management for nanotechnologyBASF. “Code of Conduct for Nanotechnology” Approved 2004.Code of Ethics developed by large international chemical company describing their commitment to the safe and responsible development and use of nanotechnology.
12 Types of material in database Kahan, Dan M., Paul Slovic, Donald Braman, John Gastil, and Geoffrey L. Cohen. “Affect, Values, and Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions: An Experimental Investigation” From Social Sciences Network Web Library. March 7, 2007.Survey exploring how members of the public form judgments on the possible risks of nanotechnologyNational Institute for Safety and Health. “Progress Toward Safe Nanotechnology in the Workplace” February 2007.Report outlines advances made by NIOSH in researching the health and safety implications of engineered nanoparticles, and outlines areas where further research is needed.Toumey, Chris & Davis Baird. “Building Nanoliteracy in the University and Beyond” Nature Biotechnology June 2006Describes programs at the University of South Carolina to promote interdisciplinary conversations about nanotechnology.
13 Who defines what is nanotechnology? ScientistsEric K. Drexler. Engines of Creation, 1986Richard Smalley. “Of Chemistry, Love, and Nanobots” Scientific American, September 2001Political LeadersH.R. 766 ; 108th Congress, 1st session (2003) ” To provide for a National Nanotechnology Research and Development Program , and for other purposes”MediaFeder, Barnaby. “Technology: a look at the dark side” New York Times May 17, 2006Standards-setting OrganizationsAmerican National Standards Institute “ANSI-NSP priority recommendations related to nanotechnology standardization needs” November 14, 2004.
14 Audience of the NEB Scientists Engineers Business leaders Policy makersScholars & ResearchersStudentsGeneral PublicAll stakeholders
15 What are environmental groups and NGO’s saying about nanotechnology? The ETC group, an NGO, recently sponsored a contest calling for individuals to design a warning label for nanotechnology.“Nano Risk Framework Draft” DuPont and the Environmental Defense Fund. February 26, 2007.
16 Selection of materials for the NEB NEB represents the many sides of the nanotechnology debate.Friends of the Earth. “Nanomaterials, sunscreens, and cosmetics: Small ingredients, big risks” May 2006.Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association “Comments of the CTFA regarding the scientific and legal issues associated with nanotechnology in personal care products” September 2006 Taylor, Michael. “Regulating Nanotechnology: Does the FDA have the tools it needs?” October 2006Selection Committee to review materials in the NEB and make recommendations.
17 How does the media coverage influence the public’s perception of nanotechnology? “Nanotech: Great New Scientific Industry operates at Incredibly Tiny Level” Patriot News. January 29, 2006Weiss, Rick. “For Science, Nanotech Poses Big Unknowns”Washington Post. February 1, 2004.Lee, C., & Scheufele, D. A. (forthcoming). The influence of knowledge and deference toward scientific authority: A media effects model for public attitudes toward nanotechnology. Journalism & Mass Communication QuarterlyFriedman, Sharon M & Egolf, Brenda. “ Reporting the risks of nanotechnology in the media ” Presentation given for the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars’ Project on Emerging nanotechnologies. December 12, 2006.
18 Fixed Subject terms Fixed Subject terms Public perceptionMedia Coverage-Studies-in popular press-media framesLoosely based on the Library of Congress SystemSubject terms taken from the literature.
19 Which organizations are developing best practices for the handling of nanomaterials? Studies:“Review of Safety Practices in the Nanotechnology Industry” International Council on Nanotechnology. October 18, 2006Roco, Michail C. & Emily Litten “Survey on Nanotechnology Vol. B: The Role of Industry.” International Risk Governance Council Nanotechnology Working Group. April 2006.Efforts are being made to locate and obtain permission to include examples in the NEB, so far few are forthcoming
20 Boolean searching +military +technology Find rows that contain both words military and technology.+military armsFind rows that contain the word “military”, but ranks rows higher if they also contain “arms”.+military -technologyFind rows that contain the word “military” but not “technology”.+military ~technologyFind rows that contain the word “military”, but if the row also contains the word “technology”, rates it lower than if row does not.
21 Boolean searching +military +(>technology <arms) Find rows that contain the words “military” and “technology”, or “military” and “arms” (in any order), but ranks “military technology” higher than “military arms”.
22 Folksonomy – following in other researchers’ footsteps A user generated tagging systemSimilar to what is used in social tagging systems such as de.lic.ious, flickr, and University of Pennsylvania Library’s PennTags.For example,“Magic Nano”