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Airways and Lungs Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Airways and Lungs Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Airways and Lungs Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy

2 Nasal Cavity Nasopharynx (Oropharynx) Larynx Trachea Bronchi ………. Upper respiratory tract Lower respiratory tract


4 Trachea Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs Alveoli L & R bronchi Lobar bronchi Segmental bronchi

5 Nasal cavity Hair at the entrance to trap bigger particles Mucous and serous glands to produce secretions to trap smaller particles and moisturize the air Highly vascular to increase air temperature Folds on the nasal walls to increase the surface area Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium which traps and moves up the dust particles


7 General histological arrangement of the airway Mucosa Smooth muscle layer Submucosa Cartilage layer Adventitia


9 Changes in the arrangement PSCC epithelium in large air ways become simple cuboidal nonciliated epithelium in small air ways Frequently seen goblet cells become less frequent and totally absent in terminal bronchioles The layer of smooth muscles becomes thicker as it goes down and becomes maximum at terminal bronchioles Serous and mucous glands in submucosal connective tissue becomes less numerous and absent beyond tertiary bronchi Cartilage parts smaller in small airways

10 Trachea Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium Smooth muscle layer almost absent Numerous serous mucous glands in the submucosa 'C' shaped hyaline cartilage



13 Primary and secondary bronchi Less taller respiratory epithelium Smooth muscle layer discontinuous Fewer serous and mucous glands Few hyaline cartilage plates rather than 'C' shaped ones


15 Tertiary bronchi Tall simple columnar ciliated epithelium Smooth muscle layer continuous Very fewer serous and mucous glands Few small irregular hyaline cartilage plates

16 Bronchioles Airways < 1 mm in diameter Simple columnar ciliated epithelium Smooth muscle layer continuous and prominent Serous and mucous glands absent Cartilage plates absent


18 Terminal bronchioles Structure is as same as the other bronchioles End of the purely conducting portion of the airway Respiratory bronchioles Walls contain small number of single alveoli Ciliated cuboidal epithelium. No goblet cells


20 Alveolar ducts Numerous alveolar sacs open into these Simple cuboidal nonciliated epithelium

21 Alveolar wall Type I pneumocytes (The squamous cells) –Forms part of the gaseous diffusion barrier Type II pneumocytes –Produce surfactant Connective tissue –Reticulin, collagen and elastic fibres with fibroblasts. –Macrophages. Blood vessels, mainly capillaries



24 Respiratory barrier/Gaseous diffusion barrier Type I pneumocyte Common BM Capillary endothelial cell

25 Alveolar pores Equalize the pressure between the alveoli Collateral circulation of air when the bronchiole is obstructed Responsible for easy spread of infection eg. Lobar pneumonia

26 Pleura

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